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which is 222 miles by rail from Pretoria.

The canal, when running to its full capacity, will
carry twenty-five cubic feet of water per second, or
13,456,800 gallons per twenty-four hours, which at a
low estimate should be sufficient for the irrigation of
2,500 acres. The original canal, ten and one-eighth
miles long, has just been completed and the contractor
ha* entered into another agreement with the Irrigation
Department to construct an extension about four miles
in length. The total amount of land commanded by
the canal will be about 2,500 acres.

Should this scheme prove a financial success, the
irrigated area can be very considerably extended. The
expenditure on the ten miles already constructed works
out at about 9 14s per acre, which is considered an
extremely moderate price for the Transvaal. It is
hoped that the government will extend their operations
and construct many other small works canals and
reservoirs in various parts of the colony.

Increasing attention is now being given to the
subject both by the government and big private conces-
sionaire companies, the benefits to be derived being
considerable. For instance, unirrigated land valued at
1 per acre will command from 30 to 80 per acre
when irrigated a margin of betterment profit which
is sufficiently large to attract and reward the keenest
enterprise. There is every probability that the further
extension of irrigation works throughout the country
will provide manufacturers with increasing opportuni-
ties for supplying pumping machinery, excavators,
dredges, piping, fittings, gutters, connections and other
appliances.



ON THE CROW RESERVATION.



The Intrepid Red Men Are Anything But Lazy When Rounding Up The
Ponies From The Corral.



Once a year, when the rain's of spring have turned
the brown plains of the Crow reservation into a vast
carpet of green, the great round-up of wild ponies is
held.

There are round-ups and round-ups in the great
range country of the Absaraka, but the wild horse
round-up is not to be confounded with any other. Noth-
ing like it is to be found anywhere in the West, for the
reason that one can look in vain for wild ponies on al-
most any other Indian reservation. The Crows from
time immemorial were the great horse owners among
the Indian tribes. No tribesmen were their equals at
stealing ponies, and no Indians could equal the Crows
in keeping ponies when once they had been stolen. In
the days of its glory, when the tribe boasted 30,000 war-
riors, the Crow nation numbered its tens of thousands
of ponies. Today this slender nation of 1,500 people
owns more ponies than any other western tribe, but un-
der the encouragement of the government the Crows
are selling their stock and turning to agriculture. Car-
loads of Indian ponies are shipped from the reservation
every month, in the spring and fall, most of them going
to St. Louis and other southern points, and it is for
purposes of sale that the Indians round up the wild
horses that roam the great ranges in Montana.

The ranges on the Crow reservation are for the most
part just as innocent of fence as in the days of old
Arapooish, the greatest chief of the Crows, who lived in
the time of Lewis and Clark. For miles and miles one
can travel across rolling prairies, which for generations
have been ideal feeding grounds for ponies. Here the
wild horses roam small-boned, shaggy-coated creatures,
with long flowing manes and tails, and with deep lungs
and sound forelegs that would make the eyes of a polo
player light up with joy. The brand of the cowboy they
have never known, nor have they felt the touch of the
lariat. Whole bands of these maverick ponies sweep
across the level stretches, plunge into the arroyas, and
clamber up the heights with the agility of mountain
goats. There is always a stallion with a herd, exercis-
ing a patriarchal watch over the mares and colts in his
care. Sharp-cut against the sky this sentinel can be
seen constantly on the watch for danger.

Wolves are the especial terror of the wild horses.
Let a wolf appear in sight and instantly the band is
called together and stands in a circle, hind legs outward.
Mr. Wolf is too wise to approach within kicking distance,
and he merely circles the bunch at a safe distance, lick-
ing his chops at the sight of the tender little colts in
the center of the squealing, snorting bunch of ponies.
The Indian pony is as free with his heels today as he
was before the white man cut up the great ranges.
Those hind hoofs have always been his only means of
defense, and terrible ones they have ever proved to be
in time of danger.

To capture strong, fleet animals such as this would
seem to be an impossibility, but your Indian cowboy
does not regard it so. In fact, nothing is impossible
to an Indian when he has made up his mind to accom-



378



THE IRRIGATION AGE.



plish it. Nobody could follow an Indian horse round-up
and call the red man lazy. When the call for the round-
up goes forth the best riders on the reservation, or in
the district to be covered, are called into service. This
year the round-up fell to the charge of a slender youth
named Felix Bear-in-the-Cloud. His name is not a
more startling mixture of the civilized and savage than
is Felix's costume. He has on a white 'man's hickory
shirt and handkerchief, and a white man's felt hat with
the inevitable high, pointed crown which the Indian af-
fects. To the rim of the hat is fastened the eagle feather
the Indian's "good medicine." Felix's hair is braided
and tied with bright bits of ribbon, and there is a dash
of pnint on either cheek bone. His chaps might be worn
by any white cowboy, being plain leather affairs, with
fastenings of nickel discs down either seam. His boots
are of the conventional cowboy spurs, and Felix sits in
his saddle with the ea^e of the star rider of a wild west
show.

Felix has the great mess wagon brought up to the
agcni-y storehouse, and soon it is loaded with tents, boxes
of provisions and bedding and is started out with instruc-
tions to the driver to meet the cavalcade on a certain
creek, ten or fifteen miles from the agency.

The round-up is near the country hallowed by the
blood of General Ouster and his men. In fact, the
round-up wagon proceeds up Talluc creek, the very
stream which Ouster was supposed to be scouting when
he disobeyed orders and pushed on to the point on the
little Big Horn, where he and his men lost their lives.
The creek has dwindled to a mere thread of silver, wind-
ing between rolling hills. In midsummer the creek bed
is as dusty as any part of the plain is.

After a quick journey over a fine road the wagon
driver comes in sight of a, corral, where he is met by a
cavalcade of horsemen, some fifteen or twenty Indians,
all clad much like Felix Bear-in-the-Cloud and each
man with his best horse under him, his best rope at his
saddle and ready for the work of the horse drive. With
the men is the herd of extra horses, known as the horse
cavvy. Each man has five or six horses for use in the
rough work of the round-up, as there is no more weary-
ing task than bringing in the mavericks of the plains,
and saddle horses quickly drop under the strain. And,
by no means the least important feature of cavalcade,
one sees the camp cook, Edith Bear-in-the-Clond, the
pretty wife of the round-up boss, and Fannie On-Top-
of-the-Tepee, a slender Indian girl who is wearing black
to show that she is both widowed and childless.

Camp is made in a hurry. The Indians have lost
all the slowness of movement which characterizes them
at the agency or in their hours of ease about their
villages. Each man works quickly and deftly. The
tents are up in a hurry, the bedding is put under the
wagon and two beds are unrolled for the night herders,
who must snatch their sleep as best they can in the
daytime, and the cooks are soon supplied with wood,
chopped from the big pieces of timber dragged in at
the end of a lariat. Dinner over a few minutes are
given to story telling and smoking at the camp fire,
but the thunder of hoofs tells that the day herders are
coming up with the horse cavvy. Every man jumps
to the saddle, unfastens his lariat and makes ready to
pick his fresh horse from the bunch that is brought in.

The saddle horses are more than half wild. To use
a cowboy's expression, their breakers merely "took the
top off them." They would soon put an unskilled
rider on the ground. Kicking, squealing and snorting



they are bunched into a solid mass and a rope corral is
deftly thrown about them. No western , horse that has
been broken will try to break out of a rope corral.
The very touch of a rope teaches him to be cautious.
The cowboys gather about the corral and one after
another picks out his mount and ropes him. It re-
quires expert roping to get a horse from the dodging,
milling mass of ponies, but in an incredibly short time
each man has led out his mount and has it saddled
and bridled. When the last horse is taken out the horse
cavvy is driven away again in charge of the day herders
to the feeding grounds.

There are a few directions from the foreman and
then the cowboys are in the saddle and the picturesque
cavalcade starts out on the actual work of the round-
up. The men "ride circle" that is, they spread out
in fan shape, constantly widening the distance between
the riders. Soon a bunch of wild horses is sighted and
the chase begins. Instead of pelting after the horses
the cowboys so place themselves on the prairie that
they can ride in relays. A few of them keep directly
after the horses, while others ride over the plains in
such a manner that they will be able to intercept the
flying ponies a few miles ahead. They arrive at the
point of interception with their horses comparatively
fresh. Those who have been chasing the ponies are
"all in." Their mounts have blown and a run of a
few more miles would exhaust them. But the cow-
boys who have made the cut-off take up the work of
the chase, never giving the wild horses an instant's rest.

A third bunch of pursuers cuts in a few miles
ahead, having made another short cut across country.
The wild horses are beginning to show the effects of
the terrific pace. They are as badly winded as are the
heavily mounted ponies of the cowboys. Some of the
bunch begin to lag and the swifter ones will not desert
them. The little colts, some of which are but a few
weeks old, keep up with the herd in surprising fashion.
But now the riders have gained the rear of the herd,
and a few of the cowboys work around to the sides and
eventually to the front. Then the herd is turned until
it is headed back toward camp. The ponies are run-
ning heavily and much of their spirit is lost. Soon the
camp is reached and the "wild bunch" is run into the
corral not the rope affair, but the stout inclosure of
logs, several of which are scattered about the range
and where the work of rounding up is always carried on.






USE TOO MUCH WATER.

The editor of the Twice-a-Week Spokesman-Re-
vietv, Spokane, attended the irrigation congress and
has the following to say:

Among the attendants at the National Irrigation
Congress in Portland were Samuel Fortier, irrigation
engineer for California, and Arthur T. Stover, irriga-
tion engineer for Oregon. These engineers are under
the direction of the offices of experiment stations in
the United States Department of Agriculture. Their
duties are to make investigations in irrigation and
drainage. They are called upon largely to aid indi-
vidual farmers and private irrigation enterprises.

A representative of the Twice-a-W eek Spokesman-
Review chanced to meet Mr. Fortier and Mr. Stover
together on the Lewis and Clark exposition grounds.
In conversation with these men something was learned
of the work under their charge. They investigate leaky
ditches, faulty methods of water distribution, unskilled



THE IRRIGATION AGE.



379



ways of preparing land for irrigation, surface evapora-
tion from soil and like difficulties encountered by farm-
> T- in putting water on their land.

It was the pronounced opinion of these experts
that there is a prevalent use of altogether too much
water in irrigation. This overuse is carried to such
an extent that water logging ensues. Water logging
may result from the application of too much water or
from the necessity of drainage, or from both causes.
In some cases as much of thirteen acre feet of water
are applied to the land. An acre foot is one solid cubic
foot of water applied to a square foot of land surface.
While there is a difference in the amount of water re-
quired by different lands, yet that difference is not
nearly as large as might be supposed by those unac-
quainted with scientific irrigation. On the average only
four acre feet are needed for a season's irrigation.

In some of the investigations made by these irri-
gation and drainage experts 80 per cent loss has been
found from seepage of water in the canals and ditches.
As a rule only 30 per cent or 40 per cent of the water
in irrigation is saved for trie growth of the farm
products.

Disastrous results may follow from the use of too
much water, especially when the water table terminates
within a few feet of the surface. In such cases, when
the water put on the surface meets the natural body
of water under the surface, water logging follows.
Then as the underground water rises to the surface
it brings with it considerable alkali and the land be-
comes less and less valuable. There is a district in
the San Joaquin Valley of California where this over-
use of surface water has ruined a considerable acreage
of land. Nothing but salt marsh hay will now grow
on it.

It is not only in connection with the duty on
water, that is, the proper amount of water needed on
any given section of land, that the irrigation and drain-
age engineers are employed. Naturally they are led
into the study of the soils, especially as to the conserva-
tism of moisture in the soil. It is fast becoming as
important a subject in farming to know how to save
the rainfall and snowfall of the winter months as to
provide means for applying water from artificial ditches
during the summer months. Water may be stored in
the ground as well as in reservoirs. This subject of dry
farming is assuming larger proportions every year.

Then there is the matter of winter irrigation. It
is found that irrigation works which are sufficient to
supply a quantity of water for a given amount of land
during the summer months may also be used for sup-
plying water on additional sections of land during the
winter months. Of course, winter irrigation requires
that the soil shall be prepared to receive and store the
water for summer use. It is found that water for
irrigation may be obtained at a cost of from $2 to $5
per acre. This winter irrigation is carried on mostly
during the months of February, March and April. On
Butter Creek, in northeastern Oregon, eighteen farmers
on the stream each produce $9,000 worth of crops by
means of winter irrigation. Each farmer has about
220 acres, and alfalfa is the chief crop grown.

While Eastern people have had rather dim ideas
regarding the resources of the arid and semiarid sec-
tions of the United States and the enormous increase in
production which may result from irrigating these
lands, the Western people are largely blind to the prog-
ress of irrigation in the Eastern part of the country,



where the annual rainfall has been supposed to fur-
nish all moisture needed for growing crops. At pres-
ent $12,000,000 worth of rice is being produced in
Louisiana largely under irrigation. Among others, the
New Jersey Experiment Station is making a thorough
investigation of the subject of irrigation.

In many parts of the East it has been found of
great advantage to have water to apply to the land
when it is needed and in quantity that is needed. As
President James J. Hill, of the Great Northern Railway,
said in his letter to the irrigation congress at Portland :
"Certainty, abundance and variety are to be found
where irrigation prevails."

An Estimate of the Cost of Applying Water to Crops.
The cost of applying water to crops varies greatly
according to the skill of the irrigator, the contour of the
fields, and the available head of water. A skilled irri-
gator commands higher wages than a man of less ex-
perience. The land on one farm may have a sloping
surface well adapted for the application of water, and on
another a rolling, broken surface over which much time
and labor must be spent in properly applying the water
to the crops. One farm may be supplied with a full
head of water sufficient to enable the irrigator to spread
water over his fields between laterals quickly and thor-
oughly, while another farm may have so poor a head
of water that a greater amount of labor and more time
must be spent in irrigating the same area. The method
used in irrigating different crops must also be taken into
consideration. It takes much more time for one man to
irrigate an acre of potatoes by the furrow system than
an acre of wild or native hay by tho flooding system.
In the first instance the potatoes may be irrigated by
running water through every other furrow, which is
often done in the first watering of potatoes. On the
other hand, to irrigate an acre of wild or native hay
requires only the few moments necessary to turn enough
water from a lateral to cover the entire acre. It is
therefore difficult to state even approximately the cost
of applying water to crops.

From information on the subject derived from
farmers in southern and middle Wyoming it is inferred
that one man can irrigate from five to ten acres of grain
or alfalfa in a day. This estimate is qualified by the
preceding remarks. An ordinary farm hand is paid $1
per day with board. Considering this as equivalent to
$1.50 a day, the cost per acre of applying water to crops
is from fifteen to thirtv cents an acre.



AGENTS WANTED



Canadian Pacific Railway
Irrigated Lands

NOW READY FOR SALE. This is the greatest irrigation
project in America. Prices and terms reasonable.



For particulars apply or write

Canadian Pacific Irrigation Colonization Co., Ltd.

J. M. PATTERSON, Gen. Agt.. Calgary, Alberta, Canada.



380



THE IERIGATION AGE.



A Home

IN THE

Northwest



Thousands of acres of land, of which large
tracts have been reclaimed by irrigation, are now
open for settlement in

OREGON, WASHINGTON AND IDAHO

Why not visit this vast territory and thus
realize for yourself its great possibilities more
fully? Low one way rates will be in effect to all
points in the North-West, from Sept. 15 to Oct.
31, 1905, from

CHICAGO - $33.00
ST. LOUIS - S30.0O

VIA

Union Pacific



Two trains daily. Through sleeping and dining
car service. Quickest Time.

Inquire of

E. L. LOMAX, G. P. &. T. A.
OMAHA, NEB.



BOOKS ON



Irrigation and Drainage

THE IRRIGATION AGE has established a book J |
department for the benefit of its readers. Any
of the following named books on Irrigation
and Drainage will be forwarded postpaid on
receipt of price:

Irrigation Institutions, Elwood Mead ; . . .$1.25

Irrigation in the United States, F. H. Newell 2.00

Irrigation Engineering, Herbert M. Wilson 4.00

Irrigation and Drainage, F. H. King 1.50

Irrigation for Farm and Garden, Stewart 1 .00

Irrigating the Farm, Wilcox 2.00

The Primer of Irrigation, cloth, 300 pages 2.00

Practical Farm Drainage, Charles G. Elliott 1.00

Drainage for Profit and Health, Waring 1 00

Farm Drainage, French 1.00

Land Drainage, Miles 1.00

Tile Drainage, Chamberlain * 40

Address

! : THE D. H. ANDERSON PUBLISHING CO.

112 Dearborn Street, CHICAGO, ILL.



Renew your subscription of the IRRIGATION AGE for 1905

Send us in Post Office or Express money order for $1.00

With Primer of Irrigation $2.50



ABOUT
THE
SOUTH



About theSouth" is the name oi a64-page illustrated pimph'et issued by the Passenger Dept. of the

ILLINOIS CENTRAL R. R CO.

in which important questions are tersely answered in brief articles about

Southern Farm Lands, Mississippi Valley Cotton Lands, Truck
Farming, Fruit Growing, Stock Raising, Dairying, Grasses and
Forage, Soils, Market Facilities and Southern Immigration

along the lines of the Illinois Central and Yazoo & Mississippi
Valley railroads, in the States of Kentucky, Tennessee,
Mississippi and Louisiana, including the famous :: :: ::

YAZOO VALLEY OF MISSISSIPPI

Send for a free copy to J. F Merry, A. G. P. A., I. C. R R., Dubuque, Iowa.
Information concerning rates and train service to the South via the Illinois Central can be had
of agents of connecting lines, or by addr. ssing A. H. HANSON. G. P. A., Chicago, III.



THE IRRIGATION, AGE.



381



Steel
Irrigation Flumes

AND WATER. TROUGHS




Galvanized steel is rapidly taking the place
of wood for fluming purposes and with The
Maginnis Patent splice fluming is made easy Any
boy can put the Maginnis Steel Fmme together or
take it apart. Sti el flurms and troughs "Ship
Knock down" Third Class freight. Let me figure
on your flume. All flumes guaianteed.

Write for Testimonials and Pa rticulars to



P. Maginnis, Mfr.

Kim ball, Nebraska



The



COLORADO
MIDLAND




:(MIDLA.XD ROUTE)



Penetrates the Heart of Colorado, pass-
ing thro* the Grandest Mountain Scenery,
reaching CRIPPLE CREEK, GLEN-
WOOD SPRINGS, LEADVILLE and
the irrigated lands of the Grand Valley.

Observation Library Cars
Denver to Ogden :: :: ::

Pullman Tourist Cars
Chicago and St. Louis to
California via Great Salt
Lake :: :: :: :: :: ::

WRITE FOR OUR LITERATURE AND RATES

H. C. BUSH, C. H. SPEERS,

Traffic Mgr., Denver, Colo. G;n. Pass. AKL, Denver, Colo.

H. W. JACKSON, Gen. Agt., Chicago.



I Can Show You Excellent
Fanning Lands

at from $10 to 815 per acre, right alongside improved farms that earn more
than this price per acre every vear, averaging the last twelve years. I have
thousands of acre* of such land for sale. Land precisely similar, but a lit-
tle further out, and not in as well settled districts, I can sell you for less
money. The possibilities of both soil and climate are the same, all that is
needed to make hne farms of these wild lands is WORK, and not an awful
lot of that. These lands are embraced in what is known as

The Cadillac Tract

and comprise an area of about 25,000 acres of good farming lands, lo-
cated from one half to six miles from the enterprising City of Cadillac,
Wexford County, Michigan. Cadillac now has a population of about 8,000
(with no dead ones), and is growing rapidly. Over 300 new houses, were
built here last year and all are occupied. More than ever are being built
this year. Ten years hence will see Cadillac the leading town of Northern
Michigan. Why? Because we have got the natural advantages and re-
sources, and best of all, the people to make it grow rapidly and surely.

The characteristic soil of this area of Michigan is a warm, sandy loam,
generally underlaid wiih clay or gravel or both, and is an ideal soil for this
climate. All crops natural to the Temp rate Zone are produced abund-
antly. The climate is equable and agref able and healthy, as is shown by
pur freedom from contagious and epidemic diseases. I have-a handsomely
illustrated booklet, togeiher with a map of these lands, which I will send
you free on your request. It ejives you detailed information about this country; every word of it. except the testimo-
nials, was written by the advertiser, who will stand back of it. WRITE TODAY. IT WILL PAY YOU.




"The basis ol my business is absolule and
unvarying Integrity." Samuel S. Thorpe.



SAMUEL S. THORPE, Dlstrlct ^?,^X 2 iroads Bureau of

Room 8, Webber-McMullen Building - - CADILLAC. MICHIGAN



Please mention THE IRRIGATION AGE when writing to Advertisers.



382



THE IRRIGATION AGE.




$100.



Power of the Machine: 256 Tons.

This is our new Twentieth Century Stump
Puller, made of semi-steel; specially adapted for
clearing land of all kinds and sizes of trees,
stumps, grubs, and brush. This machine will
clear from one to five acres a day, doing work
equal to twenty men. Every machine is equip-
ped with our patent 25-foot Anchor rope, 1 inch
diameter; 50-foot Pull rope, y t inch in diameter;
one Improved Snatch Block, 50-foot Hitch rope
attached, 1 inch diameter; short Anchor Loop,
for light pulling; Automatic Sweep Lift: Pawl;
Key; the necessary bolts, and everything com-
plete except the Cross-Pole and Sweep, which
are cut in the timber where the machine is to
work. We will lay this machine down at your



Online LibraryFederation of Tree Growing Clubs of AmericaThe Irrigation age (Volume 20) → online text (page 64 of 65)