Felix Agnus.

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The Book of Maryland




FELIX AGNUS, Editor-in-chief

W. W. BROWN. Cumberland

EARLE W. OREM. Cambridge

C. NEILL BAYLOR, Hagerslown

E. O. DIFFENDAL, Westminster


ALBERT M. HALL Syfcesville

,G. AUINN, JR.. Grisfield







Designed as a book of real utility to the newspaper, the
artist, and those interested in Maryland affairs. THE
BOOK OF MARYLAND has been prepared with a
view to meet the demand of newspaper offices for a
STANDARD BOOK of reference on representative
men and institutions of Maryland.

Gare has been taken to verify every statement made in
the data herein, that it may be depended upon to be his-
torically correct. The illustrations are made with a view
to their satisfactory reproduction in newspaper work; and
the work thus becomes a valuable addition to newspaper
libraries, and other places of public interest. It also be-
comes valuable historically in keeping future generations
advised as to the representative men of Baltimore and the
State of Maryland, their accomplishments, as well as giving
data of the successful institutions.


General Felix Agnus was born in Lyons, France, May 5, 1839. His family traces its lineage
back more than a thousand years. His boyhood was in Paris and his early education was at College
Jolie Clair, near Montrouge.

Leaving home in 1852 he spent several years on a voyage that took him to the South Seas, St.
Helena, the west coast of Africa, around Good Hope, to the east coast and Madagascar, then across
the Indian Ocean, finally arriving upon the Pacific coast of South America, proceeding around
Cape Horn and crossing the Atlantic and completing a tour of the world.

His military career began when Napoleon HI waged war against Austria. He volunteered in
the Third Regiment of Zouaves and was in the battle of Montebello. Afterwards he was detailed
to a post in the celebrated Flying Guards under Garibaldi.

When twenty-one years old, in 1860, he came to the United States as chaser and sculptor for
Tiffany's in New York. Before he had been long in his new employment the Civil War began, and
moved by his military ardor and by his interest in the Union cause he enlisted as a private in Dur-
yea's Fifth New York Zouaves. His career thenceforth carried him to a distinguished place in Amer-
ican affairs. James G. Blaine, when Secretary of State, said of him in a speech to a public gather-
ing, "He is a great Frenchman and a great American, who came to this country with the same zeal
that made LaFayette's coming an honor to the land."

He was made a sergeant in the Zouaves May 9, 1861, and on September 6th of the same year
was promoted to second lieutenant for saving the life of Gen. Judson Kilpatrick at Big Bethel. July
8, 1862, he was promoted to captain of the 165th New York Infantry; in November of the same year
he was made a major. On March 13, 1865, he was breveted lieutenant colonel "for gallant and
meritorious services at Gaines Mill." In that battle he was shot through the shoulder. He was
made brigadier general of volunteers in 1865. He was in numerous fights. He led the charge at
Ashland Bridge, was in the dash at Hanover Court House, was in the storming of the hills near
Richmond, and at Port Hudson, where he was a major, he was selected to lead one of the divisions
which was known as the "forlorn hope party." In the expedition to Sabine Pass he was on the
transport Pocahontas which ran aground under the enemy's guns and which escaped by sending over-
board the 120 horses. Major Agnus shot his favorite animal and his example was followed by
others. At Fayetteville Major Agnus received a sabre cut in a hand-to-hand fight with a Texas

When Duryea's regiment, the Old Fifth New York, was so cut to pieces that its extinction was
threatened, Agnus, on a leave of absence, went to New York and secured four companies of recruits.
He then rejoined his regiment, which had been ordered to the James River to report to General Grant.
Agnus' regiment was detailed for the defense of Washington, and when it marched down Pennsyl-
vania Avenue it was reviewed by President Lincoln and Agnus — then a colonel — was greeted by the
President and complimented on his troops. Following this was service in the Valley of Virginia,
where he joined Sheridan and participated in his brilliant campaign. He was attached to the
Nineteenth Corps and was a personal witness of "Sheridan's Ride." When Sheridan started with his
cavalry to join Grant in front of Richmond he was instructed to send his best regiment to guard the
Confederate prisoners at Fort Delaware. The One Hundred and Sixty-fifth, with Agnus as colonel,
received that compliment. The regiment remained at Fort Delaware three months and was then
ordered to Savannah, Ga. Here Colonel Agnus received his brevet as brigadier general. He was
then 26 years old, the youngest of his rank in the army. During the war Agnus received eleven
wounds, two of them severe. The wound at Gaines Mill was a shot that shattered his right shoulder.
He was brought to Baltimore. Charles C. and Edington Fulton, of the Baltimore American, found
him prostrated in the cabin of the steamer. Mr. C. C. Fulton had him taken to his home, where he
was tenderly nursed by Miss Annie E. Fulton. The young officer recovered and returned to his com-
mand. He fought on to the end of the war and then when peace came and with his brevet of brigadier
general he hastened to Baltimore and married his gentle nurse. He resigned his commission August
22, 1865, after having served for a time as inspector general commissioned to dismantle old Confed-
erate forts in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

(Continued on page 152)

ALBERT C. RITCHIE, Governor of Maryland, Baltimore City.

Albert C. Ritchie was born August 29, 1876. His fatber was Judge Albert Ritchie, one of the most distinguished
jurists and citizens of Maryland. His mother before her marriage was Miss Elizabeth Casliie Cabell, of Richmond, Va.

Mr. Ritchie received his early education in private schools in Baltimore, and graduated from the .Johns Hoyliins
University, with the degree of A. B., and from the University of Maryland Law School, with the degree of LL. B. In
1920, he received the degree of LL. D. from the University of Maryland and from St, John's College.

Upon his graduation Mr. Ritchie began the practice of law in Baltimore City with the firm of Steele, Semmes,
Carey and Bond, of which firm he became a member in 1900. In March, 1903, he was appointed Assistant City Solicitor
of Baltimore City. On July 1, 1910, he resigned.

In November, 190.?, Mr. Ritchie formed a law partnership with Stuart S. Janney, under the firm name of Ritchie
and Janney, which firm later became Ritchie, Janney & Grlswold, and still later Ritchie, Janney & Stuart. Mr, Ritchie
was a member of this Arm until his election as Governor. :

In 1907 he was appointed Professor of Law at the University of Maryland Law School, and served in this capacity
until his election as Governor.

On July 1, 1910, Mr. Ritchie became Assistant General Counsel to the Public Service Commission. This is the
position popularly known as People's Counsel, and It was in this capacity that Mr. Ritchie represented the people of
Baltimore in his noteworthy fight for cheaper gas and electricity, which resulted in reducing the price of gas from 90
to SO cents per 1,000 cubic feet, and the price of electricity from 10 to SVz cents per K. W. H. On February 16, 1913,
Mr. Ritchie resigned to devote all of his time to private practice.

In November, 1915, Mr. Ritchie was elected on the Democratic ticket Attorney-General of Maryland by a majority
of 2.5,000.

Mr. Ritchie served as Attorney-General from December 20-, 101.3, to December 20, 1919. He organized the first
State Law Department of Maryland, which took over the legal work of all of the State Departments except the Public
Service Commission.

Mr. Ritchie was one of the Maryland delegates-at-large to the Democratic National Convention in St. Louis in June,
1916, which nominated Woodrow Wilson lor his second term, and was also delegate-at-large to the San Francisco
Convention in 1920.

On June 3, 1918, Mr. Ritchie was appointed General Counsel to the United States War Industries Board, serving
in this capacity until December, 1918, when the Board was dissolved. He secured a leave of absence from his duties
as Attorney-General, and moved to Washington, in order to devote his entire time to war work.

In September, 1919, Mr. Ritchie was nominated without opposition as the Democratic candidate for Governor of
Maryland, and on November 4, 1019, he was elected to that office.



FTER the Civil War I was invited to join a gold-seeking expedition to Montgomery county.
Most persons will smile at this and yet if they will look up the records they will find
that Maryland has always been listed among the gold producing States. Gold crops
out on the Appalachian chain as far north as Vermont and as far south as the Carolinas.
In Maryland the outcropping is in Montgomery county. Up to June 30, 1873, the total
yield of gold in Maryland, as reported by the United States authorities, was $258.53 in a world total
of over eight hundred millions, but why hold back because the sum was small? There was gold
in Maryland and we were called upon to explore, invest and develop. It was a lively party of
very agreeable friends and we had a good time even if we did not find much gold. Later from
time to time Marylanders have put money in the Montgomery county prospects but the whole total
produced from the gold mines in Maryland has amounted to only a few thousand dollars.

Now the point of interest is that Cecilius Calvert got from the crown the very remarkable charter
making him owner and practically king of Maryland on two conditions; first, that he send every year
to the King of England two Indian arrows, and, second, that he give to the King of England one-fifth
of the gold and silver he found in the new colony. No silver was ever mined in Maryland and the
only gold was that small quantity in Montgomery county discovered long after Americans ceased
sending anything in the way of tribute to the King of England.

And Maryland has found more and better wealth than if she had possessed a dozen gold mines.
Her soil and waters produce more cash returns and these yields are further and more equitably dis-
tributed, so that we can say in all truth that no State can show a higher average of wellbeing. For
centuries the Maryland people have lived well and there has been a large surplus to help others to
live well. This is the State not of gold perhaps but certainly of the golden mean. Its temperate
climate and abundant food and delightful society and pleasant neighbors make it the most com-
fortable and attractive of all the States. One result is that for generations visitors and writers have
showered compliments upon Maryland. From the first discoverers to the latest magazinists Maryland
is spoken of as the favored land and the glowing adjectives of Captain John Smith are endorsed and
used over and over again.

Recently the master of the National Grange visited us and saw our farms. "You have a great
State in little Maryland," he said.

At a meeting of the farmers of Maryland, Bishop John Gardner Murray prayed : "Especially do
we thank Thee that Thou hast cast our lot within the border of this State of Maryland, a land whose
waters are full of good, a land whose hills are full of fuel, a land whose forests and fields are full
of flowers and beauty; a land of brooks, of waters flowing from valleys and hills; a land of wheat
and barley; of vines and fig trees and pomegranates; a land of love; of oil and honey; a land in
which we feed without scarceness because of the plentitude of its products; a land whose stones are
iron and out of whose hills we dig brass."

Maryland is the compact State. It has everything within reach. All towns are neighbors.
Every farm is close to market. With a complete highway system, railroads, electric lines, hundreds
of miles of bayline and over a thousand miles of rivers the Marylander can step from his front
gate into a car or a boat, make his journey and be home the same day. The Marylander can leave
the mountains in the morning and eat his dinner by the sea and travel the whole distance in Maryland.
The products of Maryland's 48,000 farms and its fisheries and factories have for a ready and profitable
outlet the fourteen million urban population within four hundred miles of the center of the State.

In world history it has been the fortune of Maryland to play a part far larger than might be
indicated by her size and population. Her area is less than one per cent, of America and she has
only one and a third million of the one hundred and five millions that make the American nation,
and yet on almost every page of the national expansion and upbringing Maryland is conspicuous.
Of American colonies she was first in religious toleration. She did more than her share in the War
of Independence. In 1812 the commerce of the Chesapeake kept the young nation going. In the
industrial expansion of the first half of the nineteenth century she furnished the first railroad, the
first telegraph and scores of innovations of importance in the new life of the world. In the Civil War
Maryland was on both fronts of the conflict. In the busy period following the sixties Maryland was

busy in the industrial awakening, and it now seems that fate was preparing her for the unusual and
remarkable role which she played in the great War of 1917, for in Maryland were over eighty war
operations that touched every part of the tremendous problem of a world struggle, the creation and
development of huge military camps, the building of ships, the making and testing of ammunition
and the collection and shipping of food for millions of soldiers. We should remember, too, that
Maryland provided the site for the capitol of the nation and we may add the proud fact that while
other States have not been able to find anthems Maryland men wrote, "Maryland, My Maryland," and
"The Star Spangled Banner."

The range and value of Maryland's achievements show better than any detailed history the fine
stimulus and spirit of the Maryland people. We have been hearing much about ideals, particularly
about the need of ideals to raise the common thought of mankind and guide the world along higher
paths. The best inspiration is that born of a fruitful past and Marylanders may look back over their
history with a pride that is a satisfaction in itself and also a profound and moving influence to
urge them to higher endeavor in any emergency that may confront them or their nation. There is
another fine thought: all this record gives the Marylander a keen sense of personal contact with the
best the world has done and is doing.

Let us take a look at this State, its population, its resources, its flourishing banks, its thriving
industries, its water wealth, its remarkable agriculture, its transportation, and then let us dwell with
especial interest and appreciation on what it did in the World War.

In the 1920 census Maryland has a population of 1,499,610. The colony began with a popu-
lation of 200 in 1634. In four years it increased to 700. Then it grew as follows: 1660, 12,000;
1671, 20,000; 1701, 30,000; 1756, 154,188; 1775, about 200,000; 1782, 254,050, and then followed
the census years.

Census Pop. Increase Pet. Census Pop.

1790 319,728 .... 1860 687,049

1800 341,548 21,820 6.8 1870 780,894

1810 380,546 38,998 11.4 1880 934,943

1820 407,350 26,804 7.0 1890 1,042,390

1830 447,040 39,690 9.7 1900 1,188,044

1840 470,019 22,979 5.1 1910 1,295,346

1850 583,034 113,015 24.0 1920 1,449,610 154,264 11.9

In Maryland almost every variety of soil, elevation and product may be found. It has three
regions. The coastal plain embraces the Eastern Shore, most of which is less than 26 feet above sea
level and the southern part of the Western Shore. The Piedmont Plateau includes about 2,500
square miles with an elevation of from 250 to 1,250 feet, being the greater part of Baltimore and
Harford counties and the counties of Howard, Carroll, Montgomery and Frederick, in all about one-
fourth the State's area. The Appalachian Region takes in Washington, Allegany and Garrett
counties and comprises some of the finest mountain scenery in America, reaching these altitudes,
Mt. Quirauk, Washington county, 2,400 feet; Dan's Rock, Allegany county, 2,898; Table Rock,
Garrett county, 3,700. At one end of the State Pocomoke has an elevation of 8 feet, while Oakland
at the other end has an elevation of 2,461 feet above the sea. From east to west Maryland stretches
240 miles. Its extreme length is 125 miles. Its total area is 12,327 square miles, of which 9,941 is
land and 2,386 water.

On June 30, 1920, the State Bank Commissioner reported that the total assets of the State banks
and trust companies of Maryland had reached the unprecedented figures of $405,106,729.69, and of
this sum the mutual savings institutions held $133,694,111.28. These figures do not include the
national banks whose resources exceed two hundred millions. We get a further understanding of
the activity of our banks and the extent of our business when we regard the following figures of the
Clearing House Association of Baltimore, bearing in mind of course that these include only the
dealings of the membership banks of the Baltimore Association: Clearings, for the year ending
December 31, 1918, $3,355,602,544; for the year ending December 31, 1919, $4,343,446,572—
increase in one year, $987,844,028.

These figures are more than double the totals of a few years ago. They show impressively the
wonderful prosperity that has come to Maryland and that reaches every part of the State. An increase
of almost a billion dollars a year in the bank clearings of Baltimore was very significant.

Page Thirteen















A still better showing of Maryland's growth is found in the facts furnished by the State Tax
Commission in its report for 1920. By this commission Maryland has a continuing method of review-
ing existing assessments. There was a reassessment of real estate in the counties in 1918. For the
levy of 1917, prior to reassessment, the assessed value of lands and improvements was $325,400,000;
in 1918, $427,500,000, a gain of $102,100,000. Maryland's taxable basis for 1919, the latest given,
was $1,712,141,646. In the past five years the increase in the State's basis was almost a third of a
billion dollars.

The internal revenue district of Maryland includes Delaware and the District of Columbia, more
than two-thirds of the population of the revenue district being in Maryland. For the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1920, the collections of this district reached a total of $120,752,547, mainly income
and excess profits taxes. These figures show that the per capita wealth of the people of Maryland is
far above the per capita wealth of the people of the United States. There is no land where prosperity
is better distributed than in Maryland. It is the State of general wellbeing.

Maryland's resources are practically inexhaustible. After more than three centuries of develop-
ment and use the natural supplies of the State exist in great productivity, and the State could easily
support a population of five times its present size.

We shall see presently that its agriculture has increased in value more than 300 per cent, within
the past ten years, and all its crops have increased in yields per acre as well as in the prices they
bring in the markets. The increase in manufacturing has been astonishing; as most of it centers
around Baltimore the details are given in the chapter on Baltimore, but we find numerous important
industries in the smaller cities and towns. Canning factories on the Eastern Shore, cement works in
middle Maryland and coal fields and mills in Allegany and Garrett are productive and profitable.
Baltimore county has iron ores that have been worked hundreds of years and the development of its
copper deposits led to the establishment of what was for years the largest copper mill in the United
States, using copper from Montana. In Baltimore county was found the first chrome ore discovered
in the United States. Woodstock granite quarried in Baltimore county almost a hundred years was
used in the Congressional Library and the Postoffice in Washington and in many of the important
buildings of Baltimore. In the Washington Monument, Washington, the Washington Monument,
Baltimore, and in scores of federal buildings the famous Beaver Dam marbles have been used.
In Cecil the Principio furnaces once furnished the largest output of pig and bar iron in America.
At Port Deposit the granite banks rise over 200 feet and the quality of this granite for building is
famous. Cecil has paper, iron, flour, phosphate, kaolin and flour-spar mills. Howard county has iron
mines and is rich in marble, granite and building stones. It has modern flour and cotton mills.
Carroll has cement mills and cotton and woolen factories and other mills; it has granite, marble,
brownstone, iron, copper, flint and much limestone, all of which are worked with profit. Besides
being the only county with gold Montgomery has rich deposits of granite and valuable water power
in the Potomac. Frederick, one of the three leading counties of America, in addition to its superior
agriculture, has iron and steel, lime, copper, and important manufactures of brushes and the
Catoctin Furnace was in operation as far back as 1774. Washington county has great orchards
on its slopes and it also has flourishing factories producing automobiles, bicycles, organs, gloves,
agricultural implements, textiles, furniture, carriages, flour, cigars and thirty other articles.

A swift glance at the other counties will show how blessed is Maryland: Worcester builds ships
and has basket factories; Somerest is the oyster and crab El Dorado; Wicomico makes fortunes from
lumber interests; Dorchester, Caroline, Talbot and Kent and Queen Anne's have canneries, flour mills
and basket factories. For years the white oak of Dorchester went into the building of good ships;
St. Mary's, the original county, has valuable timber; Calvert and Charles are rich in tobacco; Anne
Arundel wins returns from truck and has many industries within sight of Baltimore.

And so we come to the two most western counties which have resources that have only been
touched. Allegany's 64,000 acres of coal fields produce an unequalled variety of coal that commands
special favor because of its steam-making power. Allegany has fire clay, cement, iron ore, sandstone
and other minerals. Its industries include some of the best factories and mills in America, particu-
larly steel and glass. Cumberland, the second Maryland city, is a veritable industrial capital, growing
rapidly in population and wealth. Its new big tire plant is one of the finest in the United States.

Pa(je Fourteen

Then Maryland's newest county, Garrett, offers opportunity and fortune in its rich deposits of coal,
fire clay and other minerals, and in its great forests, and it should not be forgotten that its maple
trees yield hundreds of thousands of pounds of sugar at a time when sugar is needed.

Here in a few words we have taken a survey of what our State has. Surely we must be impressed
by it and must appreciate how fortunate is any commonwealth that can have such benefits and oppor-
tunities within its boundaries.

The value of Maryland's ten leading crops increased from $31,639,251 in 1909, to $95,576,000
in 1919, or 302 per cent. These are the figures of the Extension Service of the Maryland State
College of Agriculture.

Corn is the principal crop. In 1909 the yield per acre on the 647,000 acres harvested produced
17,911,000 bushels worth $11,015,000. In the ten years the yield was increased to 41 bushels per
acre and the production reached 28,413,000 worth $39,778,000.

In the ten years the value of the wheat crop rose from $9,876,000 to $22,930,000; hay from
$6,011,000 to $15,120,000; oats from $584,000 to $1,492,000; barley from $79,000 to $244,000;
buckwheat from $99,216 to $499,000; rye from $252,000 to $685,000; white potatoes from $1,782,000

Online LibraryFelix AgnusThe book of Maryland: men and institutions, a work for press reference → online text (page 1 of 42)