Félix Klein.

America of to-morrow online

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At Entrance to Mandel Hall, University of Chicago

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TransUtid with Appr9val by E. H. Wilkins

Infr$iuct9rj N9U by Pr$/essor Chsrlis R. Hiniers$n
$f the University 9/ Chicag$,




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Ambrica on Boakd I

" New York or the Country ? " — An Ambitious Title
— Twelve Hundred Immigrants: the Great Number
of Jews; the General Problem of Assimilation — Good
Average Americans — A Lawyer, a Colonel, a Clergy-
man, a Doctor — First Thoughts on the Japanese
Question — A National Holiday at Sea.


In New York and by the Great Lakes. Night

Schools and Summer Schools . . .26

x^ My " Seminarist's " 5,000 Miles — Melancholy

^ Quickly Dissipated — At the Paulists' ; Father McMil-

^s.^^ Ian — A Young High School Girl — Visiting on Board

^ Train — Evening Schools: 75 per cent of Students

Jews — The Catholic Summer School — Comedy,

H^^ Camping, Base-ball, Lecture, and Supper — On Lake

j^ Champlain and Lake George — In the Land of the



Chautauqua : 52

The Dream of a Summer's Day — An American Sal-
entum — Chautauqua Institute — An Academic City
of 12,000 Inhabitants — Its Origin, Programme, Spirit,
and Christian Character — The Thirst for Knowledge.

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Impressions of Chicago. The New Work of Cath-
olic Extension 65

View of Lake Michigan — Ugliness and Beauty of
Chicago — An Optimistic Doctor and Chauffeur — In
the Belgian Colony — A Gallic-Canadian Sermon —
The Suburbs — National Grouping — How a Parish is
Founded — A Great and Rich Diocese — The Amer-
ican Clergy — A New Work of Catholic Propaganda,
the Extension — Its Necessity, Its Origin, Its Rapid
Progress — The Home Missions of Protestants and
Catholics — Encouraging Perspectives.


The Universfty of Chicago 86

Intellectual Life — History of the University of Chicago

— John D. Rockefeller's Twenty Millions, and the
Eight Millions of Other Founders — Resources and
Buildings — An Outline of the Regular Courses —
The Extension Department — The Summer Term —
Sermon of a Catholic Priest at the University — The
Common Creed of Christians — Social and Religious
Sciences — Professor Henderson — University Settle-
ments — Dormitories — An Original Institution: The
Greek Letter Fraternities — Delta Upsilon — The
Dmly Maroon, a Students' Newspaper — The Univer-
sity Press.


Visrrs TO Peoria AND Omaha 115

Peoria for Four Years — The Illness of Mgr. Spalding

— His Philosophy of Pain — Country Club — All My
Plans Upset by Mr. Petry — ^Twenty-five Hundred
Miles More — Vain Protests of My " Seminarist " —

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Omaha, one of the " Meat Cities " — Commerce and
Pro^;)crity — $8,000,000,000 Crops — Creighton Uni-
versity — A Stained-glass Saint in a Rocking Chair —
Springing Up of Cathedrals.


Archbishop Ireland 132

A Celebrated Man who does not Suffer by being
Seen at Close Range — Simplicity and Activity — A
Prosperous Church — French Missionaries to Minne-
sota in the Seventeenth Century — Origin of the Town
and Diocese of St, Paul — The Jubilee of 1901 : Fifty
Years of Catholicism in the Northwest — Laying the
Cornerstone of the Cathedral (1907): Religious and
Civic Fetes — Model Separation —r Freedom and Re-
ligion Natural Allies — Visit to a Survivor of Heroic
Times — The Real Self-made Man.


Western Canada 161

A Prc^rty of 360,000 Square Miles — Winnipeg and
St, Boniface — Religion in Western Canada — Great
Distances and Great Delays — The Endless Prairie —
A City More Serious Than Elegant: Calgary — Advice
to Young Colonists — Banff — The Rocky Mountains

— First Asiatics — Dialogue with a Js^anese — The
Race Question — At Vancouver — Landscape and Park

— In Chinatown and the Japanese Quarter — White
Against Yellow Race — A Serious Newspaper.


The Most American of American CniBs: Seattle . 197
A Fortunate Comer of the Globe: The State of Wash-
ington — Its Chief City, Seattle — Material and
Moral Prosperity — Disconcerting Activity — A Busy

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Bishop — Moving of Churches and Monuments —
How a Hastily Built City is Made Regular — A Hill
by the Sea — American Push — French Business —
Soundness of the Wealth of Seattle — A Privileged
Situation — One of the Sovereigns of the Pacific


The Northwest — Tacoma — Puget Sound . .213
The Importance of the Northwest — Audacious Rail-
roads — Prosperity of the Young State of Washington

— The City of Tacoma: Origins, Development, De-
scription — A Missionary of Prehistoric Times —
Alpinesque Horizons — An Interview a t Americaine

— Excursion on Puget Sound — The Bremerton
Navy Yards — Naval Religion — Well-paid Crews —
A Sunset,


On the Pacific Ocean 233

Activity of the Port of Seattle — Delayed Departure

— A Falsely Pacific Sea — Meetings on Board : Little
Japs; Students of Both Sexes — "Europe, if You
Wish, but America First " — Alaska, the Norway of
America — Uncle Sam's Good Investment — The Ex-
cellent Captain — Story of a Fire at Sea — Cordial
Simplicity of Westerners — A Word on the Jewish
Question — On Moonbeams.


San Francisco 257

Invitation to a Destroyed City — San Francisco After
the Earthquake — Catastrophe and Resurrection — A
Califomian Monk — Too Many Lectures — The
French Colony — Catholic Secret Society: The
Knights of Columbus — At Ae University of Cali-

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fomia — Religion and Public Instruction — The En-
virons of San Francisco — San Rafael and Menlo Park
— Municipal Q>rruption — Arrest of the Mayor and
the Chief of Police — Labor Organization — Labor
Day — Employers and the Unions — Socialism in the
United States.


The Real Problem op To-morrow: The Japanese

Question 299

DiflBculties; the Greatest of All — Deceitful Calm —
The School Question in 1906; Temporary Arrange-
ment — Friendly Governments and Hostile Peoples:
The Agreements of 1908 and the Disagreements of
1909 — The Real Causes of the Conflict — The Ques-
tion of Salaries and of the Standard of Life — The
Democratic Ideal and the Necessity of Assimilation —
The Importance of the Yellow Immigration — In-
effectual Solutions: That the Governments do not
Wish for War, and that it would Solve Nodiing —
Of the Rapprochement that would be brought about
by the Conversion of the Japanese to Christianity —
The Slowness and Difficulties of Evangelization — Some
Hopeful Signs — A Partial Solution: The Increase
in the Number of Whites on the Pacific Coast — Cali-
fomian Wealth — The Real Strength of the United
States: An Optimistic and Free People.

Index 35^

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A FEW years ago a letter of introduction from
•^^ Archbishop Ireland made me acquainted with
Abbe Felix Klein, then a Professor in the Catholic In-
stitute at Paris, and from that day the French capital
has been to me another city. The French people can
understand us, and sincere Catholics there can open
their hearts to sincere Protestants. The gay, gentle,
delicate, and refined scholar banters us cheerfully but
he really likes us. He interprets for us the inner mo-
tives of the leaders of the ancient Church, and he be-
lieves that true religion thrives best in an atmosphere
of political freedom. In outer form this prophecy of
To-morrow appears to be a jest, a merry notebook of a
holiday recreation; in essence it is an affectionate reve-
lation of a man's soul who believes in liberty and the
triumph of truth; it is an interpretation of momentous
events which are too near us to be seen in a true per-
spective. Here is one who is admitted to the evening
councils of Paulist fathers, to the private offices of dis-
tinguished bishops, to the committee rooms of mission-
ary priests, and American Protestants are taught what
immense plans are formed and steadily developed in


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It is also wholesome for xis to welcome a reporter
who is at once shrewd and learned; who has read
widely and conversed with scholars, authors, states-
men, reformers; and whose own soul has been the
theatre of a modem intellectual revolution, imtil he
has learned to be patient even with heretics like the
one he has invited to write this preface. His style
is so honest and transparent that you can see his soul
in his works, and it is one of the purest, gentlest,
noblest souls of our generation. Read his message,
and you will discover a reverent scholar whose style is
so brilliant and charming that you may think him a
man of the world; and he is, — a man of our best

Charles Richmond Henderson.

^he University of Chicago.

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A CERTAIN lady is said to have asked an Ameri-
-^^ can when he was presented to her, "You are
from the United States: do you live in New York or
the coxintry?" This sort of kindly ignorance is be-
coming more and more rare, and I am inclined to
believe there are not many readers who will ask me
why, having already visited America and written about
the coxmtry, I should have made up my mind to take a
second trip there and again to write it up. Four years
ago I visited New York and even some of the big

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towns of five hundred thousand or two million inhabi-
tants that lie on the banks of the Potomac and the
Delaware, the Great Lakes and the Mississippi; but
there still remained a good deal of "coimtry" to see,
and very interesting coimtry, too, such as the summits
of the Rocky Mountains, the coast of California, the
Arizona deserts, and the plateaux of New Mexico.

It was not the thought of seeing new coxmtry that
urged me most to take my way to America again and to
remain there more than twice as long as I had stayed
the first time, nor was it even my eager wish to see once
more the friends I had left there: one meets one's
American friends every two years in Paris ! This time,
in scouring the coxmtry through its length and breadth,
— and what length, and what breadth ! — my desire
was to inform myself as much as possible on the ques-
tions, even the xmsolvable ones, now before Americans
regarding the immediate future of their coxmtry.
Hence the title, "America of To-morrow," which
these travel notes will bear. To those who judge it
too ambitioxis to give them such a name, I reply that
it might be so were I to call them America of the Day
after ^o-morrow^ or did they aspire to deal with a
remote future; but they do not, and I will add that
even for America of to-morrow they do not pretend to
do more than seek out the hopes, the warnings, and the
promises that are pending. In brief, then, it is not
the reply of the oracle, but only the terms of the riddle
that need be soxight for here. Furthermore, I believe
that these very terms themselves richly repay investi-

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gation; and if it is true as Brunetiere says, that the
United States constitutes the finest field for experience
that has ever been offered to humanity, then the reader
will understand, will perhaps even share, the curiosity
which induced me to return there, and will enjoy with
me a glimpse at the combinations open for study in
this gigantic laboratory.

He may rest assured, however, that he has not to
deal with a savant by profession, but rather with a
tourist who treats of questions as they come up, appar-
ently at haphazard: I say "apparently" for I am
obliged to confess that my travelling was usually
directed toward those spots where I knew interesting
problems were most likely to be encountered; where,
for instance, I should have the chance to see by what
methods of training immigrants were turned into Amer-
icans; but above all, to those distant shores of the Pa-
cific, where, amid new surroundings and natural wealth,
the yellow race and the white race meet, vie with each
other, and threaten to come to blows in a conflict on
the outcome of which the fate of the world for many
centuries may depend.

This time I sail from Boulogne-sur-mer by the
Dutch Line. It will not be a fast voyage, — ten days
on the Atlantic, — but this is an advantage when one
has the leisure and the sea is calm, as it usually is in
Jxme. On these sluggish crossings the boat seems to
glide along without jolts or throbs, and one can rest
better than anywhere else in the world. Besides, the

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Frenchman who is travelling for study can begin his
observation here on board; he will meet no compatriotSi
and the Americans who come under his notice are, as
will be seen, of the less known varieties.

From the deck of the tender, the Holland^ which is to
take us to the Noordam^ we already see in rough out-
line one of the most serious difficulties with which the
United States has to cope, that of raising and assimilat-
ing the immigrants of all races and from all coxmtries
whp are now arriving yearly in crowds over a million
strong. On the wharf a flock of human beings is
manoeuvring, headed by a leader who makes signs to
them with a staff. They advance, they retreat; and
without seeking to imderstand, they follow the contra-
dictory injimctions which are given them. Four or
five times according to the orders of the police and of
the ship's steward, transmitted to them by their leader,
they come, they go, as xmresisting as inanimate objects;
and we have plenty of time to contemplate them.

What strange and savage faces, but what stoic energy
is portrayed on most! Their features show the fatigue
of the long days and longer nights passed on the trains
coming from the south and east of Europe. By the
costumes and the faces one recognizes Italians, Rus-
sians, Turks, and Hungarian and Roumanian Jews.
Their clothes are poor and scarcely clean, and hardly
any have stockings. The men are in working clothes
with a cap of cloth or fur; the women are bareheaded,
or wearing a sort of mantilla, and dressed in gaudy
colors. Some carry babies in their arms; and the con*

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trast is painful between these ragged children and the
fine doll which an American diild near me is holding.
Happily a recollection turns my mind from this com-
parison. I remember that it is little more than sixty
years ago that two poor little urchins went to America
xmder these same conditions, one from Ireland and the
other from Scotland, two poor little urchins named
John Ireland and Andrew Carnegie.

The most interesting of the band are the young men
from fifteen to thirty years of age, looking confident
and determined. I like the initiative which two among
them show, as, slowly and with some difficulty, the
gang-plank is being lowered, they leave the ranks and
lend a helping hand to the sailors: those two will make
good Americans! Humanity progresses only through
those who offer themselves when there is a deed to be
done, a word to be said, an initiative to be taken, and
who do not stop to think what they will gain by it,
nor why it falls to them rather than to another.

The passengers proper having all gone on board, the
emigrants are called, one by one. They come laden
down with cardboard valises, baskets, great canvas
bags, and strange-looking blankets. They keep all
their luggage with them. So do I, as far as that goes,
but I have left something at home. They carry every-
thing with them except the land of their forefathers,
and they will forget that. Perhaps they have already
forgotten it. One can read nothing in their faces.
They abandon themselves to the xmknown, to the in-
comprehensible, to destiny.

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At last our tender leaves the wharf and we steam
out toward the Noordam^ which, ridmg slackly at an-
chor, awaits us outside the harbor. As we approach,
her band salutes us with the bars of the "Marseil-
laise," and this welcome thrills me. It is patriotism
reviving as it always does far from home — far from
our stupid quarrels and our cruel separations. Of our
France, who calls herself anti-religious, the last land-
marks lingering on the horizon are the black dome of a
basilica and a great crucifix on the cliff.

The coast of France has disappeared. We are in
foreign parts, quite in foreign parts. The ship's people
speak Dutch to each other and English to us. Of the
seventy-four first-class passengers all are Americans ex-
cept a few Dutch and Germans. Among the two him-
dred and forty-five second-class passengers the last two
nationalities are more largely represented. As to the
twelve hundred and nine third-class passengers, they
can coxmt but fourteen Americans among them. The
rest are emigrants from all lands. The coimtries of
their extraction prove instructive nevertheless: 40 come
from Holland, 45 from Germany, 48 from Italy, 93
from Austria, 186 from Himgary, 2 from Bulgaria, 14
from Roumania, 51 from Greece, 131 from Turkey,
585 from Russia. Almost all the Russians and all
the Hungarians are Jews.

Israel has therefore sent forth one-half this crowd!
In 1907 of Jews alone 149,182 emigrants went to the
United States, of whom 93,397 remained in the State
of New York. The city itself shelters more than

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ScxD^ooo, and they are beginning to take up a great deal
of room. Restricted originally to a poor section of the
town, at the time of my first trip they were invading
the shopping district, but it is now the turn of the
wealthy quarters. The Jewish question, if it come
up at all, will come up in New York first, but it is a
question that interests the whole United States. The
Jews here are sufficiently free and sufficiently numerous
(there being very nearly two million of them) to show
what they are capable of under a regime of real toler-
ance. Though there exists against them some social
prejudice,* no one would dream of excluding them
from their civil rights.

The Jewish question is only one phase of the greater
problem of immigration. Whereas from 1776 to about
1820, only 250,000 foreigners came to settle in the
United States, from 1820 to 1907 not less than
25,318,067 have arrived. At the beginning of the
nineteenth century their number did not amoxmt to
ten thousand annually; they now far exceed a million,
being, for example 1,100,735 ^^ 1906, and 1,285,349

*Thit social prejudice is, at a matter of fact, stronger in the United
States than in western Europe. Jews are excluded from most clubs,
and are looked at askance at schools, and even at hotels. I was told
that a very rich Jew, a friend of President Cleveland's, wishing to
stay with his family at a fashionable hotel at some watering-place,
was informed that no persons of his race were admitted: No Jews
imken. He forthwith bought, just opposite, a vacant lot and built a
finer hotel with lower prices and placarded the notice: No Jews taken.
The older hotel, half ruined and obliged to accept any guests present-
ing themselves, was socm filled with Jews refused admittance at the new

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in looy."*" Furthennore» the increase follows a regular
course, althou^ it is interrupted and suffers a falling
off in the periods of financial crises such as those follow-
ing the years 1854, 1873, 1882, and 1892. The recent
panic could not fail to bring in its train the usual lack
of work and consequent decrease in inunigration; but
the recovery has already set in.

It is not, however, the great number of immigrants
which is disquieting; neither the room nor, usually, the
work is lacking. The difficulty lies in the origin and
extraction of the present day immigrants. Formerly
the great majority were of the same races as, or similar
to, those of the first colonists; they came from England,
Scotland, Ireland, the Scandinavian countries, Ger-
many, or France; they differed but slightly from the
Americans in character, customs, and ideals, and were
therefore easy to assimilate rapidly. In 1906, 67 per
cent belonged to races occupying the southeast of Eu-
rope, even Asia Minor. Whereas southern Italians
represented 22 per cent of this total, and Jews (almost
all from Russia) 14 per cent, the percentage of Ger-
mans had fallen to 8, that of Scandinavians to 5, and

Online LibraryFélix KleinAmerica of to-morrow → online text (page 1 of 24)