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THE LAND OF THE
STRENUOUS LIFE



A.HBE FELIX KLEIN



LIBRARY

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.



Class



IN THE LAND OF
THE STRENUOUS LIFE



IN THE LAND OF
THE STRENUOUS LIFE



BY

ABBE FELIX KLEIN

M

OF THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY
OF PARIS



A UTHOR S TRANSLA TION



ILLUSTRATED




CHICAGO

A. C, McCLURG & CO.

1905



t-



COPYRIGHT



A. C. McCLURG & CO.

1905



PUBLISHED OCTOBER II, 1 905



Cfje ILaktgfte

R. DONNELLEY & SONS COMPANV
CHICAGO



TO
PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT



226463



TO MY AMERICAN READERS

TF I were to consider only your habit of asking visi
tors to your country, " How do you like America?"
I might offer this book with entire confidence, since it
is precisely an answer to your own repeated inquiry.

Yet this response has not been prepared for you,
but for others for mere Europeans. On the other
side of the water also, people have asked me, " What
do you think of America?" I have told them, and
they have listened with a certain measure of interest. 1
And how can I expect you in America to lend your
ears to a resident of the Old World who addresses
himself to other inhabitants of the Old World? Is
there any significance for you in these " Dialogues of
the Dead"?

I have another reason for hesitation. Not imagin
ing that these pages would fall under your eyes, I wrote
them under the influence of a sentiment which now
brings me to some confusion, a sentiment for which I
must crave your pardon. I wrote them, alas ! with an
excess of benevolence. In spite of some criticisms
(only too rare and inadequate), I have said too much
good of you, as I now humbly confess. I have told
so much that is good that your modesty proverbial
in all the world must endure much while you read;

1 The French work, " Au Pay: de la Vie Intense," has passed into the seventh
edition within a few months, and the French Academy has awarded it the Montyon
prize of one thousand francs. [PUBRS.]

vii



viii To MY AMERICAN READERS

and I think I see you pushing from you with blushes
these too flattering pages.

Modest readers of America, be indulgent toward
me ! I am ready to admit, if you insist on it, that
you have numerous defects ; and, since you do nothing
by halves, I am sure that you are capable of carrying
them further than any other nation first in the world
always ! But consider, I beseech you, that circum
stances have prevented me from noting these defects.
As you will find out for yourselves, I have had the
misfortune to encounter in your interesting country
only honest folk, and perhaps the best that are there.
On my next journey I hope to be more fortunate, and
am counting on your help to enable me to meet the
other sort.

But let us talk seriously (and a Frenchman is some
times capable of that). Even if I had noticed your
defects, what purpose would it serve to exhibit them to
my countrymen ? We have enough of our own with
out giving ourselves the trouble to go so far in quest
of others. What I proposed to myself, in crossing
the Atlantic, was to seek in your country the profitable
example of certain virtues which you possess in a very
high degree, and which we in some measure lack. As
a sort of representative of a commercial establishment
in the moral realm, I went to select, among the vari
ous products of your land, those which ours does not
supply in sufficient quantity, and upon my return to
distribute them as widely as possible.

Now, among the things which you supply in pro-



To MY AMERICAN READERS ix

fusion, and which we demand, I know nothing more
important nor more enviable than initiative and toler
ance. The courage to act and the wisdom to permit
others to act, what is more beautiful, and in our day
more necessary, than this? If true civilization is meas
ured by increase in the value of human personality,
what is grander than to develop one s own nature in
all proper directions, and to promote the development
of the capacities of others ? You are a people at once
energetic and tolerant; you promote without hindrance
your own freedom, and you respect as sacred the free
dom of all your brothers. In this at least and it is
a great deal you deserve to be taken as the model
of the world; and I count it a favor of God to have
the honor to set this example before France just at the
moment when it is most needed.

Poor beloved France ! In the past she has had
glory without parallel ; she has still, even now, a refine
ment of spirit and taste, a delicacy of heart, a chivalry
of soul, which entitle her to walk erect among the
nations. But in many of her children one quality is
wanting, which is the privilege of youth. I mean con
fidence, confidence in life, which gives the spirit of
audacity and enterprise ; confidence in the truth, which
enables one to interpret it openly to others, in the
spirit of fair play, without attempting to impose one s
own ideals on the reluctant; confidence in the divine
energy immanent in truth and life, which assures
human progress.

These are the virtues whose illustration we have



x To MY AMERICAN READERS

sought among you. And already this effort has met
with some success. In our discussions of religious
liberty, for example, and of a higher standard of life,
we have not in vain introduced the recital of your
actions and the echo of your words. Who can estimate
the value of the salutary reflections which we owe to
the respect of your people for religion, to the notions
of tolerance which exist among your numerous religious
denominations, and all we owe of moral awakening
to the discourses, translated and popularized among
us, of your illustrious President, the herald of the
strenuous life ? American ideals have stirred our souls
and quickened there the French ideals.

For nations as well as for individuals, history, or
rather Providence, very often holds in reserve a tardy
recompense, and, what is more precious, a wonderful
justice, which await an opportune moment. Once we
aided you to achieve your liberty ; and that was for me
a moment of high feeling, never to be forgotten, when,
at Philadelphia, in the sacred Independence Hall, I
saw the picture which represents the victors of York-
town laying the captured flags before the members of
Congress and the Ambassador of France. To-day,
citizens of our sister Republic, it is you who by your
example and by your exhortations recall us to the love
and the practice of liberty. Once we aided you to
become a great nation ; you now help us to remain
one.

Such is the grandeur of your mission, such the
responsibility which weighs on you, O Americans !
You are the advance guard of humanity on the path



To MY AMERICAN READERS xi

of progress, of light, and liberty ; and humanity looks
to you to guide it aright, and to push most swiftly to
the goal. God grant you may always worthily respond
to so grand a vocation.

FELIX KLEIN.
BELLEVUE, NEAR PARIS, July 4, 1905.



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

THE VOYAGE PAGE

Leaving France. First Impressions. Fellow -Travellers. Ex
iled Nuns. Canadian Immigrants. American Youngsters.

A Progressive Convent ...... I

CHAPTER II

FIRST VISIT TO NEW YORK

Up the Bay. The Paulists. A New York Monastery. Father
Elliott and Father Doyle. A New York Sunday. Religious
Condition of America. Standing of Catholicism. Chinese,
Italian, and Jewish Quarters. Wall Street. Riverside
Park .14

CHAPTER III

FROM NEW YORK TO MONTREAL BY WAY OF BOSTON

Regrets at Missing the Hudson River and the New York Lakes.
Boston. Its General Appearance. An Historic Town.

Monuments and Schools. Harvard University.- French
Memories. An Evening Vision. A Model Parish. From
Boston to Montreal ....... 45

CHAPTER IV

CANADIAN IDEAS AND VIEWS

A Visit to Canada. Montreal. A Sunday with the Indians.
Analysis of Canadian Patriotism. Iroquois versus Sulpician.

Ottawa. The Canadian Parliament. Colonization.
The Apostolic Delegate. The University. The St. Law
rence. The Thousand Islands. Ontario. The Poem of
America ......... 62

xiii



xiv CONTENTS

CHAPTER V

AN INVOLUNTARY VISIT TO BISHOP MAC QUAID PAGE

Unforeseen Itinerary. A Visit to Charlotte, New York. An
Unexpected Call Upon Bishop Mac Quaid. Reassuring
Welcome. A Model Seminary. A Right Reverend Viticul-
turist. A Tireless Cicerone. Difficulties with Archbishop
Ireland. A Visit to a Grammar-School. Surprise of a
European . . . . . . . . .91

CHAPTER VI

BUFFALO AND NIAGARA NOTRE DAME UNIVERSITY

Beauty of Buffalo. The Knights of Columbus. American
Broad-Mindedness. Niagara. A Growing Town: South
Bend. Father Zahm at Home. The University of Notre
Dame, Indiana. A School of Journalism. Latin and Ameri
can Systems of Education. St. Mary s Academy.
French Origin of Notre Dame . . . . 115

CHAPTER VII

CHICAGO

My Fellow-Travellers. Immensity of Chicago. Solitude and
Business. In a Church of Colored Baptists. Beauty and
Ugliness. The Two Chicagos. Visit to a Public School.
Hospitality and Charm. Hull House and Settlement-
Workers. Chicago s Wonderful History. The City of the
Future .... 134

CHAPTER VIII

PEORIA AND BISHOP SPALDING A SMALL CITY AND A GREAT BISHOP

Across Illinois. Bishop Spalding at Home. His Philosophy
and Prestige. A Typical American City. Peoria, its
Resources, its Social and Educational Advantages. Admin
istrative Simplicity in the United States. A Bishop Beloved
in his Diocese . . . . . . . 153



CONTENTS xv

CHAPTER IX

ST. LOUIS AND THE WORLD* S FAIR PAGE

The Louisiana of Chateaubriand and That of To-day. The
Immensity of American Cities. Archbishop Glennon.
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Its Dominant Idea.
The President of the United States at the Jesuit College.
Religious Tolerance. The Contemplative Life. A Pioneer:
the Bishop of Wichita. An Old French Family. A Word
About Mexico. A Fine Christian Brothers College. A
Grand Seminary of the European Kind. The Living
Church . . . . , . . . 171

CHAPTER X

THE CITY OF IRON AND FIRE

Returning to the East. In the Manufacturing Districts. St.
Jerome and Pittsburg. Andrew Carnegie. His Appren
ticeship. His Social Ideas. His Gospel of Wealth. A
Well- Bred Frenchman. The Electric Works of Westing-
house and the Forges of Carnegie. How Masters and
Inventors are Formed. -With a Business Man. Nocturnal
Reporting. A Club on the Twenty-second Story. A Dan-
tesque Scene. Through Pennsylvania by Rail. Irregularity
of the Trains. An Invitation to Baltimore . . 196

CHAPTER XI

AT THE CARDINAL S HOUSE IN BALTIMORE

America Represented in the Conclave for the First Time. Re
turn of Cardinal Gibbons. Public Reception in Baltimore.
A Popular Archbishop. The Creed of Constantinople Sung
in the Twentieth Century, in a Great American City. A
Walk with the Cardinal. Conversations: Montalembert,
Paul Bourget, the Catholic Press, the Conclave. Cardinal
Gibbons and the Election of Pius X . . . 224



xvi CONTENTS

CHAPTER XII

AT THE WHITE HOUSE PAGE

The President at Home. The Man of the Strenuous Life.
His Conversation. A Representative American. The
Character and Ideas of Roosevelt. Roosevelt Among Catho
lics and Among Protestants. Sermons of the President.
Opposed to All Abuses and All Prejudices. National Act
of Faith. The State, Religious and Neutral. "Look Upon
This Picture, and on This" . . . . 242

CHAPTER XIII

REMINISCENCES OF WASHINGTON

The Capital City. St. Patrick s Rectory. A Clerical Orator,
Dr. Stafford. A "Mixed Marriage" Ceremony. Catho
lic University of America. Apostolic Mission House.
Discourse of Archbishop Glennon. Higher Education of
Catholic Women. Trinity College. Columbian University.
The International Bureau of American Republics. Is a
Pan-American Soul Being Formed? . . . 262

CHAPTER XIV

THE EDUCATION OF WHITES AND BLACKS

At the Bureau of Education. Organization of Education in the
United States. Extraordinary Development of the Higher
Education. Statistics of Some of the Liberal Professions.
A High School for Negroes. The JEneid Explained by
a Colored Woman. The Negro Question an Unsolvable
Problem. The Best Education. The Ideas of Booker T.
Washington . . . . . . . 285

CHAPTER XV

BALTIMORE REVISITED

Change of Plans. At Baltimore. Father Magnien: the Influ
ence of a French Priest on the Church in America. The
Great Role of Cardinal Gibbons and the Episcopate. Bald-



CONTENTS xvii

PAGE

more a Centre of Catholic Life. The Plenary Councils.
Mgr. Falconio, the Apostolic Delegate. How a Parish is
Formed in the United States. An Enemy of Abuses: Mr.
Charles Bonaparte. His Ideas on the Parish School.
Ought It to Receive Grants from Public Funds? No
Change Desired. The Prosperous Convent of Notre Dame
of Maryland. Bryn Mawr School. Johns Hopkins Uni
versity ........ 304

CHAPTER XVI

NATIONAL FESTIVITIES

With the Army of the Cumberland. An Impolitic Major.
The Dedication of Sherman s Statue. Splendid Solemnity.

Review. Prayer. Speeches of President Roosevelt and
Four Generals. Too Long a Ceremony. Archbishop Ire
land. Military Soiree. The Banquet of the Four Armies.

Prayer, Toasts, and National Songs. At Washington s
Tomb ........ 322

CHAPTER XVII

PHILADELPHIA

Departure from Washington. A Notable City. Philadelphia.

Historic Memories. Independence Hall. Ecclesiastical
Reunion. Parochial Finances. Influence of Ireland on
Catholicism in the United States. Archbishop Ryan.
Indian Commission. An Anti-Clerical Foundation. Girard
College. Central High School of Philadelphia. Univer
sity of Pennsylvania. Principal Gifts Received by the
Educational Institutions in One Year. A Great College for
Women. Bryn Mawr. Always Tolerant. " Remain in
America". 338

CHAPTER XVIII

LAST DAYS IN NEW YORK

Saint Sulpice in the United States. Tuxedo Park. The Integ
rity of Politicians. McClellan and Seth Low. Municipal
Elections. New York by Noon, Evening, Night. "The



xviil CONTENTS



PAGE



Star-Spangled Banner" in the Sky. The International
Catholic Truth Society. Episcopalian Clergymen. The
"North American Review." The Hour of Parting. At
St. Paul s. On the "Lorraine." "Sweet Land of
Liberty" .... 360



ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

PORTRAIT OF ABBE KLEIN Frontispiece

PORTRAIT OF BISHOP MAC QUAID 94

PORTRAIT OF FATHER ZAHM 124

PORTRAIT OF BISHOP SPALDING 154

PORTRAIT OF ARCHBISHOP GLENNON 174

PALACE OF EDUCATION, LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION . .182

PORTRAIT OF ANDREW CARNEGIE 198

PORTRAIT OF CARDINAL GIBBONS 226

PORTRAIT OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT 244

PORTRAIT OF MGR. FALCONIO 268

PORTRAIT OF ARCHBISHOP IRELAND 304

THE SHERMAN STATUE, WASHINGTON 324

PORTRAIT OF ARCHBISHOP RYAN . . . 346

PORTRAIT OF ARCHBISHOP KEANE 358



xix



IN THE LAND OF

THE STRENUOUS LIFE



CHAPTER I
THE VOYAGE

Leaving France. First Impressions. Fellow- Travellers.
Exiled Nuns. Canadian Immigrants. American Young
sters. A Progressive Convent.

PUNCTUALLY at five minutes after midnight
our train drew out of the station of St. Lazare in
Paris. Sinking into my seat and closing my eyes, I
said to the companion who was to go a part of the
journey with me, "Wake me at New York." This
friend of mine was the Abbe Sicard, well known as an
historian, whose parish of St. Medard in Paris was
founded under the Merovingians a thousand years
before America was discovered. I closed my eyes;
he slept. After a prayer that God would protect our
journey, I tried hard to find repose. But mind and
imagination were active, and a thousand useless fancies
tormented me out of all hope of rest. Now, the
business of entertaining persistent ideas becomes tire
some toward one o clock in the morning, so I turned to
an infallible foe of thought, the daily papers. In the
copy in my hand, huge headlines attracted my atten-



2 IN THE LAND OF

tion: "The Humbert affair; eighth session of the
court; expected scandals; personages involved; the
secret of Therese; probable verdict to-morrow." To
think that we are leaving France on the eve of such a
sensational event! After two pages of the Humbert
trial come Macedonian despatches telling of great
massacres; then divers stories of gendarmes expelling
the nuns; and finally a piece of information to the
effect that the recently elected Pope Pius X , by a
rather bold innovation, has ordered that the newspa
pers given to him shall not be previously prepared or
modified. This jumble of things was no great help to
sleep, and when we reached Havre I was tired enough.
There, however, the very sight of the steamer that
awaited us was enough to restore our spirits; a more
graceful, elegant, and comfortable vessel than our
" Lorraine/ or her sister ship " La Savoie," does not
sail the sea. A part of the three hours before starting-
time we spent in strolling through the town. The sun
had not risen, nor the inhabitants. We walked upon
the sea-wall, whence we looked far out upon the ele
ment on which we were to venture. It was not so
alarming, and we went on board rather reassured. I
was fairly overcome with the sleep which had forsaken
me during the night, so, while the ship still swung at
anchor, I lay down. I remember that the whistling of
the siren broke in upon my dreams; but it was not
until five hours later that I arose. Going out upon
the bridge, I found we were in sight of Cherbourg. But
it was only a glimpse of the town that I caught, as we
were losing sight of France, The island of Aurigny



THE STRENUOUS LIFE 3

sank into the distance in its turn. Are we launched
upon the great deep at last? Not yet; for we can still
make out the English coast. There are the lights of
Cape Lizard; and later on, those of Scilly Islands
brighten the horizon. Then the last gleam of far-off
lighthouses disappears, and we have entered into
evening darkness and the ocean waste.

But though land was invisible, we were still in touch
with it. At dinner I saw passengers receiving and send
ing despatches. Wireless telegraphy was busy with
its miracles, the last word of science; the latest, rather,
and not the last, for to-morrow out of radium or some
thing else will come new wonders which may transform
the world. Yet there are men who deny progress, or
maintain that if it does exist it is confined to the prov
ince of the grossly material. But how many of these
telegrams exchanged at night upon the sea may be
ministering to the spiritual, may contain loving fare
wells, affectionate reassurances, announcements of joy,
or messages of sorrow! I myself left a friend at the
point of death the day before I sailed; and if I had but
thought of it, I could have had the comfort of thus
receiving news of him. Thus science appears to me
as a holy light, even like that of the stars whose rays
this evening are piercing the darkness of the heavens,
and in whose presence on the solitary bridge I breathe
my wordless prayer.

It was very late when I went to the quiet room
assigned me; but again it was hard to sleep. The
fatigue and the crowded impressions of that first day
would not subside. Still, I felt strangely content. It



4 IN THE LAND OF

seemed to me that through the darkness resting upon
the deep there opened vistas radiant and vast. Fol
lowing the course of light and progress, we were going
from east to west, were leaving the old for the new,
the past for the future. I felt full of confidence, full
of faith. Our vessel cleaving its forward way was a
symbol of the world.

The quiet recollection of this first day was too
pleasant to last long. Never has conversation con
sumed so many hours of the day as during the voyage.
Without speaking of the Captain, the personification
of fine manners and amiability; or of the Commissaire,
who was a perfect type of master of the house ; or of
the Doctor, whom fortunately one could visit without
being sick; or of those of our fellow-voyagers whom
we were delighted to associate with, we had also to
acknowledge the advances of several who gave us the
honor of their company unasked and uninvited.

We carried 1,027 passengers 233 first, 167 sec
ond, and 627 third class. Of these last, about a hun
dred and forty were returning to the United States
after a few months visit to relatives in Europe. The
others in the steerage were emigrants, counting among
them 12 French, a few Swiss, 70 Roumanian Jews,
200 Germans, and as many Italians. Many were
alone, but the majority (and notably the Jews)
had their families with them. Of the 167 second-
class passengers, nearly all were Italians or Germans,
going to America for the first time, or returning there
after a business or pleasure trip abroad. Most of



THE STRENUOUS LIFE 5

them were tradesmen. Of the first-cabin travellers,
a majority were Americans who had spent the summer
abroad for pleasure, rest, or study. It is a matter of
less moment to them to run over to France than for
a Parisian to make the eight hours trip to London.
Beside these were two Peruvians, six Germans, three
Italians, one of whom was a Brooklyn choir-master,
who was taking along from Padua a young wife to
whom he had been four years betrothed; three Cana
dians, two priests, and a settler; and, finally, about
thirty Frenchmen, among whom were thirteen mer
chants, two or three tourists, one Commissioner of the
State Council, five insurance men who were delegates
to a convention of their profession, one young colonist,
one unhappy schoolmaster who had received orders to
take a secularized school in Newfoundland into which
pupils would enter only when they were driven, and
four secular priests, namely, two professors at Mon
treal, my companion, and myself. To these thirty
French passengers who were making the journey by
their free choice must be added forty-two others who
were crossing the ocean by no voluntary act. These
were French religionists, driven from their homes,
despoiled of their possessions, and practically expa
triated by the laws of their country. They were
going, some of them at least, to lands that had for
merly been ours, to Canada, and to Texas, which
latter was part of the old province of Louisiana. Will
the sad day ever come, when, in contradiction to our
glorious past, liberty will begin where the dominion
of France ends?



6 IN THE LAND OF

I had to put this question to myself, when on our
steamer I saw the mournful spectacle of four nuns of
Sainte-Chretienne of Metz who were expiating the error
of having chosen to be subjects of France. Their
mother house was in the capital of Lorraine. In 1871
the congregation was divided ; the majority, in order
to remain French, established themselves at Longuyon
in Meurthe-et- Moselle, on our side of the frontier.
The others stayed on in their convent at Metz. To
day those that remained under Germany are enjoying
peace and toleration; while the imprudent ones who
trusted themselves to us are expelled from their home,
and deprived of their sole means of living, which is
teaching the young. They know not where to turn.
The four nuns of whom I speak were sent to America
at haphazard, to find, wherever they could, a home
where they might work and pray. Their sisters left
behind in France, five hundred of them, do not know
what day the officers may cast them into the street;
and, naturally, they are looking with anxiety to the
result of this venture in America. Some of the com
munity are already waiting at Havre, and others are at
various English ports, watching for the word which
shall assure them a home somewhere. Long months
of seeking elapsed before any success attended our
efforts. I say our efforts ; for I tried to help the poor
exiles. I shared in their search for an abode, made
many fruitless inquiries in their behalf, and am still in
correspondence with them. I found them later in
Montreal, where they lived some weeks in the hos
pitable Convent of the Gray Nuns. Hither they had



THE STRENUOUS LIFE 7

come, worn out with long journeying through the
United States, and utterly discouraged. I wish their
persecutors could have seen them, downcast and in
tears. So little were the poor nuns informed of the
true nature of the policy to which they were sacrificed,
that they even asked me why M. Combes wished to
do them harm, and when they would be permitted to
return to France !

Three of the four sisters were French ; the
fourth, who accompanied the others as interpreter, was
English, the only one of that nationality in the Con
vent. She too, no less keenly than the other three,
suffered at leaving France, for it was the fatherland of
her affections and her faith. Bishop Dupont des Loges
had there received her into the Church, and there,
among her sisters and pupils, her heart had its abiding-
place. "We must accept what God permits," she said



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