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The Committee selected from the signataries of the original Pro-
spectus has agreed upon the following works to be included in the
series : —

Batjr's Christianity and the Church in the First Three

Centuries.
Zeller, the Acts of the Apostles critically examined.
Ewald's Prophets of the Old Testament.
Keim*s Life of Jesus of Nazara.
Baur's Paul, his Life and Work.
Kuenen, The Eeligion of Israel.
Bleek's Lectures on the Apocalypse.

Of these, the following were published and included in the First
Year's Subscription : —

Keim (Th.), History of Jesus op Nazara- Considered in its
connexion with the National Life of Israel, and related in
detail. Vol. L

Baur (F. C), Paul, the Apostle of Jesus Christ, his Life
and Work, his Epistles and Doctrine. A contribution to a
Critical History of Primitive Christianity. Vol I.

Kuenen (A), The Eeligion of Israel. Translated by A H.
May. Vol L

The Second Year's volumes consist of —

Kuenen's Religion of Israel. Vol H. Translated by A. H.

May.
Baur's Paul; the second and concluding volume. Translated

by the Eev. Allan Menzies ; and,
Bleek's Lectures on the Apocalypsk Edited by the Eev.

Dr. S. Davidson.

The Third Year will embrace —

Kuenen's Eeligion of Israel; the third and concluding volume.
Keim's Jesus of Nazara. Vol. IL Translated by the Eev.

E. M. Geldart.
Ewald's Prophets of Israel. Translated by the Eev. J; Fred.

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press : —

Zeller on the Acts. To which is prefixed Overbeck's Intro-
duction to the Acts from De Wette's Handbuch. Translated
by Joseph Dare. Edited by Dr. S. Davidson.

Baur's First Three Centuries of the Christian Church,
Vol. I., and the following volumes of Ewald's Prophets and
Keim's Jesus.

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volume of Kjeim's Jesus and of Baur's Paul, which, when ready, we
propose to exchange for the volumes first issued on favourable terms
to the Subscribers.

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A Short Protestant Commentary on the New Testament ;

including Introductions to the Books by Lipsius, Holsten, Lang,

Pfleiderer, Holtzmann, Hilgenfeld, and others.
Scholten. On the Gospel of St. John.

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THEOLOGICAL
TRANSLATION FUND LIBRARY.



PAUL

HIS LIFE AND WORKS.

By r. C. BAUR

VOL. II.



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PAUL

THE APOSTLE OF JESUS CHRIST,
HIS LIFE AND WORK, HIS EPISTLES AND HIS DOCTRINE,

A CONTRIBUTION

TO THE

CRITICAL HISTORY OF PRIMITIVE CHRISTIANITY.

BY

DR FERDINAND CHRISTIAN BAUR,

Fbofbssor of Evangelical Theoloot in the University of Tt>BiNOEN.



SECOND EDITION. EDITED AFTER THE AUTHOR'S DEATH,
BY

DR. EDUARD ZELLER.

^ran^lateb txom the (Stxmntt
By EEV. a. MENZIES.

VOL. 11.



WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE,
14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON;
AND 20 SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH.
1875.



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1i>^~



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3 -f<f^y^



T. AND A. CONSTABLE, PEINTEBS TO HEB MAJESTY.



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TABLE OP CONTENTS.



Second Class of the Pauline Epistles.

The Epistles to the Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, to
Philemon, and to the Thessaloiuans.

Chapter IV.



PAGE



The Epistles to the Ephesians and Colossians, ... 1

Chapter V.
The Epistle to the Philippians, . . . 45

Addendum, 64

Chapter VI.
The Epistle to Philemon, ...... 80

Chapter VII.
The Epistles to the Thessalonians, . 85

Third Class of the Pauline Epistles.

Chapter VIII.

The Pastoral Epistles, 98

Chapter IX.
General Observations on the smaller Pauline Epistles, . 106



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vi ' . CONTENTS.

THIED PART.
The Doctrine of the Apostle.

PAGE

Introduction, . . . . . .115

Chapter I.
The Principle of the Christian Consciousness, . . .123

Chapter IL
The Doctrine of Justification.

1. In its Negative aspect : 6 avOpwiro^ ov StKatovrai ef epyoDv

pofwv, ........ 134

Chapter III.
The Doctrine of Justifcation.

2. In its Positive aspect : 6 avBpayrro^ SiKavovrai ex wiaT€OD^, 148

Chapter IV.
Christ as Principle of the Society founded by Him, . 169

Chapter V.
The Relation of Christianity to Judaism and Heathenism, 182

Chapter VI.
Christianity as a new principle of the World's Historical

Development, 212

Chapter VII.
Faith, Love, and Hope, the three Factors of the Christian

Consciousness, 228



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CONTENTS.



Chapter VIIL

PAGE

Special discussion of certain minor points of Doctrine, . 234



Chapter IX.
On certain features of the Apostle's Character, . 269



APPENDIX.

I. On the Literature of the legend of Peter, . . . 2&1

11. Comparison of the Pauline Doctrine of Justification

with that of the Epistle of James, . . . 297

III. The two Epistles to the Thessalonians, their genu-
ineness and their bearing on the doctrine of the
Parousia of Christ, . . . . . .314

Index, 341



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SECOND PART.
THE EPISTLES OF THE APOSTLE PAUL.



SECOND CLASS OF THE PAULINE EPISTLES.

THE EPISTLES TO THE EPHESIANS, COLOSSIANS, PHILIPPIANS, TO
PHILEMON, AND TO THE THESSALONIANS.



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^s;



THE EPISTLES OF THE APOSTLE PAUL.



FOUETH CHAPTER

THE EPISTLES TO THE EPHESIANS AND TO THE C0L08SIANS.

The Pauline origin of the Epistle to the Ephesians has only
tecently been challenged ; yet, with the exception of the Pastorals,
there is none of the shorter Pauline Epistles the genuineness of
-which is more questionable. The bold and original method of
criticism which Schleiermacher applied to the First Epistle to
Timothy was adopted by De Wette in his treatment of the
Epistle to the Ephesians; by the same process, namely, by
demonstrating its dependence upon another work, he raised the
gravest doubts as to its authentic apostolic origin. And the
verdict of criticism on this Epistle,^ which De Wette was the
first to pronounce, is, that it is nothing but a rhetorical expansion
of the Epistle to the Colossians. It is of no avail to insist upon
the contrast between the flowing style and copious language of this
Epistle, and the thoughtful conciseness of that to the Colossians ;
on the contrary, this very difference, when considered along with
those other elements in our Epistle which certainly cannot belong
to the apostle, brings us very easily to the conclusion that it wds
formed upon the model of the other. In the same way, as
Schleiermacher showed, the First Epistle to Timothy resulted from
a free use of materials borrowed from the other two pastoral

^ De Wette's jadgment was still wavering in the fonrtb edition of his Bin-
leitung in das N. T. 1842 ; but in the Eurze Erklttrnng des Epheserbriefs, 1843,
p. 79 (p. 89 in 2d Edition), we find him pronoonoing distipotly for its spuriousness.

A



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2 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part IL

Epistles. This assei-tion of criticism has indeed given great offence,
and a world of trouble has been expended in seeking to prove the
Epistle genuine;^ but the discovery once made was not one that
could be proved either untrue or unimportant ; and it only remains
to be seen whether what happened in the case of the pastoral
Epistles will happen here, that the doubts of criticism, once aroused
by the proof of such a relation existing between the ty^o writings,
will not endanger only one of them, but draw both the Epistles so
connected into the same condenmation.

The relation between the two Epistles is certainly striking
enough,^ and by the neariy unanimous judgment of critics and
interpreters® it is tibe Epistle to the Ephesians, and not that to
the Colossians, which must be held to be dependent on the other.
How is it then, if this Epistle be genuine, that the apostle, who is
not in general at any loss for ideas, writes to two different
churches not far separate from each other, under the same cirr
cumstances, and, as is almost universally supposed, at the same time,
two letters so very like each other? The resemblance which this
Epistle bears to that to the Colossians in many of its arguments,
ways of thinking, and expressions, is sought to be explained by

^ This is done by EUckert in a very boisterous manner ; Der Brief PauH an
die Eph., 1834, p. 303 sq. ** Only a man such as Paul was can be tbe author of
this Epistle, and if it was not he, point out to me the spirit in that age that was
his peer. It is impossible that he can have passed over the world and left no
trace behind, t ask then, who was he, and where ? In the ranks of the imita-
tors, the compilers, or the quacks, we. dare not seek him ; where then ?"

Critical doubts then, it appears, may be simply disposed of even now-a-days
with declamations like this. The author of a canonical Epistle, such writers
imagine, must either have been an apostle, or one of the most despicable class of
men, *'the botchers, forgers, and wooden-headed compilers" (p. 299); or, if he
were not a compiler, he must have been known to us by reputation, ^ince he
could not have gone through the world without leaving his mark on history.
But is not this product of his gehius itself a sufficient trace of his existence?

^ Compare the tabulated comparison of the passages given by De Wette in
his Einleitung, p. 2^9, and the Commentary on the Epistle, p. 79. (Edition of
1847, p. 89.)

3 The only exception here is Mayerhof, Der Brief an die Colosser, etc. (The
Epistle to the Colossians critically examined, with special reference to the three
Pastoral Epistles, 1838.) ..... , • .



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Chap. IY.] EPISTLES TO EPHESIANS AND COLOSSIANS. i

supposing that Paul had been writing that Epistle a short time'
before, and that the direction of thought induced by his controversj^
with the sects there combated was stiU prevailing in his mind J
hence, it is further said, it is clear that he must have written the^
Epistle to the Colossians the first of the two. This is the account
of the matter given by Neander,^ and to the same purpose Harless
says:* "A writing directed by the apostle to a seijond body of
Christians, just after he had discharged the mournful duty to
which he saw himseK compelled, of defending the infinite riches of
the wisdom of God against the inroads of poor human wisdom;
this Epistle naturally exhibits much greater play and movement
in the treatment of its materials, while at the same time a multi*
tude of similarities clearly demonstrate its kinship with that
which he had just composed/' In a word, then^ the jostle wrotei
these two Epistles at the same time ; this is the solution of the
diflSculty with which we axe presented. But what, we cannot
help inquiring, could induce the apostle, after finishing the Epistle
to the Colossians, to continue writing in the same attitude of
thought, and to compose another letter, which was not particularly
called for, in addition to the first? Is it the apostle's habit t6
•write such letters ? And, if the only way to account for the
character of this Epistle be to assume that it was intended as a
<5ircular in which Paul, as the apostle of the Gentiles, addressed
himself to all the Gentile Christians of those regions, just because
they were Christians, and in which he condescended to no special
circumstances, but dealt with the one great interest which was
common to them aU, the indisputable efficacy of the gospel among
the heathen^* — ^what does this amount to, but a statement of the
great peculiarity of our Epistle, that the stamp of individuality,
the colour, form, and manner, which the genuine apostolic Epistles
carry on their front, are wanting here 1 Yet in fact, the assump-
tion we have mentioned, not only does not explain the actual facts

^ Planting and Training, L 329.
" *' Coram. Uber den Br. Paulx an die Eph., 1834, EinleiinDig, S. 39.
» Neander, ttH mpra^ '



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4 LIFE AND WOEK OF PAUL. [Part II.

of the case as th^y lie before our eyes ; it is but another attempt
to deny these facts. The peculiar phenomena presented to us in
the relation of these two Epistles are by no means adequately
described by speaking of mere points of resemblance, or even of
a multitude of points of resemblance. The whole contents of the
two Epistles are substantially the same, and what are called points
of resemblance are not merely chance repetitions of his former
words, such as the writer might employ unconsciously. On the
contrary, we find whole sentences repeated word for word, or with
puch alterations as clearly betray that the original was present to
the writer's mind. And this is the case, whether we assume, on
the one hand, that the Epistle to the Colossians was written first,
and that its shorter and conciser contents were extended in that tp
the Ephesians, or that the lengthier contents of the Epistle to the
Ephesians were drawn upon, and a sort of abstract of them produced
in the Epistle to the Colossians. In either case, what we have
before us is a reproduction of the one Epistle in the other, such as
cannot be explained by any fortuitous and unconscious coincidence
Df thought, but only by a distinct intention on the part of the
(Writer of one of these Epistles to give a more or less full recast o£
• the other ; and even though interpreters and critics should succeed,
while defending the Epistles' genuinenessin demonstrating that there
is a diflFerence between the two letters as well as an agreement, it
will be found that whatever can be made good in this direction
will not tell in favour of the Epistle to the Ephesians, but of that
to the Colossians. It is only the latter which, in addition to the
general contents that are common to both, contains reference to
peculiar local and individual circumstances, such as the letters of
,the apostle generally present, and so provides against total identity
with the other Epistle. Such being the case, it is not to be
wondered at that a recent critic has sought to solve the problem,
.not by assuming the contemporaneousness of the two Epistles, but
in a totally different way. That the Epistles were written at the
same time, says Schneckenburger,^ "would explain a general

^ Beiti&ge zur Einleitung ins N. T., 1832, p. 141 sq.



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Chap. IV.] EPISTLES TO EFHE8IAN8 AND C0L0S8IANS. 5

correspondence of ideas, but not such a similarity as we have here
in details, nor what I must almost call such a mechanical use of
materials. Nor is there any probable reason for Paul's sending-
two letters of so similar contents to the same district, and about



Online LibraryFerdinand Christian BaurPaul, the apostle of Jesus Christ: his life and work, his epistles ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 1 of 35)