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of sin had to be enforced in order to give his justice what it
claimed, he desired it to be enforced not in men themselves, but in
another for them. This leads us &om the idea of satisfaction to
the intimately related idea of substitution. The satisfaction which
has met the divine justice in the death of Jesus could not have
taken place without the grace of God ; and so intimately is the
idea of grace which gives rise to this whole process related to that
of substitution, that the one preposition vrrep stands for both ideas,
denoting both that which is done for men and that which is done
in the place of men. On the one hand, what is done for men, in
their interest, is done merely to make them partakers of the
benefit of the grace of God. And it is truly remarked that the
preposition virep does not of itself imply the idea of substitution,
and that that other meaning, in which the death of Jesus is
represented as having been for men, in their interest, is predomi-
nant. On the other hand, however, it is also certain that the idea
of substitution cannot be dissevered from that one ; the preposi-
tion vTrep, which is so much used in this connexion, contains both
these ideas constantly passing over into each other, and present in
each other. In the passage Rom. v. 6, it is said " Christ died when
we were yet weak " (without value or importance, without any of
those qualities which can determine another to do something for
one ; it is thus that daOeveU must be understood in distinction
from BUau}^ and dyaOo^, and in opposition to iucauodeme^, ver. 9,



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Chap. Ill] THE DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFICATION. 155

since, in their character as ZvKavmOivre^ they have in themselves
something that gives them importance in God's sight) ; hardly does
one die for a just man, for a good man (such a one as is more than
hUato^y who has won the love of others through his amiable
qualities) one might dare to die more readily than for another, but
God proves his love to us in this, that when we were still sinners,
Christ died for us. Here and in many similar passages the
airodavelv inrkp is merely a dying in the interests of others ; but
in the passages Bom. iv. 25, irapeBoOi] Sia ra wapairrt&fiaTa ri^&v]
Gal. i 4, Tov SoWo? eavrov irepi r&v dfiapTc&v '^fiwv ; Rom. viii. 3,
irept d/jLapria^ Karexpive Tfiv dfuipnav ev rr) aapKt ; 1 Cor. xv. 3,
Xpurro^ aireOavev xnrep r&v d/jbapri&v rifi&v'y 2 Cor. v. 15, ew inrep
irdvTwv diredavev, apa ol irdvr&i diriOavov, Koi \nrkp iravrwv
uTreOavev, Iva ol faii/re? fj/rfxeri iavrol^ ^Aavv, aXka r^ xnrep avrSiv
diroOavovrt koI eyepOevrt, the idea of substitution cannot certainly
be rejected as out of place. If Christ died because of sin (Sia,
irepl, virep), that is, from a cause which lay in the sins of men,
inasmuch as death is the necessary penalty of sin, then he bore in
his death that penalty which men had incurred through the guilt
of their sin, and so should have borne themselves. He died then
not merely for them, but also in their place, as the one instead of
the many, who, just because he died for them and took their place,
did not actually die themselves, but are regarded as having died in
him their substitute. This comes out most clearly in the passage
2 Cor. V. 14, where, from the proposition eh wrep irdvrwv direOaveu,
the apostle at once draws the conclusion, dpa ol Trdvre^ diredavov.
This is not the spiritual death of which the apostle speaks, Eom.
vi 2, nor a mere ought-to-die ; it is simply said that what is true
of one is true of aU, just because (as the article shows) these
are the irdvre^i those, namely, whose place the one has taken.
Only if he died instead of them, and for them, have they also died.
Only the one has actually died, but they are all contained in him
ideally ; if not really, yet essentially ; and for his sake who died in
their place and for them, they may all be regarded as dead them-
selves. The idea of substitution implies two things, first, that



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156 LIFE AND WORK OF FAUL. [Part IIL

the one who is to take the place of many others, and to be counted
for them, is the same as they are ; and secondly, that he possesses
something which they have not ; that, namely, the lack of which
makes it necessary that he should represent them. If Christ has
died for the sins of men, then he must have been without sin
himself, in order that his death, which could not be a sacrifice on
his own account, might avail as the penalty of the sins of others.
Thus it is merely the development of the idea of substitution
found at 2 Oor. v. 14, where the apostle says, ver. 21, that God
made him who knew of no sin, who did not know from his own
self-consciousness what sin was, to be sin for us, that is, to be an
object of sin, and therewith one in whom sin is to be punished.
But in order that he might thus represent the sins of men in him-
self, it was necessary for him to be a man like the men whose
place he was to take ; only in one point which was common to
them all, he could not be like them, namely, in sin. Thus though
he had a aap^, yet since the aap^ of all men is a aap^ dfutprla^y
his aap^ could only be a ofiolfofia aaptco^ dfiaprla^, Eom. viii. 3.
Thus he was not quite as they were, but only similar to them ;
with all his identity with them, he had this essential difference
from them, that his aap^ was not, like the aap^ of all other men,
the seat of sin. This being a difference between him and them,
the difference was done away and changed into perfect unity;
through his becoming what they were, dfutprla, they became free
from dfjLaprla, from the penalty of sin. This was the negative
condition of the ScKaioa-wf} Geov. Grod made him dfiaprla that
we might become BiKaioavvrf Beov hf airr^, that which it is
necessary for us to be in order to stand in that relation to God
which is adequate to the idea of God. Thus by one man's
satisfying justice on behalf of all men, a justification was attained
which sets men free from death, and makes them partakers of life.
Through the obedience of one many were made righteous, 2 Cor.
V. 21, Eom. V. 18, 19.^

^ The author discusses at page 164, and more at length in his Neutest Theol.
166, aqq. (cf. also my observations, TheoL Jahrb. 1. 879 '?•) another effect of



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Chap. III.] THE DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFICATION, 157

This SiKauxTvvrj yiv€a-0ai or hUatoi KaOiirraaOai^ which is equi-
valent to Bi/eaiovaOai, brings us back again to the conception of
faith. Since faith is the subjective condition on which alone men
can enter into the relation these words denote, the result of the
foregoing is to confirm the proposition on ov BcKcuovrac avOpanro^
cf epytov vofiov, eav firj Bia irlarec^ 'Iriaov Xpurrov, GaL ii 16*
Faith is subjectively what grace is objectively (the object of faith
is indeed just the grace of God which has appeared in Christ), and
thus grace is the objective principle of the Pauline doctrine of
justification. Everything here depends on grace, as being the
outcome of the divine love, which is the primary cause of the work
of redemption in God's own nature, Eom. iil 24, v. 8. We are
StKoiovfiepoi Bcopeav ry avrov '^(apiTi, and the antithesis between
hucatovadai Ik irlarect^ and the Siteauxrvvr) vofiov consists just in
this, that the former is done freely through grace alone. For if
there be a righteousness of the law which it is possible to attain
through works of the law, then Christ has died in vain, Gal iL 21,
because the grace which his death has purchased would then be
completely superfluous. There would then be no need of it, because
the iiKaioawq hta vofiov proceeds on the directly opposite principle,
that as the apostle says, Bom. iv. 4, .r^ €pya^ofi€v^ 6 /mutOo^ ov
Tioyl^ercu Kara xdpttf^ oKKa Kara o^i\i]fAa. That which comes
about Kara o<^e/Xi7/ia, from indebtedness, is the opposite of what
comes about Kara x^piv or Bmpecof ; the former is what a man has
a right to claim, since it is nothing but an effect, arising from, and
implicitly contained in, a cause which is present in ourselves.
Here effect follows cause of necessity and without external inter-
vention. He who has the epya vofiov receives the Sucacoavvtf Kara
vofiov by the same law by which the workman receives wages
proportioned to his labour. With the Bc/eaiowOa^ €k irlarem^,
however, the case is entirely different ; the one is related to the
other as Tioyl^eaOai and ov Tuyyi^eaOau In the case of the ipyd-
^€(T0ai and the consequent BiKaiovaOai e^ epytov vofwv, there can

the death of Christ, viz., that in his body, the chp^, and with it the sin which
resides in the crapl, is destroyed in its principle.



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158 LIFE AND WORK OF FAUL. [Part IIL

be no question of any Xoyi^eaOai ; but there is this in the case
of BiKaiovaOai €k irlcrrefo^. Faith itself Xoyl^erac eh StKaMovvijv,
namely, t^S /lw) ifyya^ofievtp, who does not hold to epya, inarevovTi
Be eni rov BiKaiovvra rov curefifj, Som. iv. 5. The one BiKatowrOai
is thus related to the other as the mere representation and sup-
position of a thing to the truth of the thing itsel£ Thus starting
from the BtKaiovaOai ef efyymv, faith would require, first of all, to
overcome the contradiction that the godless, the unjust, is held for
just ; that he, who in himself is unjust, is yet just. This is the
proper contents of faith, through which BiKaiova-Oai becomes a
BiKatovaOai he Trlcrreo}^. He who is to be justified by faith must
first of all believe that this is so, and since the objective truth of
justification consists in this, that what the justified person is to his
own consciousness, he is also in the consciousness of God, in the
judgment of God concerning him, in which the justifying act takes
place, it must be a fact in the consciousness of God that he who in
himself is unjust, is yet just. The Pauline doctrine of justification
appears here in its greatest hardness. It supposes as actually
existing what does not actually exist ; its BiKaiovaOac is not an
actual being fust, but a mere being held or being declared just, and
faith, as the principle of this Bi/eau)va0ai, is thus the imagination
arrived at in looking to Christ, that what really is not, yet is.

If this be so, then the BiKavowOai €k TrloTem^ certainly affords
no occasion whatever for a xav^fui such as there might be in the
case of BiKaiovaOai ef epycov, Eom. iv. 2 ; indeed man has nothing
in himself at all that could set him in the adequate relation to
God which is required in order to BcKaiovaOai ; for how is it
possible that faith as a mere opinion that a thing is as it should
be, although it is in fact the very opposite, could have any influence
whatever to procure such a relation ? We are here at the extreme
point where faith in this merely putative sense, as a thing devoid
of contents, seems destitute of all reality, and where at the same
time it becomes clearly apparent, that if faith is to be the principle
of BiKavovaOai, it must contain in itself those definite contents
without which it can have no reality. Whence then is faith to



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Chap. III.] THE DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFICATION. 159

draw these contents ? When the apostle says, Eom. iv. 5, that to
the irurrevdov ein rov Bucaiovvra rov dcefifj Xoyl^erai 17 'rriairc^
avTov eU BtKau)(rvvr)v, he regards the faith which is imputed for
righteousness as itself the SiKaioavvrf, as itself the suhjective con-
dition of Bi/eaiova-dai. Faith is Bt/ecuoarvvrf, or the moral quality
which, when it is present, enables man to come into that adequate
relation towards God which the idea of hiKoiovaOai represents.
The moral element of faith can only consist in this, that the
believer (not as Euckert observes on Eom. iv. 5, though he is not
righteous yet, yet has the wish to become so, a consideration which
is out of place here, but) believes the Sikcu&v top aae^fj in this
very point, that the ace^ri^ is no longer an aae^r^, but a SUaio^.
But how can he believe this without being at the same time
conscious of the foundation on which this faith rests? The
foundation on which this faith rests can only be Christ. While
the believer makes Christ the contents of his faith, the
irloTL^ which was reckoned for Bi/eauiavvrf, or the BtKaioa-wrf
which consists in nothing but irlarif;, the Si/eauxrvvrj which
faith does not realize but only takes for granted, and which is
therefore only an imagined BcKaioavwff is turned into a real one.
For it is impossible to believe in Christ without knowing one's-
self one with him, and in this conscious unity with him, being
aware of that which is the proper object of faith in Christ, as an
immanent determination of one's own consciousness.

Faith is therefore counted for righteousness to those who believe
in him who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead ; and in the
faith in God as the raiser up of Jesus, there is implicitly con-
tained faith in Jesus himself, as the one who was delivered for
our sins, and raised again for our justification, Eom. iv. 24, 25.
While believing in him we know at the same time that we are one
with him and we become in him the BiKaioavvrf Beov, 2 Cor. v. 21, the
BucauxTwri which he is made to us of God, 1 Cor. i 30. His
death is the cause why we, being now free from all the guilt of
sin, can be the same as he is, without sin, and being in this sense
righteous, are able to stand in the same adequate relation towards



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160 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part IIL

God, in which he stands towards him. It follows, however, from
his death, that our faith in him brings us not merely this negative
righteousness, consisting in freedom from the guilt of sin ; he is
also a ZiKouofia w iravra^ avOpmrov^ w Bi/ccLuoaw ^cn}^ (Som.
v. 18). As he shows himself righteous in his death, so his death is
for all men the ground of a justification which leads to life. For
as in the disobedience of the one man, the many who have their
imity in him became sinners, so through the obedience of the one
man, the many who have their unity in him are made righteous.
In his obedience, in which he himself appeared as BUaio^, they
themselves become BUcuoi in virtue of their faith in him ; such,
namely, as have in themselves the subjective condition of the
adequate relation between man and God. In that negative aspect
the liberation of men from the guilt and penalty of sin has removed
everything that might have proved to men the cause of wrong
relations towards God. There is, as the apostle says. Bom. viilr4,
nothing subject to condemnation in those who are in Christ Jesus ;
all who stand in communion with Christ, who have become one
with him in faith, are, as justified persons, no longer subject to the
divine sentence of condemnation. But not only have they in
themselves this negative righteousness ; they are positively, through
a principle that has become immanent in them, placed in an
adequate relation towards God. What renders the Succuoavvff Bul
vdfiov impossible, is that the law, though in itself spiritual, could
not take up its place in man as spiritual, and thus become a unity
with him. Now, however, what man takes up into himself through
faith in Christ, as the mediating agency of his justification, is the
vofio^ Tov TTvevfAaro^ t^9 ^onj^ €v Xpurrm 'Irjaov. The law of the
spirit (that is, the spirit as the principle which determines the
whole direction of the man, the principle of the Christian con-
sciousness as the vital principle of those who believe in Christ,
and find in him alone the principle Of their spiritual life) has
made me free, the apostle says in the same passage, from the law
of sin and death, from the power they have as a dominating
principle. For what was impossible through the law because it



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Chap. III.] THE DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFICATION. 161

was too weak through the flesh, God has done by sending his Son
in the likeness of the flesh of sin, and on account of sin, con*
demning sin in the flesh, that that which, according to the law, is
accounted righteous, as the act which is highest, and which
corresponds to the idea of righteousness or morality, might be
realized in us, inasmuch as we walk not according to the flesh, but
according to the spirit. For those who are after the flesh think
only fleshly things, but they who are after the spirit think spiritual
things. The vofio^: rov Trvevfiaro^^ as the apostle here designates
the principle of the Christian consciousness, distinguishing it both
from the vofjLo<; Beov which one serves only with the practically
impotent vov^, and from the vdfw<; dfjutprla^, which comes out
through the crapf, is the highest expression for the Pauline con-
ception of justification, the ScKacovaOac ix iriareayi in its opposi-
tion to the SiKaiovaOai €^ epycov vojmov. There must be iriari^
before there can be irvevfjLa, yet tt/ot*? is only the form of which
wpevfjua is the contents ; it is only in the Trvevfia that iriari^ be-
comes the living reality of the Christian consciousness, informed
with its positive contents. It is in the Trvevfia, therefore, that the
whole process of justification, as the apostle traces its development
through its difierent stages, is at last completed. The true
Christian Bucaiovadat is no longer a BtKaiova-dai he Tr/trre©? in the
sense in which irum^ Xoyi^erai €*? SiKaioawrfv to the Trurrevrnv
hrl Tov BiKaiovvra rov aa-e/Sr}, in which case the relation of the
person justified to God rests on a merely imaginary StKatoauvrf,
since, though essentially an dae^rji;, he is regarded by the StKat&v
as a hUaio<iy and pronounced to be hUaio^. On the contrary, it is
a true and real Sikcuovo-Ocu, because in the vdfio^ rov irvevjjLaro^, in
the TTvevfia as the principle which determines his whole conscious-
ness and life, he is truly and actually placed in the relation to God
which is adequate to the idea of God. The relation which, in the
case of faith imputed for righteousness, was a merely outward
one, has now by means of the Trvevfui, in which God commimicates
his spirit to man, and in which he dwells in man as the spirit
of Christ, become a truly inward one, Eom. viii. 9. It is now a

L



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162 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. iPART III.

relation of spirit to spirit, in which the spirit, as the principle
of the subjective consciousness, is drawn into union with the
spirit of God, as the spirit of Christ which is its objective basis.
The Si/ealo}fui rov vofiov, the moral contents of the law as the
moral self-determination of man, is fulfilled and realized in tliis,
that the justified persons walk, not according to the flesh, but
according to the spirit. This walking according to the* spirit is not
indeed that efAfieveiv ev iraa-t, T0Z9 yeypafifievoi^ ev t£ fiil3\up tov
vdfiov, TOV TTOirjaai avrd, GaL iii 10 ; for that remains even in this
case a demand which can never be satisfied ; but in place of this
merely quantitative fulfilment of the law, there has come the
qualitative fulfilment ; the spirit is the principle of the fulfilment
of the law or of moral conduct, and the spirit, the totality of dis-
position, contains in itself also the totality of the law, the StKalmfm
TOV vofiov. The SiKaioDfia tov vofiov which is thus satisfied is the
BiKaioavvrf Seov realized in man, and this BcKauxrwrj is also ^anj,
for the vofio^ tov irvevfiaTo^ is the vofio^ tov irvevfiaTo^ t^9 ^owj^
€v XpuTT^ 'Itjo-ov^ and the spirit of God who dwells in us as the
spirit of Christ is as the irvevfia, fco^ Sea SiKaioo-vvrjv. Where
Bi/eaio<rvvif) is, there is also fiwrj, because the principle of the one as
well as of the other is the divine spirit which has come to reside
in man as the principle of his Christian consciousness and life.
Thus, though the body still carries in itself, that is, in the o-opf, the
principle of sin, and is consequently subject to the power of death,
yet in the spirit the man has in himself the principle of life-; the
spirit which dwells in him, the spirit of him who raised up Jesus
from the dead, and will penetrate what of him is mortal more and
more with the power of life, Eom. viii. 10, 11. Thus that ZUau}^
€K Tr/trreo)? ^T^erai, in which the apostle concentrates his whole
doctrine of justification, has now become a truth and a reality.
All that he says in the same connexion, Eom. viiL 12-17, of the
spirit of the sonship of God, which makes itself heard in the
Christian consciousness, is simply the definition of that highest
stage, in which the whole, process of justification comes to its
completion and passes into the living reality of the immanent
Christian consciousness.



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Chap. III.] THE DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFICATION. 163

Thus the spirit is the element in which God and man are
related to each other as spirit to spirit, and where they are one
with each other in the unity of the spirit. But this union of man
with God, in which the essence of justification consists, is only pos-
sible on the condition of faith. The spirit is indeed the true and
living medium of the union of man with God ; yet it must not be
forgotten that since we only receive the spirit on the ground of
faith, the essential element of justification is nothing but faith, and
that the bond of union, in which justification consists, is formed by
faith only, being here the union of the man with Christ, Faith of
itself transfers the man from his former condition into a totally diffe-
rent one — into a new circle of tasks and duties. We see this in the
Epistle to the Eomans. The apostle describes the life of justification
in its highest stage, viiL 1-17, but before this he has deduced from
the conception of SiKa4^va0ac €k irKrrea}^, and of the divine grace
which is given in faith, Eom. v., the manner in which the union of
man with Christ which faith has formed is to realize itself in prac-
tice, Eom. vi What faith in Christ lays hold of first of all is the
grace of God reconciling men to himself in the death of his Son,
and not imputing their trespasses to them, Eom. v. 10, 2 Cor. v. 19.
But where grace is, there the law is no longer; throughout the whole
domain of grace there is an end to every claim the law could make.
If we be under grace, says the apostle, Eom. vi 1 4, 1 6, we are no more
under law ; law and grace are mutually exclusive of each other,
Gal. ii 21. Now if this be the relation between law and grace, if
grace have so much the predominance over the law as to abolish
the law altogether by grace, and render null and void all claims
which it could make on account of the guilt of sin, then it appears
that sin is not such a serious affair, and why should a man not sin
if he be certain that grace is stronger than the law and sin ? The
apostle takes up this question, Eom. vi. 1, and shows, first, that his
doctrine of justification is not open to the charge of allowing licence
to sin ; and then, that the justification which he teaches kills and
extirpates sin from its very roots. The law is indeed abolished
by grace, but grace has faith as its essential condition, and faith
places a man in such a state of union with Christ, that what is true



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164 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part III.

of Christ must also be true of liim who has faith in him. In the
fellowship with Christ's life and death which faith procures, sin is
put an end to in two ways : first, the death of the aap^ is also the
death of sin; and, second, in the new life to which he who hits died
with Christ must rise in virtue of his union with him, sin can find
no place. All who are baptized into Jesus Christ, says the apostle,
Eom. vi. 3, are baptized into his death ; they are, therefore, buried
with him through baptism into death, that as Christ has been raised
up from the dead through the glory of the Father, so they also
should walk in a new lifa For if they be grown together with
him in the likeness of his death, they will be one with him in his
resurrection. The first of these two points, the being dead with
Chrisfc, is then further defined, verse 6 ; for we know that our old
man is crucified with Christ, that the body of sin should be de-
stroyed, so that we should no more serve sin, for he that is dead is
absolved from sin. In order to apprehend correctly this latter
proposition which embodies the general truth, on which the apostle's
argument proceeds, we have to remember how he regards the aap^
as the principle and the seat of sin. It is through his aap^y
his physical nature, that man is subject to sin and death. This



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