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Ferdinand Christian Baur.

Paul, the apostle of Jesus Christ: his life and work, his epistles ..., Volume 2 online

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dominion of sin and death can last only so long as the aap^ is
vitally active and capable of asserting itseli As soon as it is
dead, man is free from its dominion over him, and absolved from
the claim which it makes on him ; if in the death of the aap^ he
himself has died to the aap^, then he has discharged his debt to it ;
not only is he free from it, but he has, as it were, formally and
judicially cleared off scores with it, so that he stands over against
it as a hlKaio<i, a justified person. The apostle expresses this relation
by the phrase, SeBiKaiorrai diro rfj^ dfiapTtw$. The aap^, however,
is dead, or the man in the adp^ has died to it, because he has died
with Christ ; for Christ is crucified for this purpose, that the body
of sin might be destroyed. Bom. vi. 6. Inasmuch as he died, he
died unto sin, in reference to sin, Eom. vi. 10, since he condemned
sin in the fiesh. Through the surrender of his body to crucifixion
he took from sin the power which it possessed in the sinful body.



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Chap. III.] THE DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFICATION, 165

Now from this the apostle draws the immediate inference that he
who believes in Christ cannot^ being dead^ live in respect to sin, or
in the service of sin, ver. 11. " Thus do you also regard yourselves,
that you are dead for sin ; let not sin therefore reign in your mortal
body (the physical mortality of which ought to symbolize to you that
other mortality, that it is already vexpov ry dfiapTia), so that you
should obey the lusts thereof. Nor do you yield your members as
instruments of unrighteousness unto sin, for sin will not or cannot
have power to rule over you, because you stand no longer under
the law, but under grace." He, then, who is dead to sin, is also
dead to the law. Bom. viL 4, for this simple reason, that the law
can reign only so long as sin reigns ; for only under the rule of the
law does sin develop its whole power, Rom. vii. 5. Thus the law
itself seemed to call forth sin just in order that, in the guilt and
punishment of sin it might appear in its whole power over man
(hence there was at last nothing for it but to die to the law through
the law, since it stood self-condemned in its insufficiency for man's
salvation. Gal. ii. 1 9). A further reason why he who is dead to sin is
dead to the law also is, that he who has died to sin can have died to
it only in one way, viz., that Christ in his crucified body has de-
stroyed the body of sin. As being dead with Christ, he now belongs,
in virtue of this unity, to Christ alone, and thus through the death
of Christ, all who have died with him are freed from the bond
which binds ^mankind to the law. The apostle shows this, Rom.
vii. 1 sq., through the analogy of a wife who is bound to her hus-
band only so long as he lives. As death is in this instance the
termination of a legal obligation, so in the case of the law; the
law's binding power ceases so soon as he who stands under the law
is dead ; thus, as soon as a man has died to sin through that unity
with Christ which faith procures him, he is no longer subject to
the law, — the old relation has ceased, and in the death of Christ, a
new one has been formed. You have, says the apostle, Rom. vii. 4,
become dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you should
belong to another, to Christ, who has risen from the dead; and that
in this fellowship you should no longer, as when under the dominion



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166 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part III.

of the law, the flesh, and sin, bear fruit to death, but should bear
fruit to God, Rom. vii. 4-6. Thus the second of the momenta above
mentioned, life with and for Christ, is conditioned by the first, the
being dead with Christ. The bond which binds a man to the law is
loosed because he has died to sin, and has been absolved from the
law; the new bond now takes the place of the old one, the bond,
of union with Christ, whose life is also his life ; and he who lives
in and with Christ lives to God. " If we be dead with Christ, we
believe that we shall also live with him ; for we know that Christ,
being raised from the dead, dies no more. In that he has died, he
died to sin for ever ; in that he lives, he lives to God. So we also
must regard ourselves as those who are dead to sin, and live to God
in Christ Jesus," Eom. vi. 8-11. Christ himself lives in us as the
higher principle which directs our whole being and life, in which
everything in us that is merely finite, and belongs only to our self,
or private ego, is done away, that we should Uve no longer to our-
selves, but only to him. I am crucified with Christ, says the
apostle, Gal. ii. 20 ; he who is crucified with Christ, who knows
himself one with the crucified Christ, has also the life of Christ in
himself. In this um'ty of life with Christ, then, do I live, but I
live only in such a way that that which lives is not this ego of
mine; I for myself do not live at all, but Christ lives in me because
I am one with him, and in this unity with him, he only can be the
principle of the life that is Uved. It is true that my fleshly life
itself has not on this account entirely ceased, so that I should no
more live in the flesh at all ; but I live, so far as I live in the
flesh, in faith in the Son of God, who has loved me, and given
himself for me ; my life in the flesh is entirely a life of faith, and
its being a life in faith causes it to be both these things at once, a
life in the flesh, and a life of Christ in me ; faith, as the bond of
union with Christ, makes it possible for these two to exist together.
What gives faith the power to unite the believer with Christ, or
that in Christ which attracts faith, and unites us to him in faith,
is the love through which he died for us and in our stead ; for the
love of Christ to us constrains us as a power coming upon us ;



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Chap. III.] THE DOCTBINE OF JUSTIFICATION. 167

wlule we consider that he, as one, died for all, and that thus they
are aU dead; and he died for all, that they, in so far as they
live, should no longer live to themselves, but to him who died
for them, and is risen again, 2 Cor. v. 14. All that is parti-
cular, individual, self-concerned is done away in him, and, in the
thought of his self-sacrificing and devoted love, disappears before
the universality of a spiritual principle. This love of Christ pro-
ceeds itself from the love of God, who caused him to die for us,
and it works love in us when it is received by us through faith ;
faith passes over into love as the tt/ot*? oc arfairrf^ epepyovfievr).
Gal. V. 6. Faith contains from the first the element of love, as its
practical principle. What faith is in itself as faith must become
practical, and this takes place through love ; love is practical faith.
Love in its connexion with faith is thus an important feature of
the Pauline doctrine, for in it the law which was done away in the
death of Christ is taken up again, only with a higher meaning.
Love is indeed the whole sum of the law ; in it the law becomes
the law of Christ himself. Gal. v. 14, vi 2 (cf. ewoiio^ Xpurrov,
1 Cor. ix. 21). Though the law is abolished through the death of
Christ, it is not abolished altogether ; only that in it is taken away
which was merely external, which was merely positive. Set free
from its outward form, the legal becomes the moral,— the law is
received back into the self-consciousness of the spirit, and the law
of Christ is the moral consciousness in its essential oneness with
the Christian consciousness. Thus what on the one side is freedom,
is on the other side subordination. The Christian is called to free-
dom as being free from the law, but it is not a freedom in which
the flesh, his sensual nature with its sensual impulses, may have
its play with less constraint ; his freedom is Sovkeveiv d\\rjkoi<: 8c
arfdirrriy Gal. v. 13. The ideas of freedom and unfreedom (servi-
tude, constraint) pass here into each other. So long as a man is a
servant of sin he is free from righteousness {eXevdepo^; ry hucaio-
awrj, i,e. free over against righteousness, so that he is not bound by
it, will not be determined by it, Eom. vi. 20); but when he is freed
from sin, he is a bondsman to righteousness, and has now to make



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168 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part IIL

his members, which were fonnerly members of lawlessness, servants
of righteousness to holiness of life, Bom. vi. 16 sq. This also is a
condition of bondage, and bears a certain analogy with the condi-
tion of the man under the law and sin, so that it also may be re-
garded as a SovXeveiv and SovXwdfjpac ; but where faith is, that is,
the faith that works by love, there is also the spirit, and they who
will be led by the spirit do not stand under the law, because they
walk in the spirit, nor do they fulfil the lusts of the flesh ; as those
who belong to Christ, they have crucified the flesh with its affec-
tions and lusts, GaL v. 16, 18, 24. Thus the spirit, the principle
of the Christian consciousness, which is the highest stage of justifi-
cation, is also the principle in which the adequate relation in which
justification places man towards God, is practically realized. The
spirit presupposes faith as the subjective form in which man takes
up the spirit into himself. Through the spirit, that which he is as
a justified person in his relation to God, in his consciousness of
sonship of God, is practically operative. It brings in a life which,
in its relation to God, approves itself a holy one, and such that man
is a temple of God through the spirit dwelling in him, 1 Cor. iii. 16.
In its reference to men, this life approves itself as one which brings
forth out of itself the fruits of faith, which consist in love. In both
these references, it is a life in which we live not to ourselves, but
to Christ who lives in us.^

^ The same subject is dealt with by the author, Neutest. TheoL 174 sq. He
there enters more speciaUy into the question how Paul's demand for good works
consists with his propositions as to the impossibility of justification by works of
the law. To this he answers, p. 180 aq. (in agreement with my views, Theol.
Jahrb. ziii. 303 aqq*), that the reason why Paul never thinks of any inconsist-
ency here is, — that his doctrine of justification refers entirely to the relation of
Christianity to Judaism ; that to be a Christian and to be justified are one and
the same thing to him (so that the question could never arise in his mind whether
the good works which have their origin in Christian faith contribute anything to
justification). At the same time, he remarks that the antithesis of faith and
works is only one of abstract thought and of general principle ; that in reality
the two are not thus independent of each other, so that the one might be present
and the other entirely absent ; and that thus the opposition of justification by
faith and justification by works is reconciled and brought to rest in the simple
moral truth of such passages as Rom. ii 6, 1 Cor. iii. 13 sq,, ix. 17, 2 Cor. v. 10,
ix. 6, GaL vL 7 sq.-^SdUor^B Note,



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rOUETH CHAPTER

CHKIST AS THE PRINCIPLE OF THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITT
WHICH HE FOUNDED.

The doctrine of justification by faith was entirely within the
sphere of the individual consciousness. It is only the relation of
the individual to Christ that is there in question. Faith in Christ
is first of all a personal thing ; the most prominent fact of the
believer^s consciousness is what Christ is for him, in this definite
relation to him. But he cannot be conscious of this relation in
which Christ stands to him without being aware, at the same time«
that what is true of him is true of all the others for whom Christ
died, as he died for him, since he, as the one, died for all, 2 Cor. v.
14. The Christian consciousness which is awakened and inspired
by faith in Christ is necessarily also the consciousness of a com*
munion of believers, whose unity consists simply in this, that
Christ is the principle of their fellowship. In order to denote the
organic unity with each other of those who stand within this
communion, the apostle compares them with the organism of the
human body,. Bom. xii. 4. ''As we have many members in one
body, but all the members have not the same office ; so we, being
many, are one body in Christ, and as for each individual regarded
•separately, we are related to each other as members." The apostle
reminds his readers of this, inorder to exhort them to unity and
unanimity. As the body has different members, so in the Christian
community there are different gifts of grace, according to the grace
that is given to every man. There is prophecy according to the
proportion of faith, there is ministry, doctrine, exhortation, etc.
All these gifts then ought to work together for the common good



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170 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part III.

of those who are combined in the one fellowship, Christ being
looked up to by aU as the principle of this communion, it being
always remembered that we €v aS>fid la-fiev ev Xpurr^. But not
only are we one body in Christ, as the apostle says, that is, as
Christians, in so far as we are one with Christ in faith ; we ourselves
also are, as he says, 1 Cor. xii. 27, a-&fia Xpurrov xal fiekrf he
fiepovq. This is generally taken as if the apostle called the
Christian community, the eKKkrfa-ia, of whose different offices and
gifts he is speaking in the passage, itself the body of Christ. But
it must not be overlooked that the phrase is only a&fia Xp.y not
TO a&fia Xp. Now a&fia Xp. (gen. obj.) is only a body which has
the objective reason of its existence in Christ ; it is only in view of
its relation to Christ that it is called a body, that is, it is a body
(as the apostle expresses it in the first passage) inasmuch as we o^
aSyfid ia-fiev eu Xpurr^. This designation of the Christian fellow-
ship as a a&fia Xp., not the a&fia^Xp., seems intended to bring
out the merely figurative intent of the term; and the apostle
explains his meaning more fully, verse 12 : "As the body is one (a
unity equal to itself) and has many members, but all the members
of the body, though they be many, are one body, so it is with
Christ." Here it might appear very natural to understand 6 Xpurrof;
as standing simply for the Christian church; yet the apostle's
meaning in this case also is probably that as there is a natural
body, so also there is, in a figurative spiritual sense, a body, the
whole significance of which — the proper conception of the essence of
which — is in Christ; a a&fm Xpurrov. And as every natural body
is both one and complex, and consists of many members which are
different from each other, and yet bound together to the unity of a
whole, so also with the Christian community as a spiritual body*
The principle of imity of this spiritual body is originally Christ,
but Christ operates here through the spirit. Thus in the spirit aU
who became Christians are one body,however they may differ in their
natural extraction and in other particulars. For we are all, says
the apostle, verse 13, baptized in one spirit to one body (so that as
baptized persons we form one and the same society), and have been



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Chap. IV.] CHBI8T THE PRINCIPLE OF CERISTIANITY. 171

all made to drink of One Spirit.^ Since, then (we must supply
this thought after verse 13), all who have been baptized form in this
way one body in the fellowship of the same spirit, this unity can-
not be formed by any one man for himself, but only by all together ;
or, this unity can only be brought about by the difference of the
many from each other, and must be such a unity as will allow
each man to have his rights and free development (in the transi-
tion from ver. 13 to 14 the apostle brings the idea irdvres into pro-
minence, that all are to be taken together, that it is to be kept in
view that in their unity they are also ' a plurality of subjects
existing beside each other). For the natural body also does not
consist of one member, but of many ; and thus no single member
must assume such importance for its own individuality, as to seek
to exist only for itseK and not as a member of the body. Thus no
member can tear itself from its connexion with the body and with
all the other members, as if to be only for itself, and itself to com-
pose the whole body ; for the organism is that of a human body,
a unity in plurality, and a plurality in unity, and can only subsist
in all together. In this sense, then, does the apostle regard the
Christian fellowship as one body ; it is a totality, the constituent
members of which form a unity by their reference to Christ ; and
it is an organic unity in which no one excludes the other, but
every one receives the complement of all the others to make up
the unity of the whole. The conception of this fellowship includes
those two momenta, that of unity and that of variety; and the
principle which enables these two to exist together is the spirit.
The spirit resolves the variety into unity, and introduces variety
into the unity, and reconciles unity to itself through variety.
The Christian community is a thing that is only becoming, and
that it may be realized, it is necessary that every difference which

^ There can be no doubt that the only admissible reading is koI irdpreg tv
irv€VfM tiroTia-Brifitv, and if this be so, then ivoria-d* can only refer to baptism.
Our reception into the Christian church by baptism at the first planting of our
Christian life was effected through the same spirit, and through the same spirit
was that principle communicated to us in baptism, which is to serve for the con-
tinual nourishment and furtherance of our Christian Ufe.



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172 LIFE AND WOEK OF PAUL. [Part III.

originates elsewhere, every natural difference by which men are
divided in their national, their political, or any other relations,
should be done away. This is brought about, as the apostle says,
by all being baptized in one spirit to one body. But the spirit
which makes all differences disappear in unity makes them dis-
appear only that they may proceed again out of itseK; and
that having taken them up into itself, and purified and
spiritualized them in its own essence, it may send them forth
as forms of its own nature. The very idea of its nature impels
it to destroy itself, to disintegrate and divide itself into its
elements, to cause the conception of its. essence to separate into its
essential momenta ; for here there is not only a unity, but in the
unity also a diversity, without which there is no living organic
unity, no vital development This is what the apostle says very
significantly in the words : Siaipea-ei^ j(apia'fidroiv elai, ro Be
aino TTvevfia, 1 Cor. xii. 4. The one spirit individualizes itself
in the various charisms which make one man to differ from another.
As Christianity itself is %c^<9, and the spirit is the principle
through which what Christianity is essentially, objectively, becomes
a living reality in the subjective apprehension of the individual, so
the charisms are the various operations and appearances which
Christianity assumes, according to the nature of the different in-
dividualities in which it finds expression. Thus, while the spirit
individualizes itself in the several charisms, it can do so only in
accordance with the different individualities in which these
charisms are deposited, and which become Christian personalities
only through the agency of the spirit. The natural, then, is given
to Christianity; it has only to penetrate and inspire it with its
own spirit. The charisms are originally nothing but the gifts and
qualities which each man brings with him to Christianity ; and
these gifts and qualities are exalted into charisms because the Chris-
tian consciousness and life are found on them, and reared on the
materials which they bring, and moulded by the operation of the spirit
into their different individual forms. What the hiaipiaeui j(apuTiidr(Dv
are in relation to the spirit as their principle, the Siaip^a-et^ Sioko-



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Chap. IV.] CHRIST THE FBINCIFLE OF CHRISTIANITY. 173

vMi>v are in relation to the Lord, since they have no object save to
be nsed, through the services which every one can yield with his
charisms, for the welfare of the fellowship of the Lord, and to be
means towards the realizing of the common good. Thus the
hiOKovlai, are only another phase of the jfapur^ra, and are related
to them simply as the outward to the inward. The Buiipeaeif; ev
epyrifuiTCDv are essentially the same, only regarded from another
point of view. Here these same operations are referred to the
causality of God, which works all in all, as the first cause. They
are also phenomena in which (as was the ca^e with some of them)
a peculiar divine influence is manifest. The spirit manifests itself
in each of them after its individual character for the general good.
The special charisms which the apostle mentions as wrought
by the same spirit are the Tioyo^ ao^iw;, the gift of delivering a
lecture or discourse of special instructiveness in point of form and
contents ; the X0709 yvmaeo^, a discourse in which the deeper
spiritual sense of Scripture is unfolded, chiefly by means of
allegorical interpretation,^ wioTi^, the fidth in divine providence,
which exhibits its special strength in extraordinary circumstances
and emergencies. Then the jaapurfiaTa lafidrmv, the gift of utter-
ing a prayer full of faith in cases of severe illness, and that with
such peculiar power and intensity as to elevate and soothe both
the sick persons and others who are present. In this prayer the
sick persons were commended to the divine succour, and their
recovery was promised, if according to God's will, with more or
less assurance ; and thus the IdfiaTa to which this charism re-
ferred were not a consequence which followed in every case, but
rather what was aimed at — ^what was made the object of faithful
prayer. Then the evepyrifAara Swdfiecnf, the gift of coming
forward and working in special cases with remarkable energy, in
the interests, and for the cause of Christianity, of exercising ex-
traordinary vigour of spirit and power of action ; to work Svpdfiet^,
wonders, in this wide sense: the Trpoifyrjrela, the BiaKpio-ei^
irvevfiaTtov, the gift of distinguishing whether those who declared
^ Tv&a-is sometimes stands specially for allegory. Gf. die Ghr. Gnosis, p. 85 $q^



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174 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part IIL

themselves prophets really were so, whether the Spirit of God
really spoke through them, the tyevri ykaxro'&v, and the epfirfveca
y\a>(ra&v} All this is worked by oae and the same spirit, who
. divides and distributes himself to each man specially as he will.
All these charisms are free gifts and operations of the divine
spirit, which manifests itself in them in its divers forms, and as it
were disintegrates itself into the momenta of its own conception.
All of them are simply the manifestation of that spiritual life
which proceeds from the spirit as the principle of the Christian
communion, to display and diffuse itself in that communion as
the whole fulness and manifoldness of its a-Afui Xpurrov. And as
it is the same divine spirit which produces all these operations, so
it is the same which, as the spirit identical with itself, operates
through all the periods of the Christian Church, in the same
fundamental types of the Christian life. These types are, indeed,
subject to modification, with the diversities of diflferent ages and
individuals, yet they are always present in the -deep tendencies
which are perpetually recurring and exhibiting the same variations
and contrasts. The whole history of the development of the
Christian Church is only the unfolding of the divine spirit, and
shows how it more and more individualizes itself and distributes
itself into all its variations. As it can become manifest only
because there are Scaipea-ec^ j(apurfiaTa>v, as it Siaipel itself in them,
sa the variety which this fact implies must work itself out in an
ever-widening circumference. The greater the fulness of the
spiritual life which it includes within itself as the principle of the
Christian body, the greater must be, not only the manifoldness,
but also the divergency of the forms in which the idea of the
Christian Church moves towards its realization. In this way
everything which the one spirit that works in the Church



Online LibraryFerdinand Christian BaurPaul, the apostle of Jesus Christ: his life and work, his epistles ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 17 of 35)