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Ferdinand Christian Baur.

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contains within itself must be brought forth and made to
appear. Only this must be observed, that however great the
variation and the contrast of the forms may be in which the

^ Of. with reference to these latter charisms the essay mentioned, voL i.
p. 15.



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Chap. IV.] CHRIST THE PRINCIPLE OF CHRISTIANITY. 175

Christian life is developed, the bond is nevertheless not severed
which connects them with each other, and with the spirit,
and makes them one ; the spirit goes forth out of itself, only to
return into itself, and to take back into itself the phenomena in
which it has become external and objective to itself. It is this
other side (essentially connected with that first one) on which
the spiritual process in which the Christian life is developed comes
back to itself again in the unity of its own inward motion, and
becomes the process of the spirit mediating itself with itself, that
the apostle has in view, when he insists again and again upon the
point, that the principle of all those various charisms is that same
spirit, identical with itself ; when he insists so strongly that the
one purpose of them all is to serve as means to further the common
purpose of the Christian fellowship ; and when in this connexion
he speaks of love as the element in which all diversity and con-
trast, all particular and subjective interests must subside, and be
subordinate to the unity of the idea. Thus what he says of the
nature of love (1 Cor. xiii) has an intimate connexion with his
doctrine of the charisms and of the Christian community. In that
love which inspires all her members, the church ought to realize
the idea of her own unity ; in that love she should seek to return
from all her differences to her unity. To this unity from which
she comes forth, and to which she returns again when she is
perfected, she is to be built up on the foundation which is laid
once for all, which is no other than Jesus Christ. Everything
that contributes to the furtherance of the Christian life is termed
very fittingly, in the Pauline language, a building up; in this
building up, the common work is to be advanced towards its end
by every one doing his part in his own sphere, under the con-
tinual operation of the Holy Spirit. Thus the Christian Church
is, as a whole, what each individual ought to be for himself, a
temple of Gk)d, in which the Spirit of God dwells ; as the temple
of Grod is holy, so Christians should be holy, for they are a temple
of God (1 Cor. iii 16 sq.) The notion JvolineBs comprehends here
everything that the Christian communion has to be in its most



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176 LIFE AND fVOEK OF PAUL. [Part III.

general character, as the kingdom of God founded by Christ, and
working out its accomplishment in Christ The spirit which
dwells and governs in the Christian communion, both in the
whole and in every individual, is named the Holy Spirit — ^this is
his specific predicate ; and the object of his activity can be no-
thing else than the holiness of the Christian Church, to be realized
in the progressive sanctification of all her members. Christ him-
self is eminently the a^u>9, who has himself the irvevfui arfiaxrvvr}^ ;
and Christians are not merely Kkrrroly persons called to the
Messianic blessedness through the free grace of Ood in Christ,
KkrjToi 'Irf(rov Xpurrov, but also a/yioi ; as teXffroi, they are also
ayu}i, K\7)Tot arfiot, or tffiaafiivoi ev Xpurr^^Iffaov (1 Cor.i 2), i,e.
those who have in Christ the principle of their being made holy,
who are themselves holy persons in their union with him, the
Holy One. The fundamental and ever-recurring thought of the
apostle is, that only in union with Christ can the Christian be
what he is and ought to be as a Chnstian, that in him alone has
he the essential principle of his being and his living, or is he
himself a Christ, a Christian, as the German language expresses so
significantly in the Christian nama^ The name j^pumapol, used
only by the adversaries of Christianity, expresses nothing but the
external side of this relation ; the expression eiriKaXovfievoi ro
ovofia Tov Kvpiov ri^&v ^Iffaov Xpurrov (1 Cor. i 2), turns from the
outward to the inward side of the relation; but the ovre^ ev
XpuTT^, 1 Cor. i. 30; 2 Cor. v. 17, expresses its most intimate
principle. In the opt€<; ev XpurrA, Christ is the immanent, sub-
stantial principle of their being and life; in them, as a o-£/ui
Xpurrov, he is himself to be beheld in his identity with them ;
what is true of them is true of him. Whatever interferes with or
destroys the unity of the Christian communion ; whatever, instead
of drawing its members closer together in the unity of the spirit,
divides them, or rends them asunder, is not merely a severance of
the bond which connects the individual with Christ — ^it is a
division and dismetnberment of Christ himself (jiepJpurrai 6
1 The German word for OhrbtiAn is der Christ, the Christ.



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Chap. IV.] CHBI8T THE PBINCIPLE OF CHRISTIANITY. 177

XpuTTo<; ; 1 Cor. l 13). As the etvai iv Xpiar^ is, in its original
conception, true of the indi^ddual as well as of the whole, it is a
merely figurative way of stating the relation of the church to
Christ, to compare it with the marriage-bond. The apostle says
of himself (as founder of the Corinthian Church) (2 Cor. xi. 2) that
he had espoused her to one man, in order to present her as a chaste
virgin to Christ. The church is therefore united as a bride with
Christ her bridegroom. The comparison, however, is merely
figurative, and used for the purpose of exhortation. It is devoid
of the dogmatic intention with which the idea is accompanied in
Eph. V. 23 sq}

Entrance to the Christian Church, admission to it in order to
incorporation in it as a a&fia Xptarov, takes place by means of
baptism, for all who are baptized into Christ put on Christ, Gal.
iii 27. They are baptized into Christ, because baptism is in His
name, and thus accompanied with believing acknowledgment of
all that that name implies. One cannot, therefore, be baptized into
Christ without believing in him, and becoming one with him,
so far as faith makes the believer one with him. This relation
to Christ which is brought about by baptism is called putting
on Christ, an expression which represents the relation, not as an
outward, but as an essentially inward one. He who puts on a
garment goes altogether inside it, and identifies himself with it,
and since all who are baptized into Christ become one with him in
the very same way, there is an end in this identity of everything

^ A comparison of the Epistle to the Ephesians shows distinctly throughout,
how, at the standpoint which it occupies, the ideality of the Pauline conception
of the Christian church has passed over into the material conception of the
Catholic church. What is with Paul quite ideally a-S>fjLa Xpurrov is here quite
definitely r6 a-^fia rov Xpiarov, Eph. !▼. 12 ; there is one Lord, one faith, one
baptism, iv. 4. A unity of faith in this objective sense, as the faith of the church,
is not known to our apostle ; he merely says, irdvrts els care iv Xpiar^ 'Ii/o-ov,
Gal. iii. 28. Nor is Christ called ic6(^aX^ in the earlier Epistles, because the con-
ception of the a-Sifia has not yet reached, as a whole, this concrete and material
development. The whole machinery of the organism of the church may be clearly
recognised in the expressions of the Epistle to the Ephesians, iv. 12, 16. Cf.
Misc. zum Eph. Brief, Theol. Jahrb. 1844, p. 385 (Schwegler, Nachap. Zeit. ii.
381 sq.).

M '



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'—-*./



178 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part IIL

in the outward circumstances of life that divides or distinguishes
them from each other. In this new relation which is entered
externally by baptism, internally by faith, there is neither Jew
nor Gentile, neither bond nor free, neither male nor female, all are
one in Christ Jesus. In this unity with Christ they are all one
among one another, every man is simply a Christian, as all the
others are, Gal. iii 28, cf. 1 Cor. xii. 13. In order to be one with
Christ, it is also necessary to partake in everything that is insepar-
able from his person. He who is one with him lives in him and
with him ; but in order to live with Christ, one must also have
died with him as he himself died. Therefore baptism, as baptism
into Christ, is itself a baptism into his death, and in its form as an
immersion, baptism represented this fellowship in, Christ's death
as symbolically a fellowship in his burial It was very graphically
represented in the rite, how one had to descend with Christ into
death, and the grave, and the under-world, in order to rise with him
again to a new life, Bom. vi. 3 $q. Being a baptism into the death
of Jesus, it is, of course, a baptism for the forgiveness of sins, or,
figuratively speaking, a washing away of sins. But this negative
includes in itself all that is positive. When the apostle says of
Christians, 1 Cor. vi. 11, that they are washed, that they are
sanctified, that they are justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus,
and in the Spirit of God, this is nothing but a general description
of the Christian character as imparted to the Christian even in his
baptism. The operative principle by which one is incorporated at
baptism into the Christian fellowship is the spirit; the spirit
communicates itself in the rite as the principle of Christian con-
sciousness, 1 Cor. xii. 13.

Along with baptism, the apostle speaks of the Lord's Supper
(not perhaps at 1 Cor. xii 13, where, according to the correct
reading and interpretation, there is nothing said of the Lord's
Supper ; yet) at 1 Cor. x. 1, where he says of the Israelites, that
"they were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
and all ate the same spiritual food; and all drank the same
spiritual drink." This is aU said with typical reference to



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Chap. IV.] CHBI8T THE PRINCIPLE OF CHBISTIANITT. 179

baptism and the Lord's Supper, as the two essential elements of
the religious life of the Christian community. The apostle here
goes back to the analogies which the Jewish religion presents to
Christian baptism and the Christian supper, in order to get a
foundation for his argument about participating in the Gentile
sacrificial feasts ; he impresses the thought upon his readers, that
the higher the stage one has reached in the religious life, the more
need is there for caution lest one fall : that all the privileges and
blessings by which a religion is distinguished can give iio security
against the penalties which God inflicts on those who violate the
religious communion that is sacred to him, or who fall away from
the one true religion to heathenism and idolatry. Baptism and
the Lord's Supper are thus equally essential elements of the
Christian communion, and both equally contain in themselves
that which constitutes its peculiar character and superiority.- If
it be through baptism that a man is incorporated in the Christian
fellowship, the Lord's Supper, on the other hand^ must be a means
for the furtherance of the religious life in this fellowship, and as
baptism not only unites all who are baptized into one body, but
makes them a body of Christ, translates them, as it were, into the
communion of one and the same vital organism with Christ, so, in
the Lord's Supper, the reference to Christ must be the same, and
of equal scope. The apostle regards it from this point of view
when he asks, 1 Cor. x. 16, if the cup of blessing which we bless
be not a fellowship with the blood of Christ ? and the bread which
we break a fellowship with the body of Christ ? Since it is one
loaf, the many are one body, for they all partake in the one bread.
It can scarcely be thought accidental that in this connexion,
where ^he is speaking of the body of Christ, he caUs the Christian
fellowship a body, and that because in it many are bound together
into a unity. The leading thought on which the apostle is here
insisting is, that by partaking of the cup and the bread, many are
brought into one and the same common relation to Christ, and
partake of Christ in the same way. And here the idea was
probably before his mind, that the reason why Christ called the



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180 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part III.

bread with which he instituted the Lord's Supper his body, was
that this action makes the Christian fellowship a a-^iia Xpurrov,
Bince many take part in that same relation to him which his death
has brought about. What the apostle, however, considered the
chief object of the institution of the Lord's Supper was, as he
explains in the second passage which the same Epistle contains
on the subject, xi. 23 sq., that it was to be an action for the con-
tinuous remembering of Jesus, and especially of his death, in
which he gave himself for men, and brought them into a new
relation towards God. The cup is the new covenant, or contains
a representation of the new covenant as founded on the blood of
Christ, — on the death of Christ on the cross. As often, then, as
one eats of the bread and drinks of the cup, one is to show forth
the death of the Lord tiU he come ; what the partakers have before
them, as the body and the blood of Christ, is to take the place of
Christ himself, and to be to them instead of his own personal
presence. The peculiar action of the rite is to be one connecting
the past, in which he was personally present, with the future, in
which he is to come again in person, and that by the most graphic
and living commemoration. And this commemoration, having to
serve such a purpose, could fasten only on that crisis in the life of
Christ, in which he was on the point of completing, by the sacrifice
of himself, that which was the essential basis of the new religion
he was founding. Thus the peculiar idea of the Lord's Supper is,
that in the elements the partakers have him, as it were, before
them, as one who died for them; and in the elements become
conscious of his bloody death on the cross, and thus regard them
as the symbols of his body and blood* And so there can be no
greater offence in reference to the Lord's Supper than to partake
of the bread and wine without being distinctly conscious that they
are the body and blood of Christ. By doing this, the partaker
becomes guilty of a sin against the body and blood of Christ,
because, not keeping in his mind the great difference that obtains
between this eating and drinking, which are so full of meaning,
and every other, he fails thereby to realize the object for which the



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Chap. IV.] CHBIST THE FBINCIFLE OF CHBIISTIANITY. 181

Lord's Supper was instituted — the ever-recurring proclamation of
the death of Christ, and the continuous representation of his
personal presence. Taking all this together, we see that the chief
significance of the Lord's Supper consists, with the apostle, in the
historical commemoration of Christ as the founder of Christianity.
As he himself received what referred to it in the way of historical
tradition, 1 Cor. xi. 23, so the Lord's Supper is itself to be a chief
means of keeping alive the historical memory of Christ as the
founder of Christianity. As a historical religion, Christianity
depends on, and is boimd up in, the person of its founder, and to
keep up the historical connexion with him, constantly and livingly,
is thus an essential condition of the continued existence of the
Christian communion. The more nearly and the more immedi-
ately, then, the Lord's Supper connects the members of the
Christian fellowship with Christ, the more does it become itself
the actual centre of that fellowship, and that which constitutes its
characteristic difference from all other religious fellowships. The
central point of a religion must be just where its professors become
most immediately conscious of that which is the essential contents
of every religion, — atonement with God. According to the apostle's
own comparison of Christianity with Judaism and heathenism in
this respect, 1 Cor. x. 18, this central point is, in the Jewish
religion, the sacrificial altar of the one temple; in the heathen
religion, the sacrificial ctUtvs generally ; in the Christian religion,
the Lord's Supper. The Lord's Supper is the showing forth of the
death of Jesus, and thus of the atonement effected through him.
One can appropriate this atonement only by historically re-
membering the fact of the death of Jesus on the cross. Thus the
Lord's Supper, as the central point of the Christian religion, cannot
be dissociated from this historical commemoration, and he who
fails to hold the feast in living consciousness of what it means
must thereby be removed more or less from the centre of the Chris-
tian religion. It is only in the living reference to Christ and to his
atoning death, as brought home to the consciousness in the Lord's
Supper, that the Christian community becomes a (r&fui Xptarov,



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FIFTH CHAPTER

THE RELATION OF CHRISTIANITY TO JUDAISM AND HEATHENISM.

The deep inward foundation on which the apostle's doctrine of
justification rests is the moral consciousness of man : it is in the
moral consciousness of man, as he is while yet standing under the
law, that the law works out the proof of its own inability to save
him. In this sphere law and faith stand over against each other
in the relation of division and atonement. Now this contrast, which
is found deepest and most intense in the individual human con-
sciousness, presents itself also as a great historical contrast in the
relation of Judaism and Christianity. It was through a breach
with Judaism that the apostle's Christian consciousness first took
shape, and thus it came about that he regarded Christianity in the
main as the opposite of Judaism.' His deep conviction that Chris-
tianity was a new ButB-qxr), and. that it contained a totally new
principle of the religious life, rendered it inevitable that he should
define the relation of the two BtafffJKat to each other as a relation
of contrast In describing this contrast, he exhibits profound and
comprehensive ideas of the historical development of religion.

The apostle sums up the chief result of the ante-Christian history
of religion in the proposition, Rom. iii. 9, that Jews and Gentiles
are both equally under sin, i.e. that it cannot be said of any one in
the Jewish or heathen world that he was a truly justified person,
because no one is without sin, and without faith there can be no
forgiveness of sins. The apostle's discussion in the three first
chapters of the Epistle to the Eomans amounts to an empirical proof
of the proposition with which his doctrine of justification had al-
ready furnished him, that no man can be righteous without faith.



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Chap. V.] RELATION OF CHRISTIANITY TO JUDAISM. 183

If there be no righteousness without faith, the whole pre-Christian
period must attest the fact by its predominant and continual sin-
fulness. .While, however, the apostle takes sinfulness to be the
general character of the whole pre-Christian period, he refers it at
the same time to a general principle. In that period sin reigns
alone ; there was as yet no opposing principle to break the power
of sin. Sin itself is the ruling principle of that period, and the
ante-Christian and the Christian time, or Adam and Christ, are re-
lated to each other as sin and grace, as death and life, or as law
and faith. The apostle deals with this great contrast in the passage
Bom. V. 12 sqq. After contrasting the want of B^xaiovaOcu €|
€f}ya)v vofiov in the ante-Christian time with the hiKaMwrOav he
irlareSff; as the new principle of religious life which has appeared
in Christ, he rises to the general standpoint we have indicated,
from which the ante-Christian and the Christian time are regarded
in their essential difference. The universality of the reign of sin
and death is proved by the simple fact that both had their beginning
in the very first man ; from him they have been diffused to all men.
Therefore — the apostle draws this conclusion from the preceding —
it is the same with Christ as with Adam ; the one is, equally with
the other, the beginning and the principle of a great world-his-
torical period. It is here, as it is there, where through one man sin
entered into the world, and death by sin, and so death passed upon
all men, for a distinct proof that all have sinned. This rendering '
of the words €^' ^ Trainee rjfiapTov, which are the key to the
whole passage, is at variance with the explanations of that phrase
which have hitherto been current, but I think it is the only admis-
sible one. Grammatically c^' ^ cannot be taken in any other sense
than " because," which is undoubtedly very common ; nor, if the
statement €<l> ^ ir. fjfi. be taken only in its connexion with the
foregoing, is there any objection to this rendering. Do not the
apostle's words yield a perfectly adequate sense, if we interpret
them thus; when once through Adam sin and death, thus intimately
connected with each other, acquired the force of a dominating prin-
ciple, death passed upon all men, because they have all sinned ?



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184 LIFE AND WOBK OF FAUL. [Part III.

Even if the apostle do regard sin and death as a general principle
which rules irrespectively of the individual, that does not by any
means preclude the supposition that the connexion between sin
and death, which was first established through Adam, is brought
home to each individual by means of his own sin* In order that
it might not appear as if the sin of the individual were the only true
cause of his death, it was sought, instead of translating e<f)' w simply
" because," to give it the meaning, " the fact being that," " under the
additional circumstance that," " in such a way as that." In this
way death would not be deduced from the sin of each individual,
but this sin of the individual would be merely mentioned as a cir-
cumstance which takes place in connexion with that death which
reigns already because of Adam's sin. But what end can it have
to give the sentence €<^' ^ tt. ^/a. a merely subordinate importance,
and how ambiguously must the apostle have expressed himself if
all he did to deny that the sin of the individual was the cause of
his death, was merely to use a particle which, in addition to its first
indisputable meaning, "because," perhaps possessed* that other
meaning; for even though €<^ ^ = e7rl tovt^, on, as well as hrl
TovT^ wore, yet " under condition that," " and under the circum-
stances that," are not entirely the same. The question that has to be
answered for a proper rendering of ver. 12 can be no other than
this ; why in the second part of the verse the apostile places death
first, and sin after it ; why he does not say, after the analogy of
what precedes, "and so all men have sinned, and death has passed
upon alL" But it is no answer to this question merely to take from
€<l> ^ the meaning of causality, and make the death as far as possible
independent of the €<^' ^ tt. rjfi. 5 what we have chiefly to attend to
is the connexion with what follows, since the apostle goes on with
ryap, ver. 13. And this is the great mistake in the way the passage
has been treated hitherto: no regard has been paid to the connexion
of ver. 12 with ver. 13, at least no satisfactory explanation of that
connexion has been given. To make the connexion clear, we have
to take the passage in this way : that, as in ver. 13, the apostle infers
the presence of sin from the feet of the dominion of death, so also.



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Chap. V.] RELATION OF CHRISTIANITY TO JUDAISM, 185

in ver. 12, he infers the universality of rjfiapTov from the univer-
sality of death, or regards the latter as a proof of the former.
Through one man sin entered into the world, and through sin death,
and so death passed upon all men, which shows that, which in-
volves the presupposition that, all have sinned. For until the law
sin was in the world ; not even this period was without sin ; but
sin is not imputed where there is no law, and it might therefore be
said that there was no sin during this period ; but the presence of
sin in this period is clearly demonstrated by the death which reigned
from Adam to Moses. The men of this period must have sinned
also, though their sins were not altogether like those of Adam, who
sinned against a positive injunction. The apostle's idea here is that



Online LibraryFerdinand Christian BaurPaul, the apostle of Jesus Christ: his life and work, his epistles ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 18 of 35)