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envy and contentiousness, some from, goodwill; some from love,
because they know that I Kelfuit for the defence of the GospeL" —
What an expression, take it as we may ! " But others preach
Christ from party-spirit, not with pure intentions, thinking to add
affliction to my bonds." What are we to conceive the difference
between these two parties to have been ? '* What then ! notwith-
standing, every way, whether from pretence or in truth, Christ is
preached." How could the apostle, who elsewhere judges his
opponents with such severity, write this, and take pleasure even
in those who preached Christ only m-poifxicrei, without goodwill or
honest intentions? If, as the interpreters remark, the doctrine
which these people preached must have been anti-Pauline and
Judaeo-Christian, since men of Pauline views would not have
sought to counteract his influence, we know from otiier quarters
what he thought of such opponents, and how he saw in them
simply perverters of sound doctrine. Why is he so indulgent
here ? Several explanations are attempted : that the church which
these adversaries disturbed was not one which he himself had
foimded, and that in his situation at the time, he must have been
impressed with the importance of the spread of the Gospel at
Eome, even in the Judaeo-Christian form ; but all this is quite
inconsistent with the apostle's character. The passages cited
could not have been written, save by an author who, considering
that j(alp€ip ought to be the key-note of the Epistle, made it so, and
made the apostle look in that spirit beyond all disturbing and
distressing influences, and who thought that the difference was quite
capable of being harmonized. Hence the x^^P^ which recurs so
often, and the intenser form yapriaoiiaL And what is the cause



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66 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part H.

of hia joy? The word towto which follows (ver. 19), fails to
suggest any definite idea on the subject And then the collocation
of the SerfiTi^ of his readers and the emypprfyla rov IIpevfiaTa^
^Irfcrov Xpurrov. Did the apostle ever call the intercession of
his fellow-Christians, and the grace of God working in him in
furtherance of his apostolic calling, an efnj(pfyrfyla rov Hvevfuvro^
^iTfaov Xpurrov, as he does here? GktL iii 6 speaks of an
eirixopvy^^v 'ro ^rrvevfUL, and the author of our Epistle doubtless
borrowed the expression from that passage ; but then the apostle
means by the eiriX' to IIv. the communication of the Spirit to
Christians generally. And how could he, who said of himself as
an apostle, Sok& Koryo} Ilvevfui Oeou exjeiv (1 Cor. vii. 40), speak of
an errixpfniyla t. U. ^Itfo-ov Xpurrov only now reaching him?
Whatever the tovto (ver. 19) may mean, the apostle knows that it
wHl fall out to his salvation, because he cherishes in general the
hope that in nothing wiU he be put to shame, but h/ ircurg irapprja-la
etc. What irapprjala means here is not apparent, but yet more
curious is the expression fjueyaX. Xp. ev t& acifiari /lov. Of course
it can only be taken in a qualitative sense, but in what cfther
passage does the apostle use such an expression about Christ?
Is it according to his ideas at all, to say that Christ is made great
through him ? or is it not rather Christ who glorifies himself
through him and in him? As the writer's use of €7rt;^op. t. IIv.
proceeded from a misinterpretation of GaL iii 6, so here his
un-Pauline sentiment seems to have been suggested to him by the
fieyaXvpO^vai of 2 Cor. x. 15. What follows (ver. 20) elre Sva ^mr}^,
etc., is a variation of the two passages, Eom. xiv. 7 and 2 Cor. v. 6.
It was certainly quite in keeping with the situation in which the
author of this Epistle conceived the apostle to be, to represent him
as refiecting on his state, how he hovered between life and death ;
yet the whole passage, w. 20-26, is nothing but a general meditation
on life and death, and is not explained by anything special in the
apostle's situation. The remaining verses of this chapter (27-30)
contain an exhortation to a Christian walk, of so general a nature
that it could have stood in any other epistle just as welL Yet



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Chap. V.] THE EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPFIAN8. 67

traces of other passages are not wanting here. It is usually said
that TjTi^ (ver. 28) refers grammatically to the following evSei^i^, but
fectually to TO fi^ irrvpecrdcu. But why should not ^49 be
referred to ttIoti^ tov evayyekiov, so that seal fur) irrvp. . . . avriic
should properly have stood after awaSkoxhne^ ? Thus the irlari^
TOV €varyy€\iov is an evBei^i^ airwXelcLq to the one side, and crorrrfpia^
to the other, and that airo 8eov just as in the passage (2 Cor. ii
15) where the apostle calls himself an &mUa Xpurrov r^ Ge^ iv
Toh <roD^ofi€voi<; kcu eu rol^ diroXKvfievoi^, etc. With regard to the
Kavxqfia (ver. 26), compare 2 Cor. i 14, 15.

It is principally the Second Epistle to the Corinthians of which
we recognise the traces here. The explanation of this is evident ;
in no other Epistle do the apostle's personal relations to his readers
appear so distinctly and directly as in that one, so that if the author
was to make the apostle write a letter of so subjective a character
as this one is, it was the Second Corinthian Epistle that he would
naturally be led to follow. I will not insist too strongly on the
fact that he points his exhortation to unity to aino ^poveiv (which
is the chief purpose of the epistle, c£ ii 1 sq) by a reference to the
person of Jesus, just as Paul enforces his exhortation to benevol-
ence, 2 Cor. viii 9. But the passage ii 19-30, it seems to me, must
have been written under the influence of that chapter in the
Corinthian Epistle. And irrespectively of this there are several
curious features in that section. The apostle here expresses the
hope that he will soon be able to send Timothy to the Philippians,
that he also may be of good comfort by learning their state. Why
should he be longing so much for news, if Epaphroditus had
brought him news from Philippi a short time before ? And can
we think that he would have parted with Timothy for this object ;
the man of whom he says in this same passage, that he has no one
on whose friendship and sympathy and straight-forwardness in
the work of the Gospel he can so fuUy rely ? It seems scarcely
probable that he would have sent away a companion whose
services he so much required in the position he was in, merely to
take despatches to PhiUppi, which Epaphroditus, who was sent off



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68 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part II.

at the same time, could have taken equally well, or to bring news
from Philippi, a task which there was no reason why he of all
men should undertake. How harshly does the apostle judge his
fellow-labourers and friends, whom this matter leads him to refer
to ! It is by no means enough to soften down the sentence by
saying that Luke for one was no longer present at Eome at the
time. Verse 21 is so general that we cannot help including Luke
and Titus in the scope of it. Only a writer who projects the
situations of his Epistle out of his own fancy could be led into
such exaggerations. Now let us compare with this section the
passage 2 Cor. viii 17-24. As in our Epistle Timothy and Epa-
phroditus, so there Titus and another, are despatched on an errand
of great importance, and here as there the messengers are recom-
mended in the most honourable terms. In 2 Cor. viii. 23, the
deputies are termed amo<rro'Xjoi exKKrjai&v, and Phil, ii 23 Epa-
phroditus is not called awepyo^ as Titus is in that passage, but with
regard to the Philippians their airoaroXxy;. The same word is
used in both Epistles of the apostle's willingness in respect to this
journey, with the difference that, at PhiL ii 28, the (nrovSaidrepo^
is the apostle who sends, and at 2 Cor. viii. 17 it is Titus, and
ver. 22 the other dSeX^o^, the persons sent. Both passages con-
clude with a special exhortation to give the deputies a worthy
reception. The expression, Phil. ii. 29, irpoaiex^trOe ovv avrov ev
Kvplfp fiera ttoWtj^: xa/>a9, icac tow tolovtov^ evrifuo^ ^ere,
represents exactly the apostle's sentiment, 2 Cor. viii. 23, 24. It is,
of course, obvious, that the two passages differ in many points ; the
reasons alleged for the mission are different, for one thing. The
author, that is to say, was not a mere copyist, only an imitator.
But can it be regarded as a mere chance, that the two Epistles
agree in the several common features we have noticed ? And do
we not find here, an explanation of the mission of Titus, which
would otherwise appear so unaccounted for ? The writer of the
Epistle wished to represent the apostle as giving the Philippians
a peculiar proof of the love he bore them. He describes that as
happening now, which had happened before in similar circum-



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Chap. V.] THE EPISTLE TO THE FHILIPPIANS. 69

stances. As Titus on that occasion, so here Timothy is sent with
another brother ; this other brother is very naturally Epaphroditus,
and the author gives them their recommendation in the highest
possible terms.

It may be urged that if analogies and resemblances like this are
to prove anything, the theory that is based upon them ought to be
shown to be capable of further demonstration. But this is actually
the case here. At iii 1 we come to the passage, which, as I have
already shown (p. 54 sq.), is imitated from 2 Cor. xi 13 sq. The
two apologetes cannot of course allow that this is so ; they clearly
represent to us (Ltinemann even by printing the texts side by
side) how different the terms of the two passages are ; and show,
with all due emphasis, how natural it is that the apostle should
speak more than once of such advantages, which there is no doubt
that he did possess, and how appropriately he does so here. How
could I, they say, overlook, in speaking of the apostle's circum-
cision on the eighth day, that this was just the difference between
the bom Jew and the Proselyte ; and a descent from the tribe of
Benjamin, the tribe which remained true to the house of David at
the division of the kingdom, was by no means a worthless distinc-
tion. And if the passage 2 Cor. xi 13 a^. be alleged to have been
made use of here, why not also Gal i 13 sq., vi 12, Kom. xi. 1 ?
Objections of this kind are not easy to answer, yet they cannot
destroy the impression which the passage makes on me, and I have
further to remark that this is not a mere question of words and
expressions which may be found here or there, but of the whole
character of the passage under consideration, and of a phenomenon
which is not isolated, but connected with many points equally
remarkabla And a passage like iii 1 sq. surely suggests pretty
clearly that if an Epistle such as this should not be reckoned
among the products of the apostle's own genius, he would be no
great loser. What have the two apologetes done to justify this
passage against the charge that the spirit of the apostle is con-
spicuously absent from it ? They cannot even clear the writer of the
Epistle of his own confession of constant repetition ; they go so far



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70 ' LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part IL

as to say that the apostle wrote seveTal other letters of this kind
to the Philippians ; that the ypd(l>€iv (iii 1) shows him to have been
in constant correspondence with them. (How this would agree
with ii 19, we scarcely need to remark.) The ra airra ypcujieiv
refers to nothing but the p^o/pere eu Kvpl^, that is, to the contents
of the Epistle generally, for the key-note and the leading thought of
it are expressed in this constantly recurring jfolpere. De Wette
thinks it decisive against the reference to j((up€r€, that da<f>a\ei
could only refer to some danger such as is spoken of in the sequel,
and in the case of another writer this consideration would have
some weight. In our Epistle, however, there are so many awkward
and illogical connexions that it is not so pertinent. The objection
from the 'dogs' (iii 2) is not removed by mentioning passages in
Homer where this predicate is given even to goddesses (Lline-
mann, p. 27). The apostle calls his opponents ' ministers of Satan '
(2 Cor. xi. 15), but there we know the reason for his doing so. Here,
however, we can discern no object, no train of thought leading up
to this climax. The only thread of connexion here is the
author's reminiscence of 2 Cor. xi 12. Here, as there, the apostle
speaks of himself in contrast to his opponents. What he says of
himself there may be expressed in the general statement that he
desires to know of nothing but what he is in his relation to Christ,
and that he will let his grace be sufficient for him. His imitator
here makes him express the same idea in the words that he counts
all things but loss, damage to his true welfare, because of the sur-
passing excellence of the knowledge of Jesus Christ his Lord, for
whose sake he had suffered loss of everything that he had counted
or might yet count precious. What follows ver. 9 looks like an
attempt to give as general as possible an abstract of the teaching
of the Pauline Epistles ; as if the apostle were to make a confession
of his faith, since he is speaking of personal subjects already, he is
made to expound and define with all due accuracy the chief pro-
position of the Pauline system, the doctrine of justification by
faith. Where else does the apostle speak of the righteousness that
is by faith with this purely subjective and personal reference to



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Chap, V.] THE EPISTLE TO THE PHILIFPIANS. 71

himself? where else does he make the resurrection, the sufferings,
the death of Christ, the subject of an abstract theoretical contem-
plation, as here, that he may know rrfv Suvafuv rrj^ dpctcrrdaecD^,
etc.? How differently does he speak of all this, 2 Cor. iv. li sq.
V. 14-21, xiii. 3, 4, GaL ii 19, sg. etc What is the import of the
Bvvofu^ Tfj^ dvcurrda-ew^ airrov, ver. 10? How loosely are all these
ideas connected with each other! When the apostle comes in
other passages to speak of these, the great elements of his religious
consciousness, he develops them in the fallest and most pregnant
connexion with each other, and places them in such lights that we
look at once into the whol^ profundity, and the whole inner
necessity of the divine economy of salvation. And when he
speaks of his own experience, he gives us a very different, and a
much more life-like picture of his inner Ufa

Then the dubious eiirc^ Karaim^croo 6^9 Tiyv e^apcurraaiv r&v
v€Kp&v, which is annexed to what precedes, and carries on the
discourse to a discussion of this doubt The apostle has been
made to recapitulate his whole life, beginning at his circumcision,
and now he goes on to the very end, to the resurrection from the
dead. But how could the apostle be in any doubt as to his own
attaining to the resurrection from the dead ? Do not all the dead
arise? He means, it is asserted, the blessed resurrection of
which the apostle speaks, 1 Cor. xv. 62, but there certainly in a
connexion which precludes the reader from thinking of any
other. But even if this be what is meant, we must ask how the
apostle could speak of the resurrection in a tone of doubt and
uncertainty, as he does here. Take all these statements in con^
nexion with each other ; the apostle wishes to win Christ, and to
be found in him with the righteousness that is by faith, in order to
know the secret of the Bwafii^ rrj^ avaarao'eoD^ avrov, and the
KoivoDvui T&v iraOT^/jLaroav avrov, while he is made conformable to
his death (this death, analogous to that of Jesus, can only be
understood of the death of martyrdom). In these ideas ranged
outwardly beside each other, it is hard to see what is the con-
nexion between the practical avfifjMpipoviT0a4^ r^ Oavartf avrov



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72 UFE AND WOBK OF PAUL. [Part IL

and the theoretical yv&vcu, and still harder to understand how he,
being avfifiop<f>ovfi€i/o^ r^ Bavar^ avrov, can ask further as if in
doubt €67ra)9 KaTavrrja-to 6*9 Trpf €^avaaTaa-cv r&v v€Kpa)v. How
differently, and with a consciousness how well assured, does the
apostle speak elsewhere of his communion with the life and death
of Christ ! Compare Bom. viiL 11: el Se to Ilvevfia rov eyelpapro^
If]aovv €K v€KpS>v oiKei ev vfuv, 6 eyetpa^ rov Xpi^arov ex vexpwv
^<oo7roc7j(r€i koc ra drnira awfiara vfi&v, Sia to evoucovv avrov
iTPevfia €v vfbcv* 2 Cor. iv. 11: del yap rfp^l^ ol ^Avre;, eh Odvarov
TrapaSiSo/JLeOa Sia Irjaovp, iva xai 17 ^corj rov Tqaov if>av€pa>0y ev
ry dvrjry aap/el fifiSw. . . . eiZores; orv 6 eyelpa^ rov Kvpiov *Ir]aovp,
ical fifia<; Sia ^Irjaov Xpcarov eyepel, k<u irapaan^aet arvp vfilv.
How can he who regards himself as one avfifiop<l>ovfi£uo^ r^
0avdT(p avTov, be in doubt even for a moment, that he has in him-
self, along with death, the living principle that shall awake him
out of death ? El yap avfi<f>VToi yer/ovafiev r^ o/ioiwfiaTi rov
OavoTov avrov, dXXa koc t^9 dva^rraaefo^ eadfieOa, Eom. vi 5. Is
it conceivable that views like these, wrought as they were into his
inmost consciousness, should ever have left him? that at that
particular time he could not speak with any such certainty of his
union with the life and death of Jesus, or of the good and happy
conscience he had so often spoken of before in looking forward to
the supreme decision ? If there be anything that our apostle can-
not possibly have written, it is that dubious etTrco? Karavrrjaa) eh
rr}v e^avdoTiia-iv rS>v vefcp&p, where his whole fellowship with Christ
is put in question. And where in the apostle's writings does the
resurrection appear, as it does here, as the last event man has to
look for, removed from all connexion with the momenta by which
it is conditioned, and relegated, it appears, to the most distant
future ? To the apostle's mind the Parousia was so near, that for
his own case his expectation was rather to be changed than to rise
again. Can we, then, resist the conviction that the apostle him-
self would not have spoken thus, and that this dubious eLir<o<: can
only have proceeded from him in the representation of another, — a
writer who, not being the apostle himself, could not make him



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Chap. V.] THE EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIAN8, 73

speak with that confidence and assurance, which a man can only
have for his own person. The double consciousness which such a
writer can never get quit of has for its natural result, that in
matters of which he is not positively certain he makes the man
under whose name he writes express himself waveringly and
undecidedly, as if either the one thing or the other might be true.
Then also, in the words rl alprjcrofiac, ov yvtopl^m (L 22), the writer
imports into the apostle's consciousness his own uncertainty as to
which course the latter would have chosen ; there can be no doubt
that the apostle himself would have known quite well which of
the two to choose. The same wavering uncertainty and want of
definite views runs on in the following verses, 11-14, where the
author makes the apostle review his own moral and religious con-
dition in self-contemplations which have, as little as the foregoing,
any resemblance to Paul's own ways of thinking. When the
apostle says that he has not yet apprehended, but that he is
already apprehended by Christ, we have here again, as i 22, two
propositions which mutually limit each other in such a way that it
is hard to see what is meant at alL It is clear that if the apostle
be laid hold on by Christ, he must lay hold of him also, but he
says that he has not yet laid hold ; what does this mean ? of what
has he not yet laid hold ? and how does the justification by faith,
spoken of in verse 9, agree with this not having yet laid hold ? Has
not he who has laid hold of Christ in faith (and we see this assur-
ance of faith expressed everywhere in the apostle's writings), re-
ceived in his faith everything on which it is necessary to lay hold
in order to be certain of his union with Christ, and of his salvation, ?
Is there such a faith with Paul, qs is not also an assurance of
faith ? It seems indeed a very plausible explanation to say that
the apostle could not yet have been assured of his moral perfec-
tion ; but let it be considered whether moral perfection, such as
would be spoken of here, be a thing which the Pauline ideas
recognise at all? Faith, with all that faith comprehends, cannot
be conditioned by moral perfection; else this moral perfection
would simply bring us back again to the old justification by works.



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74 LIFE AND WORK OF PAUL. [Part IL

This is of a piece with the whole character of the Epistle ;
it is written altogether in a very soft subdued tone ; difiPerences
are neutralized, not stated in their extremer forms. It appeared to
the author that in an Epistle to the Fhilippians the apostle might
be expected to speak much of himself ; that in speaking to so dear
a church, he would disclose his inmost heart in confidences and
confessions. So he concluded that he could not make him speak
too humbly, and meekly, and depreciatingly of himself. And in fact
the apostle does speak of himself here in such a style that his true
self is not recognisable at alL Humility is certainly a strong trait
of his character, but where, even when speaking of himself most
humbly, did he ever employ such an expression as this — ovx Srt
^ eKa^ov ? Deep as his humility is, it is lost in the preponderate
ing sense of the unspeakable grace of God, which is mighty in him,
even in his wealmess, through which alone he is what he is; through
which, however, he is already what he is to be. If he himself had
been speaking here, there could not have failed to be some reference
to this grace of God. In a passage where he looks to what still
lies before him, and describes his striving towards that goal with
the same metaphor which the author of our Epistle is using here,
verse 14, he says to his readers : ovtcd rpexere, tva KarcbKafirrre, but
of himself he says : ey© tolwv ovrto rpexfo^ ©9 ovk aS^X(d9» oura
'nvtcT€v<o, C09 oifK aipa Bepc^v, 1 Cor. ix. 24 sq. He knows nothing
here of any ovx Sri eXafiov, Sico/ieo> Se, el kcu icaroKafia. It is
simply the writer of the Epistle whose views are not sufficiently
clear to distinguish the ideas of perfection in the ethical and the
physical sense. The author has not yet quite reached the goal of
his earthly career ; martyrdom is not yet achieved but only impend*
ing, and so the writer thinks it necessary to throw doubt in this
manner on the question of his having apprehended. I need not
here comment further on the want of any clear and natural sequence
of thoughts or language in the following verses ; and the laborious
efforts of interpreters to bring something definite out of these
wavering statements, and especially out of the vague description
of the apostle's opponents : c£ p. 54.



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Chap. V.] THE BFI8TLE TO THE PHILIPPIAN8. 75

Another point which is by no means settled, is the occasion which
may have led the apostle to write such an Epistle to the church at
Philippi The present of money said at the close of the Epistle to
have been brought to the apostle by Epaphroditus, is generally
held to be a sufficient explanation* If the Epistle vindicated its
Pauline character in other respects, there could be no objection to
this ; the apostle will then have written an epistle, the first object
of which was to express his gratitude towards a church that had
given him so flattering a proof of their continued attachment.
Yet even this point does not stand out with any distinctness, nor
have my doubts been removed by the utterances of the latest
advocates of the Epistle. They insist that it is a misunderstanding
on my part to take the words of the apostle, 1 Cor. ix. 12 sq, (that
it is his principle to preach the gospel without recompence), as true
generally ; instead of referring them especially only to the case of
the Corinthian church. I will not discuss whether the words of
the apostle in that passage, especially in the verses 15-18, admit
of such a limitation* The question is merely whether what is said,
PhiL iv. 15, of the subsidies received by the apostle from the
Philippians, naturally suggests that in this particular also the
author derived his information from the second Corinthian Epistle,
and used what he found there for his own purpose. There is no



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