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Baur, Ferdinand Christian,

1792-1860.
The church history of the i

first three centuries^^



1^'



IProsjjcctus of tlje

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1. Keim (Th.), History op Jesus of Nazara. Considered in its

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2. Baur (F. C), Paul, the Apostle of Jesus Christ, his Life

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Obadya, Mikha.

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Disciples ; and the Apostolic Mission.



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II. and last.

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24. E. Johnson, M.A. 2 vols.

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Progress to Jerusalem.

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Haggai, Zakharya, Malaki, Yona, Barukh, Daniel.

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tament : with General and Special Introductions. Edited by
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(in 3 vols.). Vol. I. Matthew to Acts.

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28. Ewald's Commentary on the Book of Job. Translated by the

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Galatians.

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Protestant Commentary. Vol. III. and last.

Schrader (Professor E.) The Old Testament and Cuneiform

Inscriptions (in 2 vols.).
Pfleiderer's Philosophy of Religion. Translated by the Eev.

Alexander Stewart, of Dundee.

WILLIAMS & NOEGATE.

14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden,
LuNDUN, W.C.



THEOLOGICAL
TRANSLATION FUND LIBRARY.



THE CHURCH HISTORY



THE FIRST THPvEE CENTURIES.



VOT;. IT.



THE CHURCH HISTORY



OF



THE FIRST THREE CENTURIES.



DR. FERDINAND CHRISTIAN BAUR,

Sometime Professob of Theologv in the University of Tubingen.



THIRD EDITION.

1iEr.an!3lntci5 from the (JScniuin by

THE REV. ALLAN MENZIES, B.D.

Minister of Abernyte.

VOL. II.




WILLIAMS AND NORGATE,

14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON;

ANO 20 SOUTH FREDERICK STREET. EDINBURGH.

1870.



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NOTE BY THE TRANSLATOR.

Up to the middle of the present volume I have had the
advantage of using a version of the work previously prepared
for Mr. Williams. I am, of course, responsible for the whole
of the translation as now published,

Allan Menzies,



VOL. n.



COJNTTENTS.



PART T H I E D— Continued.

PAGE

II. — The Catholic Church as the antithesis of Gnos-
ticism and Montanism, . . . . . 1-61

I. The Dogmatic Antithesis, . . . 1-15

The idea of the Catholic Church, . . 1-3

Attitude of the Doctors of the Church to

Gnosticism, . . . . 3-15

Clement of Alexandria and Origen : their

affinity to Gnosticism, . . . 3-8

Irenaeus and TertuUian : their Antithesis

to Gnosticism and Philosophy, . . 8-11

Scripture and Tradition, Heresy and

Catholic Doctrine, ....

II. The Hierarchical Antithesis,

The Congregational Office and the auto-
nomy of the Congregations,
The Clergy, Presbyters and Bishops,
The Episcopate, ....

Notion of the Episcopate,
It arose out of the desire for unity and

the antithesis to the Heresies,
The Pastoral Epistles,



11


-15


16-


■61


16-


-22


22-


-25




25


25-


■26


28-


-30


30-31



CONTENTS.



Pseudo-Ignatius and Pseudo-Clement,
The idea of the Episcoxaate and the
principle of its unity,
Montanism and the Episcopate,
The Bishops, the organs of the Spirit,
Synods, .....
The system of the Hierarchy,



PAGE

31-39

39-45
45-52
53-55
56-58
59-61



PAET FOUETH.



Christianity as highest principle of Rcvclatmi ; ctnel




as Dogma, .......


62-126


Transition to Dogma, .....


62-64


^ Christology of the Synoptic Gospels and of Paul,


65-72


Of the Apocalypse, ....


72-74


Of the Epistle to the Hebrews and the lesser




Pauline Epistles, .....


74-79


The Johannine Logos-notion,


79-85


The Apostolic Eathers and the Early Fathers, .


86-92


The Monarchians, .....


92-107


1. Praxeas and Callistus,


92-94


Noetus, ......


94-95


Sabellius, ......


95-99


2. Theodotus of Byzantium and Artemou, .


100-101


Beryllus of Bostra, ....


102-105


Paul of Samosata, ....


105-107


The further Development of Doctrine, .


107-120


Origen, ......


108-112


Arianism, ......


112-115


The opposing Systems, ....


117-118


The Nicene Do^ma, ....


118-120



CONTENTS. ix

PAGE

Dogma iu general : the Doctrine of God, of Moral

Freedom, of the Church, . . . . 120-126

PAET FIFTH.

Cliristianity as a jJOivcr riding the World : iu its rela-
tion to the Heathen Wo7'ld aiid to the Roman State, 127-232
Transition to this Part, .... 127-128
I. The relation of Christianity to the Heathen
World and to the Eoman State, on its inner

side, 129-189

The world-consciousness of the Christians, . 129-131
The hatred of the Heathens, and the silent

working of Christianity, . . . . 131-136

The Apologists, 136-140

The philosophically cultivated opponents, . 140-189

Celsus, 140-167

Significance and plan of his work, . 140-143

His attack from the Jewish standpoint, . 143-146

His depreciatory verdict, . . . 146-148

His opposition to the principle of Eevela-

tion, 149-155

Different arguments in comparison with

Platonism, ..... 155-158
Demonology as a chief point of contact

and of difference, . . . . 159-164

Christianity a deceit and delusion, but a

power of the age, . . . . 165-167

Lucian, 167-174

In what way different from Celsus, . . 167-168

His Peregrinus Proteus, . . . 168-172

Christianity is fanaticism, . . . 173-174



X CONTENTS.

PAGE

Philostratus, 171-179

His life of Apollonius of Ty ana, . . 174-177

EeligioiTS Syncretism, . , . . 178-179

Porphyrins, . . . . . . 179-186

His polemical work, .... 179-181

Critical attitude of Xeoplatonism, . . 181-184

Hierocles, 184-186

The authority of Tradition and the principle of

Pieligious Liberty, . . . . . 187-189
2. The relation of Christianity to the Heathen World

and to the Eoman State, on its outer side, . 190-232

Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, .... 190-196

Trajan, Hadrian, and the Antonines, . . 196-206
Septimius Severus, Heliogabalus, Alexander

Severus, 206-208

Decius, Gallienus, 208-210

Diocletian, 210-215

The religious Edicts of the Eoman Emperors, . 215-221
The first, by Galerius, Constantine, and

Licinius, 215-218

The second and third, by Constantine and Licinius, 218-221

Constantine, 221228

His love of unity, ..... 221-224

His Politics and Eeligion, . . . 225-228

The victory of Christianity, .... 228-232

P A E T SIXTH.

Christianity as a Moral Beligious Frinciplc in its

ahsolutcncss ; and its limitation in time, . . 233-289
The ]\Ioral Eeligious Principle of Christianity ;

its universality and its energy, . . . 233-234



CONTENTS.



The Moral attitude of the Christians on its bright
side, .......

Their avoidance of the Spectacles,

Their retirement from Politics, and the in-
wardness of their society among them-
selves, .....

Wedlock and Household Life, .
One-sided and narrow elements of the Christian

Morality,

y The fear of Demons,

The collisions of their Moral Eigorism,

.Their dualistic and ascetic view of life.

Marriage, .....
The Gnostics, ....
Tertullian, .....

The Celibacy of the Priesthood,

Mortal and Venial Sins, .

Good Works, .....

The idea of the Church the principle of moral

action, .....

The purer moral principles of Clement of

Alexandria, .....
Laxity of moral practice.
The Christian Cultus, ....

Its original elements.

The Eucharist and the Agapae,

The celebration of the Passover,

Sunday and the Sabbath, .

Other forms of Cultus,

Saint-worship, ....



235-243
236-238



238-240
240-243

243-275
244-245
245-248
249-251
251-263
251-257
257-263
264-267
267-271
271-273

273-275

275-277
277-279
279-289
279-280
280-282
283-284
284-285
285-287
287-289



THE CATHOLIC CHUKCH, AS THE ANTITHESIS OF GNOSTICISM
AND MONTANISM.

1. THE DOGMATIC ANTITHESIS.

In Gnosticism and Montanism, the Christian life of the first
post-apostolic period put forth its most vigorous energy and the
richest abundance of its productive power. Gnosticism gives the
clearest proof that Christianity had now become one of the most
important factors of the history of the time ; and it shows espe-
cially what a mighty power of attraction the new Christian
principles possessed for the highest intellectual life then to be
found either in the Pagan or in the Jewish world. The in-
gredients of Gnosticism were very multifarious; Hellenic and
Jewish elements were blended together in it in manifold forms ;
but Christianity provided all these with a common centre, from
which the numerous Gnostic systems proceeded to attempt ever
new combinations of the most different kinds. The problem under-
taken by all of these systems was that which then occupied the
most thoughtful minds, and ever afterwards continued to be the
most important subject of Christian religious philosophy, viz.,
how Christianity was to be interpreted in a general view of the
world. And if we couple Montanism with Gnosticism, and con-
sider how it also contributed new and energetic spiritual impulses,
and raised fresh questions which were of importance not only as
to practical life, but also as to the true construction to be given to
Christianity, we receive a very life-like impression of the spiritual
movement of the time, and of the restless ferment in which so
many elements were confusedly heaving, and meeting and cross-
ing one another in the most various directions. But in view of

VOL. n. ^^ A



2 CHURCH HISTORY OF FIRST THREE CENTURIES.

these widely diverging movements, a counter-action was necessary,
if Christianity was not to lose its original peculiar character. On
the one side, the practical religious interest of Christianity, that
which the Christian consciousness immediately affirmed, had to
be maintained and asserted against the transcendental Gnostic
speculations ; and, on the other, that millenarian fanaticism had
to be combated, which precluded the very possibility of any
historical development whatever, and the ground had to be won
whereon Christianity could plant itself firmly in the world. Tlie
first necessity of all, then, was to have a point of union, by means
of which allied and accordant elements might be held together,
and an adequate counterpoise be opposed to all heterogeneous and
eccentric tendencies alike. This is the idea of the Catholic
Church. Already this idea had wrought as a higher power, rising
superior to the opposition of Jewish and Gentile Christianity, and
uniting both in one common interest. And now, appearing as the
antithesis of Gnosticism and Montanism, it attained a more
definite consciousness, and, as the circle of its influence extended,
showed more and more what were its own true shape and
character.

The great struggle with Gnosticism, which lasted through tlie
whole of the second century, and forms so important a part of the
history of the development of Christianity and of the Christian
Church, was twofold — both dogmatic and ecclesiastical. The
whole character of Gnosticism was widely alien to Christianity, as
indeed was inevitable from the nature of the elements from which
it proceeded. So much was this the case that in each of its
forms Gnosticism entered on a fresh battle with Christianity.
The antithesis of the two principles, with the dualism resulting
therefrom, and the Gnostic repugnance to everything material —
the series of Aeons, intended to stand as connecting links between
God and the world, and which placed the doctrine of an emana-
tion of the world from God in the place of the Jewish-Christian
conception of a free creation — the separation of the Creator from
the one supreme God — the co-ordination of Christ with other



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA AND ORIGEN. 3

divine beings, whose likeness to him could only be regarded as a
derogation from his absolute dignity— the whole process of world-
development, into which Christianity was interwoven in such a
manner that the facts of the redemption accomplished through
Christ inevitably lost their moral and religious meaning, and
even their historical character : all this stood in the most decided
opposition to the fundamental view of the Christian consciousness. ,
Undeveloped as Christian dogma still was — and it was chiefly
through its opposition to Gnosticism that it became more accurately
fixed and defined — yet from the very first a Christian antithesis
could be found for each Gnostic doctrine. On the other hand, a
considerable part of Gnosticism possessed an afiinity and accordance
with Christianity ; and as soon as Christianity had spread to some
extent among the upper classes, every cultivated man, every man
initiated into the ruling ideas of the age, felt that he was directly
called upon to answer for himself the same question which the ;
Gnostics were endeavouring to solve. The relation of Christianity \
to Gnosticism therefore could by no means be one of mere
hostility and repulsion ; and it was natural that in the contro-
versy the doctors of the Church should take up various positions.

Least of all could those who lived in the circle of ideas whence
Gnosticism itself had come forth in the persons of its most eminent v
chiefs assume an attitude of simple opposition. Alexandria, the
birthplace of Gnosticism, is also the birthplace of Christian theo- .
logy, which in fact, in its earliest forms, aimed at being nothing f
but a Christian Gnosticism. Among the Fathers, Clement of
Alexandria and Origen stand nearest to the Gnostics. They rank
jva)ai



Online LibraryFerdinand Christian BaurThe church history of the first three centuries / Dr. Ferdinand Christian Baur (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 31)