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Appletons' cyclopædia of technical drawing : embracing the principles of construction as applied to practical design online

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" AT the suggestion of the publishers, this work was undertaken to form
one of their series of dictionaries and cyclopedias. In this view, it has been
the intention to make it a complete course of instruction and book of refer-
ence to the mechanic, architect, and engineer. It has not, therefore, 'been
confined to the explanation and illustration of the methods of projection, and
the delineation of objects which might serve as copies to the draughtsman,
matters of essential importance for the correct and intelligible representation
of every form ; but it contains the means of determining the amount and
direction of strains to which different parts of a machine or structure may be
subjected, and the rules for disposing and proportioning of the material em-
ployed, to the safe and permanent resistance of those strains, with practical
applications of the same. Thus, while it supplies numerous illustrations in
every department for the mere copyist, it also affords suggestions and aids
to the mechanic in the execution of new designs. And, although the arrang-
ing and properly proportioning alone of material in a suitable direction, and
adequately to the resistance of the strains to which it might be exposed,
would produce a structure sufficient in point of strength for the purposes for
which it is intended, yet, as in many cases the disposition of the material
may be applied not only practically, but also artistically, and adapted to the
reception of ornament, under the head of Architectural Drawing, the general
characteristics of various styles have been treated of and illustrated, with
brief remarks on proportion and the application of color." . . . 1857.

Since its first publication, this work has been subjected from time to time
to revision. It has now been deemed necessary to almost entirely rearrange
and rewrite it ; to add largely to the subject-matter and to the illustrations,
introducing examples of later practice and experience ; to extend the scope
of the work, and make it more nearly a cyclopaedia of drawing and design.
There are no changes in the principles of projection as applied to drawing,
and no marked improvement in drawing-instruments ; but in the present
practice finished drawings in shade and color are exceptional. It is suffi-
cient, for almost every purpose, for the draughtsman to make accurate projec-
tions with pencil on paper, and trace them afterward on cloth. The pencil-
drawings can be readily altered or amended, and, where there are many repe-


titions of the same parts, but a single one may be drawn. On the tracing
they are made complete, and these are preserved as originals in the office,
while sun-prints of them are used for details of construction in the shop, or
distributed as circulars among customers.

In the sale of former editions of this work, it has been found that its
success has been largely due to its value as a book of design. Great attention
has therefore been given to secure practical illustration of constructions and
machines of recent date ; the nature of materials in common use has been
more extensively treated, and the character and effect of stresses and strains,
their kind and direction, more fully explained, with as simple rules as possible
to determine them for practical application.

Of late years the science of " graphics " has become of great importance,
and is here fully illustrated in its varied applications, showing not only this
method of recording the facts of the statistician, and affording comparisons
of circumstances and times, the growth of population, the quantities and cost
of agricultural and mechanical production, and of their transport, movements
of trade, fluctuations of value, the atmospheric conditions, death-rates, etc.,
but also in its application to the plotting of formulae for their ready solution,
by the draughtsman and designer. For many of the rules in this work the
results of the formulae of various authors have been plotted graphically, and
the rule given one deemed of the greatest weight, not always by average,
but most consistent with our own experience.

In astronomical calculations every decimal may have its importance. It
is not so in those of the mechanical or architectural designer ; solutions by
graphics are sufficient for their purpose, and, simpler than mathematical cal-
culations, they are thus less liable to error ; it is very good practice to use one
as a check on the other. It is to be remarked that inaccuracy in facts, and
carelessness in observation, are not eliminated from an equation by closeness
of calculation, and when factors are not established within the limits of units
it is useless to extend the results to many places of decimals. It is of the
utmost importance to know at first well the object and purposes of the
design, the stresses to which its parts are to be subjected, and the strength
and endurance of the materials of which it is to be composed. In establish-
ing rules for ourselves, be sure of the facts, and that there are enough of
them for a general application. Rules are necessary, but their application
and usefulness depend largely on the experience of the user, and life must
be a record of applications and effects. It is comparatively easy to make
a work strong enough ; but to unite economy with proportion is difficult.

To make the work complete in itself, so as to form a sort of single book
for most of the purposes of the draughtsman and designer embracing the
profession of surveyor, engineer, and architect tables of logarithms, latitudes
and departures, squares and cubes, and square and cube roots, weights and
measures, and weights of material, have been added.





Drawing of lines straight, curved, and parallels, angles, perpendicular ; bisecting
angles; arcs and circles, 15. On polygons and circles; triangles, parallelograms,
squares ; circles, angles ; polygons ; inscribed and described circles ; pentagons, hexa-
gons, octagons ; table of polygonal angles, 23. On the ellipse, parabola, hyperbola,
cycloid, epicycloid, involute and spiral, 33. Use of triangle and square, 33. Areas
of figures, 37. To draw squares of given proportionate sizes, 39.


Description and use ; rulers ; triangles; T-square; parallel ruler ; sweeps and vari-
able curves ; drawing pens ; dotting point ; pricking point ; compasses ; dividers ;
beam compasses ; porportional dividers ; scales ; scale guard ; diagonal scales ; ver-
nier scales ; sector ; protractors ; pantagraphs ; camera lucida ; drawing table and
board, 56. Drawing paper ; tracing paper ; tracing cloth ; mouth glue ; damp stretch-
ing paper ; mounting paper and drawings, 59. Management of the instruments ;
ink ; exercises with drawing pen ; various letters and numerals ; cross-section paper ;
diagrams showing use of cross-section paper, 77.


Definitions; points; straight line; solid, 81. Simple bodies; pyramid; prism,
87. Construction of the conic sections, 90. Penetration or intersection of solids ;
cylinders, cone, and sphere ; cylinder and ring ; sphere and prism ; cone and prism ;
cone and cylinder, 102. Of the helix, 104. Development of surfaces ; cylinder ;
cone; sphere, 107. Shade-lines, 109.


Of a point : straight line ; solid ; circle ; pyramid ; cylinder ; cone ; shadows cast
upon a cylinder by various-shaped caps ; shadows cast upon a prism ; shadows upon
the interior of a cylinder, hollow hemisphere, a niche, a sphere ; line of shade on the
surface of a ring, grooved pulley, square-threaded nut and screw, triangular-threaded
nut and screw, 126. Manipulation of shading and shadows methods of tinting;
surfaces in the light ; surfaces in shade ; shading by flat tints ; by softened tints,
129. Elaboration of shading and shadows; examples of finished shading; on con-
cave surfaces, spheres, ring, cone, flat surfaces ; colors for tints ; expeditious way of
shading a cylinder ; body color ; margin of light ; washing ; conventional tints for
materials, 136.

PLOTTING ; 137-148

Scales ; scales prescribed by different commissions, 138. Variation of compass,
1 39. Plotting compass surveys ; balancing error ; plotting by latitudes and depart-
ures ; area by latitudes and departures ; area by triangles ; plotting by offsets, 147.
System of division of United States land, 148.





Conventional signs ; representation of hills ; contour lines, 156. Railway surveys ;
profiles; sections, land plans, 159. Hydrometrical or marine surveys, conventionali-
ties, 160. Geological and statistical features, 162. Transferring ; pricking through;
by tracing; blue-print process; copying-glass; transfer-paper; pantagraph, 165.
Map projections ; perspective projection on planes ; developed perspective projec-
tions ; projections by developing elements ; projections conforming to some arbi-
trary condition ; polyconic adopted by United States Coast Survey ; De Lorgne's
projection; M creator's chart, 171. Colored topography ; conventional colors ; direc-
tions; finishing; lettering; titles, 180.


Earth and rocks, 182. Building materials ; wood, 185. Stones; technical terms
masonry; granitic stones, argillaceous stones ; sandstones ; limestone, 188. Artificial
building material ; bricks ; tile ; terra-cotta ; mortars ; limes ; cement ; concrete ;
plastering, 191. Metals; conventional hatchings ; iron; steel; other metals; specific
gravity ; weight ; melting-point ; resistance to crushing and tension ; results of Prof.
Thurston's tests of metals, 196. Sulphur; glass; rubber; paints; coals, 199.


Force ; center of gravity ; levers ; wheel and axle ; pulley ; inclined plane ; wedge ;
screw ; inclined forces ; parallelogram of forces ; hydraulic press ; velocity of falling
bodies; friction, 212. Mechanical work or effect; horse-power, etc.; water-power;
wind ; steam ; steam worked expansively ; cut-offs ; compound engines ; indicator
cards, 219.


Stress ; dead load ; strength of posts and columns ; Phoenix columns, etc. ; shear-

ing stresses ; torsional stress ; transverse stress ; strength of beams ; tables of dimen-
sions of channel beams and angle-iron ; composite beams ; bolts and nuts ; strength
of bolts ; washers ; shafts and axles ; journals ; keys ; car-axles ; shafting ; bear-
ings ; couplings; clutch; pulleys; belts; ropes, 275. Gearing; epicycloidal teeth;
projections of a spur-wheel and bevel-wheel, 294. Drawing of screws, 297. Fric-
tional gearing, 299. Ropes and chains ; hooks ; levers ; cranks ; connecting-rods ;
steam-engine ; working-beam ; parallel-motion links ; steam-cylinders and pistons,
331. Valves ; hydrants, 342. Riveted joints for boilers ; boilers, 351. Wrought-
iron pipe connections, 355. Frames ; governors ; fly-wheels ; air-chambers, 361.


Foundations ; sheet-piling ; retaining-walls ; foundations for piei^s, etc., 375.
Dams ; locks of canals ; conduits ; reservoirs, 395. Water-pipes, 398. Sewers, 401.
Gas-supply, 402. Roads, 407. Roofs and bridges; piers, 432. Arch-bridges; sus-
pension-bridges, 438. Boiler-setting ; chimneys, 444. Location of machines ; ma-
chine foundations, 449. Tunnels, 453. Railway stock, 458. Wave-line principle of
ship construction, 460.


Details of construction ; concrete walls, 468. Frames and floors ; fire-resisting
floors, 474. Groined ceilings, 476. Doors ; windows ; moldings, 485. Stairs, 492.
Fireplaces ; flues ; roofs ; gutters ; plastering, 495. Proportions and distribution of
rooms and passages, 500. Plans and elevations of buildings ; stores and warehouses,
521. School-houses, 531. Churches, theatres, lecture-rooms, music and legislative
halls ; hospitals, 542. Stables ; cow-houses ; greenhouses, 547. Ventilation and
warming, 555. Plumbing, 564. Greek and Roman orders of architecture, 596. Or-
naments of the Renaissance ; principles of design, 601.






Angular perspective, 610. Parallel perspective, 624.



Geometrical figures and design, 643. Proportions of the human frame, 647.
Figure drawing, 650. Forms of animals, 653. Illustrations from different artists,


Extracts from New York building laws, 670. Patent-Office drawings, 670. Men-
suration ; properties of triangles, 672. Lineal measure, 672. Table of inches in
decimals of a foot, 673. Table of measures of surface, 673. Table of measures of
capacity ; dry measure ; weights ; cubic measure, 674. Table of weight of rolled
iron, 675. Table of weight of wrought-iron and brass plates and wire, 676. Table
of weight of wrought-iron welded tubes ; boiler tubes ; driven-well tubes ; heavy
wrought galvanized iron spiral riveted pipes, 678. Table of copper and brass rods,
678. Table of number of Burden's rivets in 100 pounds, 679. Table of number of
wrought spikes to a keg, 679. Table of length of cut nails and spikes, and number
in a pound, 680. Table of weights of lead pipe per foot, 680. Table of the weight
of a cubic foot of water at different temperature?, 680. Table of properties of satu-
rated steam, 682. Table of mean pressures in steam cylinders at different rates of
expansion, 683. The flow of water, with table of discharge over weir, 685. Flow
of water through pipes and sewers, 689. Flow of air through pipes, 690. Table of
circumferences and areas of circles, 695. Table of squares, cubes, square and cube
roots of numbers, 703. Table of latitudes and departures, 709. Table of natural
sines and cosines, 718. Logarithms of numbers, 735.









I. Shading of prism and cylinder by flat tints. Referred to on pages


II. Shading of cylinder and segment of hexagonal pyramid. Referred to
on pages 128-9.

Ill, IV. Finished shading and shadows of different solids. Referred to on
page 131.

V. Shades and shadows on screws. Referred to on page 126.
VI. Example of topographical drawing, done entirely with the pen.
VII. The same, with the brush, in black.
VIII. The same, with the brush, in color. Referred to on page 174.

IX. Contoured map of Staten Island, shaded by superimposed washes,
the washes increasing in intensity or strength as required to pro-
duce the effect.

X. Geological map of part of New Jersey, colored to show the different

XI. Finished, shaded sectional view, colored to show the different metals,
of a balanced leather cup-valve. The body is of cast-iron ; the
piston, brass ; packing, leather ; piston-rod, wrought-iron this
last not distinctively colored.

XII. Finished perspective drawing, with shades and shadows, of a large
bevel-wheel and two pinions, with shifting clutches.

XIII. Front elevation of a building, in color.

XIV. Perspective view of Gothic church, finished in color.

XV. Plan, elevation, and section of bevel-wheel, pinion, and clutches,
shown in perspective Plate XII.

XVI to XX. Details of progressive perspective projections of Plate XV, as
shown completed in Plate Xll.




MOST persons, at some time, have made use of the simple drawing instru-
ments, pencils, straight-edges or rulers, and compasses or dividers with change-
able points, and many suppose that there can be no skill in their use ; but to
one critical in these matters there are great differences to be observed even in
common drawings, in the straightness and uniformity of the lines, and in the
care of the surface of the paper.

Select for the geometrical problems and
for usual drawings a No. 3 or H H H pen-
cil. It should be sharpened to a cone-point
(Fig. 1). Where a pencil is used for drawing
lines only, some draughtsmen sharpen the
pencil to a wide edge, like a chisel.

In drawing a straight line, hold the ruler
firmly with the left hand ; with the right
hand hold the pencil lightly but without
FlG - 1 - slackness, and a little inclined in the direc-

tion of the line to be drawn, keeping the pencil against the edge of the
ruler, and in the same relative position to the edge during the whole operation,
of drawing the line.


To draw a clean line and preserve the point of the pencil, the part of the
cone a little above the point of the pencil should bear against the edge of the
ruler, and the pencil should be carried steadily while drawing. Any oscilla-
tion will throw the point farther from or nearer the ruler, and the line will
not be straight (Fig. 2).

FIG. 2.

In the use of the compasses do not make a hole through the paper with the
needle or sharp point, but only into the paper sufficient to maintain the

Keep the paper clean, and use rubber as little as possible.

As drawing is based on geometrical principles, we commence with geo-
metrical definitions and problems to give the learner some knowledge of
the science of geometry, with a valuable exercise in the use of drawing

Geometrically a point is defined as position merely : in drawing, the posi-
tions of points are marked on the paper by prick-marks of a needle or sharp
point, and by the dot of a pencil ; sometimes inclosed O, sometimes designated
by the intersection of two short lines X >.

Geometrically lines have but one dimension, .length, and the direction
of a line is the direction from point to point of the points of which the
line is composed : in drawing, lines are visible marks of pencil or pen upon

FIG. 3.

A straight line is such as can be drawn along the edge of the ruler, and is
one in which the direction is the same throughout. In drawing a straight line
through two given points, place the edge of the ruler very near to and at equal
distances from the points, as the point of the pencil or pen should not be in
contact with the edge of the ruler (Fig. 3).

Lines in geometry and drawing are generally of limited extent. A given



FIG. 4.

or known line is one established on paper or fixed by dimensions. Lines of
the same length are equal.

To draw Curved Lines. Insert the pencil-point in the compasses, and open
them to a suitable extent. With the needle or sharp point resting on the
paper describe a line with the pencil around this point ; the line thus
described is usually called a circle more strictly it is the circumference of a
circle the circle being the space inclosed. A portion
of a circumference is an arc. The point around
which the circumference is described is the center
of the circle (Fig. 4).

If a line be drawn from the center to the circum-
ference it is called a radius. As it is the length
embraced between the points of the compasses, it is
often called by mechanics the sweep.

If a line be drawn through the center, and limited
by the circumference, it is called the diameter, and is
equal to two radii.

A radius is a semi-diameter ; a diameter is the longest line that can be con-
tained within a circumference. Lines limited by the circumference, and which
are not diameters, are chords.

It will be observed that arcs are lines which are continually changing the
directions, and are called curved lines, but there are other curved lines than
those described by compasses, of which the construction will be explained

Besides straight and curved lines there are often lines, in drawing, which
can neither be drawn by rulers or compasses, as lines representing the direc-
tions of brooks and rivers, the margins of lakes and seas, points in which are
established by surveys, defined on paper, and connected by hand-drawing.
These may be called irregular or crooked lines.

Where it is necessary to distinguish lines by names, we place at their

extremities letters or figures, as A B, 1 2 ; the line A B, or 1 2.

But in lines other than straight, or of considerable extent, it is often necessary
to introduce intermediate letters and figures, as a a a.

In the following problems, unless otherwise implied or designated, where
lines are mentioned, straight lines are intended.

If we conceive a straight line to move sideways in a single direction, it will
sweep over a surface which is called a plane. All drawings are projections on
planes of paper or board.

Two lines drawn on paper, and having the same direction, can never come
any nearer each other, and must always be at the same distance apart, however
far extended. Such lines are called parallel lines.


PEOB. L To draw a line parallel to a given line, and at a given distance
from it (Fig. 5).

Draw the line A B for the given line, and take in the compasses the dis-
tance A C the distance at which the other line is to be drawn. On A, as a


FIG. 5.

FIG. 6.

center, describe an arc, and on B, as a center, another arc ; draw the line C D
just touching these two arcs, which will be the parallel line required.

PKOB. II. To draw a line parallel to a given line through a given point
outside this line (Fig. 6).

Draw the given line A B, and mark the given point C. With C as a centei,
find an arc that shall only just touch A B ; and with B as a center, and the
same radius, describe an arc D. Draw through the point C a line just touching
this last arc, and the line C D will be the parallel line required.

Two lines in the same plane, not parallel to each other, will come together
if extended sufficiently far. The coming together, cutting, or intersection of
two lines, is called an angle (Fig. 7).

If but two lines come together, the angle may be designated by a single
letter at the vertex, as the angle E.

But, if three or more lines have a common vertex, the angles are designated
by the lines of which they are composed, as the angle D B C of the lines D B


FIG, 8

and B C ; the angle A B C of A B and B C ; the angle A B D of A B and B D.
The letter at the vertex is not repeated, and must always be the central letter.
Describe a circle (Fig. 8). Draw the diameter A B. From A and B
as centers, with any opening of the compasses greater than the radius,
describe two arcs cutting each other as at D. Through the intersection
of these arcs and the center C, draw the line D E. D E makes, with the
diameter A B, four angles, viz., A C D, D B, B C E, and E C A. Angles



are equal whose lines have equal inclination tfc^ach other, and whose lines, if
placed one on the other, would coincide. By construction, the points C and D

have, respectively, equal distances from A and B ; the line D C can not, there-
fore, be inclined more to one side than to the other, and the angle A C D must
be equal to the angle BCD. Such angles are called right angles. It can be
readily proved that all the four angles, formed by the intersection of D E with
A B, are equal, and are right angles.

The angles A C D and D C B, on the same side of A B, are called adjacent
angles ; as also DOB and B C E, on the same side of D E.

Online Libraryfirm AppletonAppletons' cyclopædia of technical drawing : embracing the principles of construction as applied to practical design → online text (page 1 of 65)