Fitzedward Hall Horace Hayman Wilson.

The Vishńu Puráńa: a system of Hindu mythology and tradition, Volume 8 online

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M.A., F.R.S.,











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H. H. WILSON, M.A, F.R.S.,





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Account of the several Manns and Manwantaras. Swilrochisha,
the second Manu : the divinities, the Indra, the seven Rishis,
of his period, and his sons. Similar details of Auttami, Tdmasa,
Raivata, Chakshusha, and Yaivaswata. The forms of Vishnu,
as the preserver, in each Manwantara. The meaning of Vishnu.

MAITREYA.-The disposition of the earth and of the
ocean, and the system of the sun and the planets, the
creation of the gods and the rest, the origin of the
Rishis, the generation of the four castes, the production
of brute creatures, and the narratives of Dhruva and
Prahl&da, have been fully related by thee, my vener-
able preceptor. I am now desirous to hear ifrom you
the series of all the Manwantaras, as well as an account
of those who preside over the respective periods, with
l^akra, the king of the gods, at their head.

ParXi^ara. — I will repeat to you, Maitreya, in their
order, the diflFerent Manwantaras, — those which are
past, and those which are to come.

The first Manu was Swdyambhuva; then came Sw^
rochisha; then, Auttami;* then, Tamasa; then, Raivata;

* Some of my MSS. have Uttama. See note S at p. 5, tf^a.
nL 1

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then, ChAkshusha: these six Manus have passed away.
The Manu who presides over the seventh Manwantara,
which is the present (period), is Vaivaswata, the son
of the Sun.*

The period of SwAyambhuva Manu, in the begin-
ning of the Kalpa, f has already been described by me,
together with the gods, Rishis, (and other personages)
who then flourished.^ I will now, therefore, enumerate
the presiding gods, Rishis, and sons of the Manu, in
the Manwantara of SwArochisha.^ The deities of this
period (or the second Manwantara) were the classes

' The gods were said to be the Ydmas (Vol. I., p. 109) ; the
J^ishis were Marichi^ Angiras, &c. (Vol. I., p. 100, note 2); and
the sons were Priyavrata and Uttanapada (Vol. I., pp. 107, 108).
The Vdja adds, to the Yamas, the Ajitas, who share with the
former, it observes, sacrificial oflFerings. The Matsya, Padma,
Brahma Paranas, and Hari Vamsat substitute, for the sons, the
grandsons, of Sw^jambhuva, — Agnidhra and the rest (Vol. II.,
pp 101, 102).

' This Manu, according to the legend of his birth in the Mdr-
kancieya Parana, § was the son of Swarochis, so named from the
splendour of his appearance, when born, and who was the son of
the nymph Vanithini, by the Gandharva Kali. || The text, in an-
other place, makes him a son of Priyavrata. IT

* Compare the Laws of the Mdnavas, I., 61, 62.

t The present Kalpa, the Varaha, from vardha, 'hoar\ See Vol. I.,
pp. 58, 59.

: I^L 416.

§ Chapter LXIII.

II I find Kala.

% See p. 11, note ti W^a. According to the BhagavcUa-purdna, YIII.,
I., 19, Swirochisha was son of Agni.

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BOOK ni., CHAP. I. 3

called Pir&vatas and Tushitas;^* and the king of the
gods was the mighty Vipaschit.f The seven jfeishis*

' The Yiju gives the names of the indiyiduals of these two
classes, consisting, each, of twelve. It famishes, also, the nomen-
clatare of all the classes of divinities, and of the sons of the Ma-
nas, in each Manwantara. According to the same authority, the
Tushitas were the sons of Erata : I the Bh^gavata calb them the
sons of Toshiti by Yedasiras. § The divinities of each period
are^ according to the VAyu, those to whom offerings of the Soma
jaice and the like are presented collectively.

' The YAya describes the Kishis of each Manwantara as the
sons, or, in some cases, the descendants, in a direct line, of the
seven sages, Atri, Angiras, Bhfiga, Ea^yapa, Palaha, Palastya,
and Yasishiha: with some inconsistency; for Kaiyapa, at least,
did not appear, himself, until the seventh Manwantara. In the
present series, j| l^ija is the son of Yasishiha; Stambha springs from
Kasyapa; Prina, from Bhfiga; Rishabha descends from Angiras;
Dattoli is the son of Palastya; Nischara springs from Atri; and
Arvarivat is the son of Pulaha. The Brahma Parana and Hari
Yam^5 have a rather different list, or, Aurva, Stambha, Kasyapa,

• We read, Vol. II., p. 27, after an enameration of twelve names:
"These, who, in the Chikshasht Manwantara, were the g^ods called
Toahitas, were called the twelve Adityas, in the Manwantara of Vai-
vaswata.'* Hot onr text, as now appears, places the Tashitas in the second
Manwantara, not in the sixth: see p. 13, infra. Nor, according to the
Vdjfu^purdtiaf were they Vbhna, l^akra, &c.

t The Bhdgavaiorpurdtiay VIII., I., 20, gives Rochana as the Indra
of the second Manwantara or Patriarchate.

I Tnshiti, according to the same aathority, was their mother, as in
oar text, p. 17, tr^^o.

f So, rather, the Bhdgaoaia appears to imply: VIII., I., 21.

II Professor Wilson seems to have followed, here, his own MS8. of
the Vdgurfurd^ exclusively ; and they most differ greatly from those
to which I, after him, have access. Instead of fjija occurs, in these
MS8., what looks like a corruption of Turya or Orva; for Prina, Drona;
for Dattoli, Dattitri; f6r Nikhara, Nikhala; and, for Artarivat, Dhivat

5 Si 417.

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were Urja, Stambha,* Prdha, Dattoli,t Rlshabha, Nis-

Prdna, Bfihaspati, Chyavana, and Dattoli : 4 but the origin of part
of this difference is nothing more than an imperfect quotation from
the Vayu Purana; the two first, Aurva and Stambha, being spe-
cified as the son of Yasishtha and the descendant of Kasyapa,
and then the parentage of the rest being omitted: to complete the
seven, therefore, Kasyapa becomes one of them. Some other er-
rors of this nature occur in these two works, and from the same
cause,— a blundering citation § of the Vayu, which is named as
their authority:

v^ Mf^M^in TnjtfrnT iffTinn: i

A curious peculiarity, also, occurs in these mistaken. They are
confined to the first eight Manwantaras. The Brahma Purina
omits all details of the last six; and the Hari Vaihsa inserts them
fully and correctly, agreeably to the authority of the VAyu. It
looks, therefore, as if the compiler of the Hari Vam^ had fol-
lowed the Brahma, as far as it went, right or wrong, but had had
recourse to the original Vayu Purana, when the Brahma failed
him. Dattoli is sometimes written Dattoni and Dattotri ; and the
latter appears to have been the case with the copy of the Hari
Yamsa employed by M. Langlois, who {| makes one of the ^ishis
of this Manwantara, ^le penitent Atri.'^ He is not without coun-
tenance in some such reading; for the Padma Purdna changes the
name to Dattatreya, no doubt suggested by Datta-atri. Datta-
treya, however, is the son of Atri ; whilst the VAyu calls the per-
son of the text the son of Pulastya. There can be no doubt,

* Stamba is an equally common reading in my MSS.

t 80 read three of my MSS. Variants are Dattoni, Dattori, Dattobhi,
Dattokti, Dantoli, Dantobhi, and DambhoH. See, fUrther, Vol. I., p. 154,
note t

; In MSS. of the Brahma-jmrd$ia I find SUmba and Dattoni. The
Calcutta edition of the HarivathSa has Stamba, Ka^yapa, and Dattoni.

} In il 418.

II Vol. I., p. 38.

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BOOK nr., CHAP. I. 5

chara,* and Arvarfvat;f and Chaitra, Kiifipurusha,
and others were the Manu's sons.*

In the third period, or Manwantaraof Auttami,^ Su-

therefore, of the correct reading; for the son of Pulastya is Dat-
toli. : (Vol. I., p. 154.)

' The Vayu agrees with the text in these names, adding seven §
others. The Bhagavata has a different series. || The Padma has
four other names: Nabha, Nabhasya, Prasfiti, Bhavana. . The
Brahma has ten names, inclading two of these, and several of the
names of the Rishis of the tenth Manwantara. The Matsya has
the four names of the Padma for the sons of the Manu, and gives
seven others, Havindhra, Sukfita, Miirti, Apas, Jyotis, Aya^ Smfita
(the names of the Brahma), as the seven Prajapatis of this period,
and sons of Yasishtha. The sons of Yasishiha, however, belong
to the third Manwantara, and bear different appellations. There
is, no doubt, some blundering, here, in all the books except the
Yayu and those which agree with it.

' The name occurs Auttami, Auttama, and Uttama. The Bha-
gavata 5 and Yayu agree with our text (p. 11, ivfra\ in making
him a descendant from Priyavrata. The Markaiideya calls him
the son of Uttama,** the son of Uttdnapada;ff and this appears
to be the correct genealogy, both from our text and the Bhagavata. t^

* One MS. gives NiSchira.

t The much more freqnent lection known to me is Urvtrivti

X There is, I incline to think, room for very grave doubt as to both
these points. See note f in P* 4> 9upra.

§ I do not count so mtny; and those that I find are very cormpUy

II At YIIL, 1., 20, it says there were seven, bat names only Oija and
Stambha. Barnouf melts these two names into one.

^ It calls him Priyavnta's son: YIIL, I., 23.

** LXXII., 39. Auttama is the grandson's name, in the MdrkcMeffo-

ft LXXIX., 3. Surnchi is there said to be Uttama's mother. For the
same parentage, see Yol. I., p. 159, of the present work.

XI Not f^om the Bhagavata, certainly. Sec note 5* in this page. A9
to our text, see note X at p. 11, ir^a.

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sdnti* was the Indra, the king of the gods; the orders
of whom were the Sudh4man8,f Satyas, Sivas, Pradai>
sanas,J and Va8avartins;*§ each of the five orders con-
sisting of twelve (divinities). The seven sons of Va-
sishtha were the seven Rishis;* and Aja, || Parasu,t

* The Brahma and Hari Yamsa** have, in place of these, the
Bhdnos; but the Vayu and Markaiiieyatf concur with the


' All the authorities agree in this; but the Brahma and Hari
yamsa§§ appear to furnish a different series, also; or even a third,
according to the French translation: i||| 'Dans le troisi^me Manwan-
tara parurent, comme Saptarchi3^ les fils de Vasich^ha, de son nom
appel^s Vdsich'thas^ les fils d'Hiranjagarbha, et les illustres enfans
d'Ourdja. The text is:

The meaning of which is: "There were (in the first Manwantara)
seven celebrated sons of Yasishtha, who (in the third Manwan-
tara) were sons of Brahma (i. e., ilishis), the illustrious posterity

• Satyajit, according to the Bhdga/vata-pwihkiy VIII., I^ 84.

t Five MSS. ha^e Swadhamans.

: Pratardanaa represents the reading of two MSS.

§ Three MSS. exhibit Vamsavartina. Professor Wilson put ''Vasa-

II In three MSS. Prajas occurs.

U A single MS. reads Parabhu.
•♦ J^l 826.

ft In my three MSS. I find Pratardanas, as in the Calcutta edition, in*
stead of Pradar^anas. The Calcutta edition, at variance with my copies,
has Swadbimans, for Sudhamans. .

:: The Bhdgavata'pur<hia, VIII., I., 24, names the Satyas, Veda^ratas,
and Bhadras. Also see note * at p. 17, infra.
§§ 4f/. 422.

IIP Vol. I., p. 38.
5Y The Calcutta edition reads ^V^.

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Divya, and others wei-e the sons of the Manu.*

The Sunipas,* Hans, Satyas, and Sudhfs^f were the
classes of gods, each comprising twenty-seven, in the
period of Tdmasa, (the fourth Manu).' iSibi: was the

of XJrjd, We have already seen that Urja was the wife of Va-
sisfaihay by whom she had seven sons, Bi^as," &c (see Vol. I.,
p. 155), in the Swayambhuva Manwantara; and these were born
again, as the Rishis of the third period. The names of these per-
sons, according to the Matsya and Padma, are, however, very dif-
ferent from tho0e of the sons of Vasishiha given in Vol. I., p. 155,
or, Kankandihi, Knmndi^ Ddlbhya, Sankha, Pravihita, Mita, and
Sammita. §

' The Y&yn adds ten other names to those of the text The
Brahma gives ten altogether different The BhiLgavata {| and Padma
have, each, a separate nomenclature.

* Of these the Brahma and Hari Yam^alF notice only the Sa-
tyas; the Matsya and Padma have only Sidhyas. The Yayu,
Bh^avata,** Karma, and Mirkandeyaff agree with the text.

' He is the son of Priyavrata, according to the text, IX the
Yiyo, dc The Markaii^eya§§ has a legend of his birth by a doe;

* One MS. has Swardpas. f Swadhis is the reading of one MS.

I iikhi is, in my MSS., almost as common a lection. And herewith
agrees the Mdrk<Me^chpurcitUiy LXXIV., 58. Triiikha is the name in
the EMgavata-pyrdiia, YIII., I., 38.

§ I have pot Dalbhya for "Dalaya"', on manascript authority. The
Bhdgav€aa-purdna , Vlll., I., 34, names only Pramada, oat of the seven ;
and he is not of the family as detailed in IV., I., 41, 43. See Vol. I.,
p. 155, note 3.

II YUL, I., 33: Pavana, Sfinjaya, Yajnahotra, and others annamed.
^ J^l. 437.

- I find -Vlll., 1., 38, 39 -the Satyakas, Haris, Viras, and Vaidhfitis.
ft LXXIV., 57.

IX See p. 11, note I, ir^a; alio, p. 17, text and notes I and §.
§$ Chapter LXXIV.

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Indra, also designated by his performance of a hundred
sacrifices, (or named Satakratu*). The seven Rishis
were Jyotirdhdman, Pfithu, Kdvya, Chaitra, Agni, Va-
naka,f and Pfvara.* The sons of Tdmasa were the
mighty kings Nara, Ehy&ti, S&ntahaya,^ Jdnujangha,
and others,*

and, from his being begotten in daiic tempestaoas weather (111^0,
he derives his name.§

* Severally, according to the Yayd, the progeny of Bhfign,
ELasyapa, Angiras, Pnlastya, Atri, Yasishtha, and Pnlaha. There
is considerable variety in some of the names. Thos, the Matsya
has Eavi, Prithu, Agni, Akapi, Kapi, Jalpa,|| Dhimat. The Hari
Vamsaf has Kavya, Pfithu, Agni, Jahna, Dhatri,** Kapivat, Aka-
pivat For the two last the Yayu reads Gatra and Yanapifha.
The son of Polaha is in his place (Yol. L, p. 155, note 1), — Ar-
vanvat or Yanakapivat. Gatra is amongst the sons of Yasish-
tha (Yol. I., p. 155). The Yayu is, therefore, probably, most cor-
rect, although our text, in regard to these two denominations,
admits of no doubt: ft ^ fil4<^mj HI iftHTW I tt

' The Yayu, Ac. agree with the text; the Yayu naming eleven.
The Brahma, Matsya, and Padma have a series of ten names,
Sutapas, Tapomiila, dbc., of which seven are the Rishis of the
twelfth Manwantara. §§

* This parenthesis was supplied by the Translator.

t Five of my MSS. read Yarada. Two of my M8S. of the Mdrkand^a-
purdna have Yanaka; the third, Yamna. The Calcutta edition, LXXIY.,
59, gives Yalaka.

t In one MS. is l^antihaya; and, in one, Santihavya.

§ The Bhdgavata-^pwdtiaf YIII., I., 27, represents him as brother of

II Corrected from the printer's "Salpa". t ^i- *26.

** The Calcutta edition has Janyu and Dhaman.

tt See, however, note f in this page.

IX The Bhdgavatorpurdjia, YIII., I., 2S, names Jyotirdhaman only.

§§ Agreeably to the Bhagavata-purdrii^ YIII., I., 27, they were ten in
number, of whom it specifies Prithu, Khyiti, Nara, and Ketu.

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In the fifth interval, the Manu was Raivata;^ the In-
dra was Vibhu; the classes of gods, consisting of four-
teen each, were the An^itdbhas, Abhiitarajasas, * Vai-
kunthas, and Sumedhasas;*f the seven Kishis were

' Raivata, as well as his three predecessors, is regarded, usu-
ally, as a descendant of Prijavrata. i The Mdrkande7a§ has a
loog legend of his birth, as the son of King Dnrgama by the nymph
Revati^ sprung from the constellation Revati, whom Ritavach, a
Muni, caused to fall from heaven. Her radiance became a lake
on Mount Kumuda, thence called Raivataka; and from it appeared
the damsel, who was brought up by Pramucha Muni. Upon the
marriage of Revati, the Muni, at her request, restored the aster-
ism to its place in the skies.

' The Brahma inserts, of these, only the Abhutarajasas, with

* Two M88. have Abkutaramas ; two, Abhatarayas; both which words
look very like depravations of the reading in all my other copies, 'to-
wit, Abhdtarajas. The ordinary reading of the line containing this
term is:

That the first two names mast be taken as welded into a compound
embodying Abhdtarajas is attempted to be shown in note || in the next
page. See, ftirther, note % p. 17, if^ra. And hence the ''Abhutarajasas*'
-%, e,i Abbdtarajases - of Professor Wilson may be open to correction,
as regards its first syllable. Moreover, on the assumption that his MSS.
were like mine, he has substituted the longer ending of the word for
the shorter. See Vol. II., p. 101, note *; and p. 107, note t-

The Sanskrit scholar will have noticed, that, other considerations per-
mitting, the line just quoted might yield Bhdtarigas. The reading, un-
questionably, of the BhdgavcUa-purd^, VIII., Y., 3, omits the vowel
at the beginning. It is Bhdtarayas ; and it involves a corruption, I take
it, as to its j(, such as we have in Abhutarayas. The MdrkaMeya-pu-
rdna, LXXV., 71, has, in my three MSS., Abhutanayas or Bhdtanayas,
which, as could be shown, may easily have grown out of Abhdtarajas. The
Calcutta edition exhibits Bbdpatis!

t In the singular, Sumedhas. Three MSS. agree in reading Susamedboses.

t The Bhdgavaia-^^diki, YIIL, V., 2, calls him uterine brother of
Tamasa. And see p. 11, note t» infra,

§ Chapter LXXV.

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Hiranyaroman, Vedasrf,* Urdhwabahu, Vedabdhu,f
Sudh4man,t Parjanya, andMahdmuni.^§ The sons of
the remark, that Hhey were of like nature (with their name):'!|

i. e., they were exempt from the quality of pasBion. M. Laaglois,^
in rendering the parallel passage of the Hari Yam^a,** has con-
founded the epithet and the subject: 'dont les dieux furent les
Pracfitis, depourvus de colere et de passion.' He is, also, at a
loss what to do with the terms Pariplava and Raibhja, in the
following passage, Mlfi^l^V ^'^Vjtt asking : 'Qu'est-ce que Pa-
riplava? qu'est-ce que Rebhya?' If he had had the commentary
at hand, these questions would have been unnecessary: they are
there said to be two classes of divinities : MlfX^I^ ^'W ^^1!T-

' There is less variety in these names than usual. §§ Yedabahu

* Devasri, according to a single MS.

t In throe MS8., Devabahn.

; Two MSS. have Swadhaman.

§ The BhagavaUirpurdAa, VIII., V., 3, says that they were, with
others, Hiranjaroman, Vedai^iras, and (jrdhwabaho.

II The Sanskrit allows as to take the word as Abhutarajases ; meaning,
perhaps, * endowed with activity - rcgoB - as far as that possessed by the
Bhdtas.' See Vol. I., p. 83; and Vol. II., p. 74, note 3.

The Vayu-fvirdu^a speaks of the Amritibhas and Abhiitarajas :

For, just below this, it has the line:

On now comparing note * in the last page with note % at p. 17, |m/ra,
it will be seen, that the gods under discnssion were characterized by their
possession, not want, of activity. In the latter passage here referred to,
all Professor Wilson's MSS., including those now at Oxford, have, like
my own, ^tWft TTf^J, or else iTHift ^TPf^:.

% Vol. I , p: 39.

- ^l. 433:

tt 6l. 432.

XX Of the gods of the fifth Manwantara the BJuigavatorpvrmia, VIII.,
v., 3, 4, particularizes the Bhdtarayas and Vaiknnihas only. See note *
in the preceding page.

§$ See the Mdrkaiidesfo-purdiia, LXXV., 73, 74.

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RaivatawereBalabandhu, Susaihbhdvya,* Satyaka, and
other valiant kings, f

These four Manus, Sw4rochisha, Auttami,t Tdmasa,
and Raivata, were, all, descended from Priyavrata, who,
in consequence of propitiating Vishnu by his devo-
tions, § obtained these rulers of the Manwantaras for
his posterity.

Chikshusha was the Manu of the sixth period,^ in

is read Devabiba; Sadbdman, Satyanetra; and Mabamani, Muni,
Yajos, Yasisbtba, and Yadudbra. According to tbe Yayn, those
of tbe text lire, respectively, of tbe lineage of Angiras, Bbfigu,
Yasisbiba, Polastya, Atri, Polaba, and Kasyapa. Tbere is con-
siderable variety in tbe names of tbe Mann's sons.

' Cbiksbosba, according to tbe best antborities, descended
from Dbmva (see Yol. I., p. 177): bat tbe Mirkanjeya bas a le-
gend of bis birtb as tbe son of a Ksbattriya named Anamitra; of
his being exchanged, at bis birtb, for tbe son of Yisranta Raja,
and being brooght up, by tbe prince, as bis own; of bis reveal-
ing the business, when a man, and propitiating Brahma by his
devotions, in consequence of which, be became a Manu. In his
former birth, be was bom from tbe eye of Brabmi, whence his
name, from Chaksbus, Hbe eye.'||

Online LibraryFitzedward Hall Horace Hayman WilsonThe Vishńu Puráńa: a system of Hindu mythology and tradition, Volume 8 → online text (page 1 of 24)