Fitzwilliam Museum. McClean Bequest.

Catalogue of the mediaeval ivories, enamels, jewellery, gems and miscellaneous objects bequeathed to the museum by Frank McClean online

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(L. B^gule, Monographie de la cathedrale de Lyon, plate opposite p. 206).
Another forms one side of a textus cover figured by Du Sommerard, Les Arts
au Moyen Age, Album, Series ill, pi. xxii. A casket in the Museum at
Copenhagen may also be compared (Stephens, Runic Monuments, I, p. 476 c).

58. Casket. The sides are overlaid with thin plates of silver
with embossed figures of angels holding books, under round arches ;
the spandrels, which are gilt, are ornamented with embossed vine-
scrolls.

The lid is of a truncated pyramidal form. Along the top is a
strip of silver embossed with palmettes : the rest is covered with
champleve enamel. On the sides is a series of turquoise blue
lozenges enclosing reserved quatrefoils on a ground of lapis blue,
the whole within a border of reserved leaves on a red ground. On
one end is an expanded flower in various colours (green, yellow,
white, turquoise blue and lilac purple) ; on the other, a symmetrical
design of floral scrolls in lapis, turquoise, pale blue, yellow, white
and red on a ground of maroon.

Plate XV IL Rhenish, 12th century.

L. 4I in. H. 2 J in. From the Magniac Collection (Catalogue, Christie's,
1902, no. 496).

The date of this casket is probably not far from the year 1200. The details



ENAMELS 107

of its ornament botli in enamel and in tlic embossed metal are of types which
begin to be widely used in the twelfth century. Thus the large leaf at one end
of the lid is a development of an earlier form, beginning, in illuminated MSS.,
towards a.d. 1140 and continuing popular in all branches of art down to the
first quarter of the thirteenth century. In the later part of the period it is
frequently used to fill the volutes of the enamelled croziers of Limoges. The
peculiar form of palniette embossed upon the top of the lid is a variant of the
" enclosed pahnette" very popular in Romanesque art, and occurring for example
on the great Kronleuchter at Hildesheim, as well as on the crestings of the large
reliquaries made on the Rhine and the iMeuse in the twelfth century.

The enamels upon the sides somewhat resemble those upon the book-covers
(no. 56) and would appear to be later than those of the lid : the casket as it
stands is thus a composite made up of elements of different dates, the earliest
parts being of the twelfth century. A purple maroon colour somewhat re-
sembling that on the lid of this casket is also found on these Rhenish enamels,
e.g. on the Annoschrein at Siegburg, ascribed to Cologne, A.D. 1183 (Falke,
pll. xiv, xv).

59. ClBORIUM, of gilt copper with enamel.

From a foot of six semicircular lobes separated by small redans,
rises a cylindrical stem with hexagonal knop. The cup and its
cover are both hemispherical, and fastened by a hinge and hasp :
an undecorated circular space on the top of the lid marks the place
where a vertical stem, surmounted by a cross, was formerly fixed.

On the cover are four arches in the Gothic style reserved in the
metal within which, on a lapis blue ground seme of reserved stars,
are four scenes from the Passion, also reserved. These are Christ
mocked, the Flagellation, the Road to Calvary, and the Crucifixion.
The nimbuses in these scenes are enamelled with turquoise blue :
the spandrels between the arches are red, with reserved trefoils.
On the cup are six circular medallions with grounds alternately of
red and turquoise, on which are reserved standing figures of angels :
the spandrels have scrolls reserved on a dark blue ground. On the
foot are six similar medallions with angels, the upper spandrels
having trefoils, the lower fleurs-dc-lys, all reserved in the metal.

Plate XVIII. Limoges, 14//1 eentuiy.

H. 9 in. Formerly in the Magniac Collection (Sale Catalogue, Christie's,
1892, no. 500).

This ciborium is of the usual form made at Limoges in the fourteenth
century. A similar example was in the Spitzer Collection (Z^/ Collection Spitze>\
Vol. I, Orfhirerie religieiise, no. 58, p. 116).



I08 CATALOGUE

60. Enamklled Brass Candlestick. The base is oval,
the stem broad and flat, the socket in the form of the calyx of a
flower. The design is of white flowers on a blue ground, and is
executed by the champleve process,

Plate XIX. English^ \-]th crn/ury.

H. 9 in. From the Magniac Collection.

See Introduction, p. 54.

Examples of similar candlesticks in the British and Victoria and Albert
Museums are reproduced by Mr J. Starkie Gardner in Some Minor Arts, 1894,
p. 79. The \'ictoria and Albert Museum, and the Free Public Museums,
Liverpool, also possess fire-dogs enamelled in the same manner.



61. Chalice of silver and copper-gilt. The foot has twelve
lobes alternately semicircular and pointed. To the semicircular
lobes correspond six applied six-foil silver plaques with translucent
enamels on sunk relief; to the pointed lobes correspond smaller
triangular plaques : between the enamels are floral designs in relief.
The subjects of the larger plaques are the Crucifixion, with the
Instruments of the Passion, on either side of which are the Virgin
and St John, and, on the opposite side, a bishop with mitre and
crozier between a male and a female saint : the smaller plaques are
enamelled with cherubs and trefoil designs. The hexagonal stem,
divided into two parts by a knop, rises from a series of mouldings,
between the lower of which is a plain band with the inscription in
Lombardic letters : ANDREA PETRUCI DE SENIS ME FECI[tJ. Both
above and below the knop each face of the stem is engraved with
a male bust without the nimbus ; the knop is ornamented with
leaves in relief between which are applied six six-foil silver plaques
with translucent enamel representing two male and four female
saints.

The cup is contained within a false-cup of silver resembling a
calyx, on which are six medallions containing Our Lord, St Peter,
St Paul, St John, St Bartholomew, St Barnabas (?).

Plate XX. Sienese, late i^th centmy.

H. •]\ in. D. of cup 3J in. Magniac Collection (Sale Catalogue, Christie's,
1892, no. 798).

This chalice is of the type commonly made in the North of Italy in the
late fourteenth century, especially at Siena (see Introduction, p. 56). It may



ENAMELS 109

be compared with three in the Spitzer Collection {Ln Collection Spitzcr^ Vol. I,
Lorfh>rerie religieuse, nos. 78, 80, 81).

For Sienese goldsmiths see G. Milanesi, Documenti firr la storia deW arte
Sienesc, Siena 1854— 1856.

62. Silver F'rame oe a Triptych, parcel gilt and enamelled,
the metal taking the form of traceried windows with trefoil arches
surmounted by quatrefoil and trefoil openings. In the two trefoil
openings are plaques of translucent enamel, that on the left repre-
senting a beardless saint holding a palm and book(?), that on the
right a bearded saint holding a book and raising his right hand in
the gesture of benediction. The chief colours are green, purple and
blue, the latter used for the backgrounds.

The enamels French, 14/// century.
H. 7f in. From the Magniac Collection (no. ^2)7)'

The tracery is to a great extent modem, and the wooden back, painted with
a diaper, is also modern.



Painted Enamels.

63. Circular Plaque: the Adoration of the Magl
To the left the Virgin is seated on a carved wooden seat without
back, holding out the Child to the first of the three kings, who
kneels to present a casket with the two other kings behind him.
In the background behind the Virgin is a building with a gable
end ; to the right is the open country ; in the blue sky is seen the
star. The Virgin has a purple nimbus, and wears a blue tunic with
purple mantle ornamented down the front with discs of foil. The
kneeling king, whose hair and beard are yellow, wears a turquoise
blue tunic and purple mantle, with a broad white collar. Of the
standing kings, the first has a green tunic and purple mantle, and
wears a crown enriched with foils ; the other, a beardless \'outh
with long hair, wears blue nether garments and a brown sleeveless
jerkin, below which is a green tunic.

Plate XXIII. French, Limoges, late x^th century.

D. 2'5 in. From the Magniac Collection (no. 516).

The plaque is in the style of Nardon Penicaud and may be attributed to an
enameller of his school. Two similar circular plaques, one with the Ecce Homo,
the other with a Piet^, are in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford.



I lO CATALOGUE

64. Panp:l, tiik Adoration of thk Magi; in grisaille.
On the left the Virgin is seated with the Child ; behind her stands
Joseph, while the most aged of the three Magi, with a long white
beard, kneels before her, touching the Child's foot with his right
hand. The two other kings stand behind him holding cups ; the
youngest, in the foreground, wears high boots with slashed tops,
and spurs. On the right, armed retainers hold the horses ; one of
them carries a banner. Background of architecture, with a central
pier, to right and left of which are distant views of hills with
castles ; in the sky is seen the Star, from which issue brilliant rays.
In the foreground, a broken column.

Plate XXI. French, Limoges, \6th century.

L. 6 in.

This rich and animated composition, apparently reproducing a work by a
German master, is found on two almost identical plaques, both now in Paris.
One, formerly in the Spitzer Collection, is in the Collection Dutuit {La Collec-
tion Dutint, Cent Planches, 1908, pi. 43 with note by M. J. J. Marquet de
Vasselot) ; the other, formerly at Hamilton Palace, belongs to Baron Edouard
de Rothschild {Catalogue of the Collection. ..of the Duke of Hamilton, Christie's,
1882, p. 119, no. 973, and The Hamilton Palace Collection, illustrated, 1882,
p. 127). The latter example has on the broken column in the foreground the
letters MP, the initials of an enameller at present unidentified.

The occurrence of the same composition upon three plaques need not
militate against their genuineness, for many subjects were repeated by the
enamellers of Limoges, especially those derived from popular engravings.
Hitherto it has been impossible to assign the original of this Adoration to any
known artist.

65. Panel in Grisaille: the Last Supper. In a poly-
gonal chamber with oval windows Our Lord is seated at a round
table with the twelve apostles. Above, is a hanging lamp with two
flames. On the sides of the benches are classical figures and floral
scrolls. On a cornice of the chamber, to the right, is the signature
P.R. 1542.

Plate XX LI. French, Limoges, i6th century.

L. 5f in. B. 4j^f in. From the Magniac Collection (no. 230).

By Pierre Reymond.

66. Hexagonal Salt, painted in grisaille with subjects
illustrating the triumph and endurance of Love, each accompanied
by an inscription.



KNAMELS III

In the circular dci^ression at the top is a bust of Paris wearing
a feathered hat: IK svis PARIS. Border of cornucopia.

In the corresponding depression at the opposite en(] is the bust
of Helen : L.A. BELE ELLENE. Border of roses and leaves.

On the six sides are the following subjects :

(i) Fortune standing in a boat and holding up a mast with
bellying sail: TOVT I'AR KORTVNE LE J VA.

(2) An elderly man in fur cap and fur-lined cloak walks to
left in a landscape : a purse hangs from his girdle, and he carries
a stick :

ET MOI TEL QVE IE SVYS

IE LE FAIZ QVANT IE PVYS
A 50 ANS.

(3) A woman in a white linen head-dre.ss holds out a rosary
attached to her girdle :

QVANT ON LE ME PREJSENTE
IE LE PRENS EN PACIANCE
A 40 ANS.

(4) An old man wearing a hood, cloak and high boots walks
to left supported on a stick :

HELAS lESVS VR(AI)Y | DIEV DE GRACE
LE IE lEV DJAYMER FAICT ON ENCORES
A 80 ANS.

(5) An old woman in a mob-cap holding a stick in her right
hand :

QVAT DV lEV DAYMER ME | SOVVIET
LA LARME AVX IJEVLVLX ME VIEN
A 70 ANS.

(6) A fool in cap and bells carrying a bauble over his left
shoulder, and pointing to the left :

IL SEMBLE AV VILANT | PAR ABVZ
QVE LES lEVLX DAYMER SOVENT PERDVZ.
Plate XX 11. French. \6fh century.

H. 3 in. D. 4f in. Magniac Collection (no. 390). The enamel upon the
corners of this saltcellar is chipped. It may be by Couly Nouailher, see Intro-
duction, p. 66. One of the two hexagonal saltcellars in the Wallace Collection
at Hertford House has the same subjects.



112 CATALOGUE

67. Skt ok Six Panels in grisaille: the Lord's Prayer.
On the panel to the left at the top, Our Lord is seen addressing the
disciples in a landscape with a hill. Below is the legend :

IHESVS • DICT • A • SES DISEIPSES • QVANT | VOUS PRIEREZ
HE PARSEZ • PAS HEAV;COP MAIS PRIEZ AMSY jj^- MAT • (Matt,
vi. 9.)

On the panel to the right the Virgin is seated with an open
book on her knees between groups of seated and kneeling men.
Behind her is a wall above which the dove is seen between clouds
in the sky. Legend :

TON ROVAINNE VIENNE A NOVS.

The left-hand panel in the middle shows a doctor in gown and
flat cap preaching in a pulpit with a canopy, on which is the word
VERITAS. Before the pulpit are seated women, behind whom men
are standing. In the background is seen a courtyard in which a
man and woman are drinking at a table. Legend :

DONNE NOVS AVIOVRDHVY NOSjTRE PAIN COTIDIAN.

The corresponding panel on the right shows two men seated in
the stocks in a prison, while a third in a plumed helmet proceeds
to liberate the prisoner on the left. On the other side Our Lord in
tunic and pallium advances with outstretched hands. Legend :

ET NOS PAIDONE • NOZ • OFFKSES • AINSY | QVE • NOVS •
PARDONOS • A • CEVLX • Q | NOVS • ONT • OFFENSE.

At the bottom on the left a devil, seizes and scourges a seated
figure, while flames envelop a building in the background. From
the right, a woman advances, and above her the Almighty is seen
holding a book and raising his right hand. Legend :

ET ■ NE • NOVS • INDVIS • POINT • EN • TENTATION.

The bottom panel on the right has a death scene. A man Hes
on a bed by which are Our Lord, a man on crutches, a woman
holding a taper, &c. In the foreground is a stool on which vessels
stand : in the background are trees. Legend :

MAIS • DELIVRE • NOVS • DV • MALIN • AMEN.

Plate. French, Limoges, \6th century.
All panels 4I in. x 3I in.



ENAMELS 113

A set of similar panels was in the collection of the late W. Hemrose, Esq.,
Derby, and two panels from a third set {Give us this day on 7' daily bread, and
Lead us not into temptation) are in the Louvre. Colour is occasionally used to
heighten the effect, chiefly red and yellow, and the panels have a good deal of
gilding. Each is pierced with four holes. These panels were perhaps produced
in the atelier of Couly Nouailher. In the Museum of the Hotel Pined at Angers
there is a casket with figures in similar contemporary costumes, accompanied
by inscriptions. It is signed C. N. and bears the date 1545 (see L. Gonse,
Chefs d\vnvres des M usees de France, sculptures, dessins, objets d^art (Paris,
1904), fig. on p. 53).

68. Panel: a scene from mythology or romance (?). Two
men, one in a Phrygian cap, the other in a plumed helmet, are
leading a white horse from the left ; at the horse's head stands a
bearded man in a cuirass. Beyond, on the right, are a boy, an old
woman and a man, all gesticulating. The scene passes in a land-
scape with a building. A dog runs to right in the foreground.

French, Litnoges, i6ih century.

L. 15 in. From the Magniac Collection (no. 247).

The colouring of this panel is light, with a good deal of white, the chief tints
being blue, green, yellow, and pink. The execution is coarse and the drawing
careless, but spirited. At one period Leonard Limousin produced enamels
with rather a pale scheme of colour on a white ground, and the present enamel
appears to be by someone influenced by his style. Panels in a similar manner
are in the Louvre and in the Musde de Cluny at Paris.

69. Pax in carved wooden frame : THE Nativity. On the
right the Virgin kneels before a wattled crib in which the Child
lies naked : behind are seen the heads of the ox and the ass.
From the left, through an arched doorway, enters an old shepherd
in short tunic and high boots : he holds a lighted candle in his left
hand and with his right raises his low hat or cap. The scene is
placed beneath a roofed colonnade ; through this are seen a land-
scape with trees and the starry blue sky, in which the guiding star
is seen sending out brilliant rays. The Virgin wears a purple
tunic and blue mantle with an elliptical gold nimbus. The
shepherd has a purple tunic and blue cap: the manger is
turquoise blue. No foils are used.

Plate XXI. French, Limoges, i6th century.
H. ^^ in. in frame, 8^ in. B. 3I in.

The colouring and treatment of the trees recall enamels by Jean Courtois
in the Waddesdon Bequest in the British Museum.

D. 8



114 CATALOGUE

70. Pax in gilt metal frame: THE ANNUNCIATION. On' the
right is the Virgin seated on a bench at a table, on which lie a
book and scattered flowers : on the ground is a vase coloured pale
blue and containing lilies. On the left the angel is seen flying
down from the clouds with a lily in his left hand and holding
his right up toward heaven. Behind the Virgin is a desk with
a book and a bed with a canopy. The background is filled with
architecture.

The Virgin's tunics are turquoise blue and blue respectively:
her mantle is purple, and she has a radiating nimbus of gold. The
garments of the angel are purple, blue and green, his wings green,
blue and jellow. The tablecloth is turquoise blue, as is the coverlet
of the bed ; the canopy is light blue. The vase is blue, the clouds
blue, the architecture purple, the ground a redder purple divided
into squares by gold lines. Foils are freely used throughout,
especially to heighten the colours of the garments.

The upper clouds, the top of the building and of the canopy, as

well as both lower corners, have been restored.

Plate XXIII. French., Limoges^ \bth century.

H. in frame 4^ in. B. 3I in. From the Magniac Collection (no. 5 19 A)?

In the style of Jean Limousin.

71. Shallow Cup with six lobes and two handles, on a
hexagonal foot.

The bottom in the interior is painted with Cupid riding a lion
to the right: above is the inscription onnia uinct amor; below,
in the corner, the signature I. L.

The sides are brightly painted in the interior with flowers and
birds in orange, blue, green, red and yellow, upon a white ground.

On the bottom is a landscape : a house with a bright red roof
amid trees by a river. In the blue sky are red-brown clouds and a
flight of distant birds.

On the exterior of the lobed sides are flowers and birds in
purple, yellow, green and blue, with gold scroll designs, all on
a black ground.

Limoges, 17 th century.
D. 15I in.

Probably by Jacques Laudin I (A.D. 1627 — 1695), who sometimes signed
with his initials only. He frequently painted in grisaille, his work recalling the



ENAMEI^S I 1 5

procedure of the sixteenth century. But J<ia:|ucs Laudin II (a.d. 1663 — 1729)
also signed I. L. and jxiinted both in grisaille and colours.

An almost identical cup, with the same signature, Cujjid and motto, is in the
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. They may both be compared with one of
similar form in the Spitzer Collection, also signed I. L. {La Collection Spitzer^
Vol. II, Etnau.x\ Prints, no. 169). This is painted in grisaille and has in the
centre Orpheus playing a violin, and round the sides animals, scrolls, and
medallions : on the bottom is a landscape in colours. A large nufnber of cups
m the same style are preserved in various museums, about half a dozen being
in the Louvre (Galerie d'Apollon). Other examples are at Milan and at
Ravenna. An example in the Wallace Collection at Hertford House, also
signed I. L., has in the centre a portrait of Louis XIII.

72. Panel. Within an oval medallion, St Louis, in armour,
and wearing a blue mantle with ermine, kneels before an altar on
which are the nails and the crown of thorns. Behind him lie his
own crown and sceptre. Below is the inscription SAINT LOVIS.
The spandrels are ornamented with a foliate design in relief

French, Limoges, ijth century.

H. 5^ in.

The chief colours are blue, green, orange, red and yellovi'.

73. Another, in similar style : St Eleanor in an ermine-lined
mantle holding a palm in her left hand. Near her is a table,
striped red and orange, on which are a crown and a sceptre.
Below, SAINTE ELEONOR. Raised ornament in the spandrels, as
in the previous number.

On the back is BTE NOVAILIIER [ EMAILLEVR I A LIMOGES.

French, Limoges, xyth century.
H. 4i in.

74. Another, similar. St Elizabeth seated in a blue mantle
with ermine cape, holding a fleur-de-lys sceptre. A beggar, only
part of whose body is seen, approaches from the left : above him is
a column draped by a green curtain. The spandrels have raised
ornament.

On the back : P. Notiailhcr \ esmailleur \ a Limoges.

French, Limoges, lyih century.

H. 4i in. From the Magniac Collection (no. 247).



Il6 CATALOGUE

75. CiBORlUM of enamelled copper.

The foot is circular, and the broad stem is divided into two
parts by a knop. The bowl is hemispherical and the lid is sur-
mounted by a brass cross.

The stem, bowl and cover are ornamented with raised white
lobes and gadroons upon a blue ground, the whole enriched with
minute foliate designs in gold.

Plate XXIV. Venetian, \6th centitry.

H. 13I in. From the Bateman^Collection (Sale Catalogue, no. 187).
A paper label states that it was bought in Florence by Mr C. Redfern in
1857.

Painting under Glass {Verve eglomise).
{See Introduction, pp. 71 ff.)

76. Panel in a gilt wooden frame with a gable or pediment
at the top, in which smaller panels are also set. In the middle the
Virgin and Child are seated on a throne, the back surmounted by
a gable and two pinnacles, and draped with a brocaded cloth. To
right and left are two bearded apostles holding books, and two
other saints. Below is the Annunciation, in two compartments
bordered with quatrefoils filled out with black upon a crimson
ground : the angel is in the left division, the Virgin upon the right.
The whole panel is enclosed in a border ornamented with a running
scroll in gold on a ground divided into sections alternately red and
crimson.

Of the smaller panels, that in the pediment has Our Lord in
the tomb ; that above it, the Almighty making the gesture of
benediction. The two panels to right and left have one a kneeling
angel, the other the Virgin seated : beneath them are narrower
panels with inscriptions in gold in Lombardic characters :

ECCE ANCILLA D(omini) and AVE GR(acia)E (plena).

Plate XXV. North Italian, 14/A century.

Total height 33 in. H. of larger glass panel 10 in.

The frame is in the Sienese style, and of a later period than the glass. The
upper part of the principal panel, including part of the body of the Virgin and
the top of the throne, is very much rubbed. Silver foil was placed behind the
gold foil in which the faces are executed in order to intensify the tone ; this has
oxidised, and thus unfortunately obscured the features.



VARIOUS OBJECTS I 1 7

The beautiful drawing of the faces indicates that this panel is the work of
an artist of considerable merit.

77. Panel: St Jerome kneeling in a cave to right before an
altar on which are a crucifi.x, skull and scourge: his left hand rests
upon the skull, and behind him lies the lion. In the background,
seen through the opening of the cave, is a landscape in which is a
church with a spire. The .saint is nude but for a mantle covering
his left shoulder and draped round the middle of his body.

Plate. German^ x^th century.

H. 5 in.

The panel, wliich is executed in colours as well as gold, is in a black wooden
frame with a border of glass, itself ornamented with dglomisd scrolls in green,
with red open flowers.

78. Another : the Virgin seated with the Child. Behind her
on the left is St Elizabeth ; in the foreground the young John the
Baptist kisses the Child's hand. The Virgin wears a ruddy brown
tunic and green mantle ; St Elizabeth has a white hood.

Italian, early \^th century.

L. 675 in.

The back is protected by white foil, but the colouring is obscured down both
sides. The subject is derived from a seventeenth-century picture by some
master of the Eclectic school.



Various Objects.

79. Censer of gilt bronze. The cup is hexagonal with pro-
jections at the angles for the attachment of the chains : round the
base it has a foliate design in low relief The foot is hexagonal
with ogee curves. The lid is pyramidal in three stages, one within
the other, and there are turrets at all the corners. The lower


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Online LibraryFitzwilliam Museum. McClean BequestCatalogue of the mediaeval ivories, enamels, jewellery, gems and miscellaneous objects bequeathed to the museum by Frank McClean → online text (page 12 of 14)