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1880.

Fleury, Claude, Manners of Ancient Israelites, New York, 1837.
Hinsdale, B. A., Jesus as a Teacher and the Making of the New
Testament, St. Louis, 1895.



124 EDUCATION IN ANCIENT ISRAEL.

Jevons, Frank Byron, An Introduction to the History of Religion,
6th ed., London, 1914.

Landau, Richard, Geschichte der judischen Aerzte, Berlin, 1895.
Maimon, Solomon, An Autobiography, (tr. by J. C. Murray), Boston,



Margoliouth, G., "Games Hebrew and Jewish," Hastings' Encyclo-
pedia of Religion and Ethics, VI, 171d-17Sb.

Marsden, J. B., The Influence of the Mosaic Code Upon Subsequent
Legislation, London, 1862.

Montefiore, C. G., "Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion
as Illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Hebrews," Hib-
bert Lectures, 1892, 3d ed., London, 1897.

Peritz, I. J., "Woman in the Ancient Hebrew Cult," Journal of Bib-
lical Literature, 1898, XVII, 111-148.

Renan, Ernest, Averroes et fAverroisme, essai historique, 3d ed.,
Paris, 1866.

Rosenau, William, Jewish Ceremonial Institutions and Customs, 2d
ed., Baltimore, 1912.

Ruppin, Arthur, The Jews of Today, (tr. from the German by
Margery Bentwich), New York, 1913.

Sayce, Archibald Henry, The Archeology of the Cuneiform Inscrip-
tions, London, 1908.

Schechter, Solomon, Studies in Judaism, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1908
and 1911.

Schenk, F. S., The Sociology of the Bible, New York, 1909.
Seidel, Martin, In the Time of Jesus, New York, 1885.

Singer, S., Annotated Edition of the Authorized Daily Prayer-Book
with Historical and Explanatory Notes, annotated by Israel
Abrahams, London, 1914.

Smith, George Adam, The Historical Geography of the Holy Land,
3d ed., New York, 1895.

Smith, George Adam, Jerusalem: The Topography, Economics and
History from the Earliest Times to 70 A. D., 2 vols., London,
1908.

Smith, William Robertson, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia,
London, 1903.



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY. 125

Smith, W. R., The Prophets of Israel and Their Place in History to
the Close of the Eighth Century B. C., London, 1907. ["Most
English books on the subject are more theological than histor-
ical, but a sketch of Hebrew prophecy in connection with the
history down to the close of the eighth century is given by
W. R. Smith."]

Soares, Theodore Gerald, The Social Institutions and Ideals of the
Bible, New York, 1915.

Von Dobschutz, Ernst, The Influence of the Bible on Civilization,
New York, 1914.

Yellin, D., and Abrahams, L, Maimonides, Philadelphia, 1903.



INDEX.



INDEX.



Abel, referred to, in.
Abimelech, referred to, 8.
Abraham, 72.
Adolescence, 55-60.
Age, old, reverenced, 67, 68.
Age, school, 95.
Agricultural occupations, 8.
Agricultural festivals, 103.
Ahab's sons, referred to, 22.
Aim of education, girls', 116.

See also Ideals; Incentives.
Alexander the Great, 43, 81.
Alexander Janneus, referred to, 92.
Alexandra, Queen, referred to, 92.
Allegories, 102.
Amos, referred to, 36.
Anger, 69-70.

Antiochus IV, referred to, 79.
Apprenticeship, 61.
Arabia, trade with, 10.
Aramaic, 81.
Arba Kanfot, 57.
Archelaus, referred to, 44.
Ark, 88.

Assyrian conquest, u.
Ancestor-Worship, 13.
Anthropomorphic conception of Yah-

weh, 15.
Arts, origin, 8,
Athletics, 24.
Atonement, Day of, 104.
Augustus, referred to, 44.

Baal, worship of, 14.

Babylonian Exile, see Exile.

Bar Mizwah, 58-59.

Bards, as teachers, 25.

Baruch, referred to, 32.

Bema, 87.

Benedictions: bar mizwah, 59; chil-
dren's, 64 note 73; in synagogue,
88, 89, 90.



Benjamin, tribe of, under Saul, 9;

under Rehoboam, 10.
Beth-El, referred to, 35.
Bibliography, 119-125.
Biography, 67.
Birthday, 59.
Blood-ties, 10.
Boasting, 69.
Book of Instruction, 14-15, 20 and

note 2.

Books of law, 27 and note 27.
Books of prophets, 27 and note 29.
Breast feeding, 55.
Brotherhood of man, 15.

Caesar, 44.

Canaanites, influence on Israelites, 7-8.

Canon, evolution, 26-27; adoption, 86.
'Ceremonies, see Festivals; Order of
Service; Rites; Ritual.

Chariot-driving, 24.

Children, desired, 49; slave status, 51;
naturally wayward, 52-53; life pe-
riods, 54. See also Adolescence;
Religious consciousness, 63-64; be-
long to. God, 59.

Christianity, debt to Hebraism, 4.
See also Jesus.

Circumcision, 55-56. See also Bar
mizwah.

City,, see Municipal organizations.

Civic instruction, 34.

Classes, size, 95.

Commercial education, 61.

Commerce, effect on education, 29.

Composition, taught to prophets, 37.

Compulsory education, 86, 92-95.

Conceit, 69.

Conquest, the, 7-8.

Consecration, 78.

Conversation, 69-70.

Corporal punishment, 53, 99.



130



EDUCATION IN ANCIENT ISRAEL.



Courtesy, lessons in, 68, 72.

See also Manners.
Courts, instruction in, 37.
Creed, see Shema.
Curiosity, 71.
Curriculum, post- Exilic, outline, 60;

elementary, 96-98; higher, 100-101.
Cyrus, referred to, 42.

Dancing, patriotic and religious, 24,

as; prophetic, 36; post- Exilic, 61-62;

girls taught, 116.
Daphne, Egypt, referred to, 46 note

10.

Darius, referred to, 43.
Daughters, 52, 53. See also Girls;

Sex ; Woman.
David, reign of, 9-10; national ideal,

20; knowledge of writing, 28, 29;

referred to, 108.
Death penalty, 51.
Deborah, referred to, in.
Dedication, Feast of, 104.
Delitzsch, quoted, 102.
Democracy, 44-45.
Derashah, 89-90.
Diaspora, 46.
Dionysus, rites of, 45.
Discipline, at home, 51, 52, 53; lax

in school, 95.

Disobedience, capital punishment, 51.
Dispersion, 44, 46.
Disputations, scholarly, 102.
Divination, 33, 34-35.
Dramatic method, 37.

Ecclesiasticus, on table manners, 71;
on the scribe, 82; as textbook, 98.

Edersheim, cited, 54; quoted, 107-108.

Education, institutionalized, 76; uni-
versal, 86-89, 90, 91-95.

Elders, 81.

Elementary schools, see Schools.

Elephantine, Egypt, referred to, 46
note 10.

Elijah, referred to, 35.

Elisha, referred to, 35.

Environment, 12-13; moral influence,
30.

Epigrams, by Soferim, 101.

Esther, read, 65.

Exile, the, n, 41-42; educational
products, 87, 91.

Exposition, 89.



Ezekiel, referred to, 42.
Ezra, 27, 8 1 and note 12.

Fables, taught, 25.

Family, as educative institution, 2 iff,

49-54, 62-72, 96.
Family festivals, 59, 64-66.
Family, woman's sphere, 115. See

also Mother; Woman.
Fast-days, 88.
Father, as teacher, 23, 60, 66, 95, IO 8;

as priest, 32, 113; authority, 51, 59;

names children, 55; reverenced, 67.

See also Parents.
Fatherhood of God, 12 note 23, 15.

See also Yahweh.
Festivals, seasons of instruction, 64-

66, 103-104; songs, 24; directed by

priests, 34; synagogue service, 88;

influence, 107.
First-born, education, 22; redemption,

54-

Flute, 24, 25.
Foreign influence, n, 13, 41-44.

See also Exile, Hellenism.
Fringes, 57.

Gamala's school law, 91.

Gamaliel, referred to, 100.

Games, 24.

Gemara, 101 note 69.

Gideon, referred to, 8, 28.

Gilgal, referred to, 35.

Girls, attitude toward, 113; education,
115-116.

Gluttony, 71.

God, see Yahweh.

Graetz, quoted, 22, 77-78.

Greek period, 43; religion, 45; vernac-
ular, 81. See also Hellenism.

Grossmann, cited, 93-94.

Gudemann, cited, 93-94.

Guild, teachers', 81.

Hagadah, 100-101.

Kakhamim, 81.

Halakah, 100-101

Hallel, 98.

Hannah, referred to, 49.

Hassan, 81, 96.

Hebraism, influence upon Christian-
ity, 4.

Hebrew, study of, 81, 96.

Hellenism, 43, 45, 46, 78, 79.
See also Greek period.



INDEX.



131



H en o theism, 13.

Herod, referred to, 44.

Hezekiah, referred to, 37.

Hierocracy, 44-45-

High priest, 45.

Hillel, referred to, 100.

History, priestly, 34; prophetic, 36

note 64; taught, 34, 36 note 64, 67,

98.
Holiness, as ideal, 62; symbolized by

Temple, 107.
Home, see Family.
Hosea, referred to, 36.
Hospitality, 68, 72.
Humility, 69.
Hyrcanus, referred to, 93.

Ideals, educational, pre-Exilic, 20;

Moses, 69; the scribe, 78, 82-83;

woman, 113-115.
Incentives to study, 90, 99. See also

Motives.

Incorrigibles, death penalty, 51, 52.
Industrial occupations, 23, 82-83;

teachers', 96, 102; woman's, 114-

115.
Industrial training, boys', 23, 60-6 1;

girls', 115-116.
Infancy, meaning, 54; education, 62-

63, 64, 65, 96, 97-
Infanticide, 51.

Institutionalization of education, 76.
Instruction, Book of, 20 and note 2.
Instruction, informal, 25; precedes

memorizing, 97. See also Training.
Interest, place of, 98. See also Cor-
poral punishment; Incentives.
Isaiah, referred to, 36; as teacher, 37.
Isaiah, Second, 42.
Israel, kingdom, n.

Jacob, as ideal, 20.

Jamnia, referred to, 27.

Jason, high priest, 79.

Jehoiachin, referred to, 41.

Jehovah, see Yahweh.

Jephthah, referred to, 8; as ideal, 20.

Jeremiah, referred to, 32; methods of,
37; public instruction in time of,
105.

Jerusalem, capital, 9; rebuilt, 10, 42;
worship, 14; destroyed, 42, 44; res-
toration, effect on synagogue, 87;
public teachers, 94.



Jesus ben Sira, quoted, 82-83.

Jesus of Nazareth, debt to Hebraism,

4; adolescence, 56; referred to, 63;

teachings, 72; education, 99.
Jezebel, Queen, writing ability, 116.
Jael, referred to, in.
Jonathan's son, referred to, 22.
Joshua ben Gamala, 86, 92-95.
Josiah, reforms of, 14-15; effect upon

priesthood, 33.
Judah, kingdom, 10, n, 44.
Judah, tribe, 9, 10.
Judaism, 13, 46, 76, 84, 86.
Judges, period of, 8.
Juvenile offenders, 51.



Kandel, cited, 93.
Kingship, rise, 8ff.
Kinnor, 25.
Kohanim, 21.
Kosem, 34-35-



Laurie, cited, 93-94.

Law, oral, native period, 25; devel-
oped by Soferim, 84; favored by
Perushim, 85; origin and study,

IOI-I02.

Law, reverenced, 77-78, 102.

Law, taught, 25, 31, 34; on Sabbath,
64; in conversation, 70; supreme
importance, 77; produces schools,
91; in synagogue, 88, 89; encour-
aged by Shetach, 93; complete mas-
tery sought, 96; in elementary
schools, 97; in higher schools, 100-
102; in Temple, 105.

Law, written, adopted, 20; influence
on education, 29, 80, 81.

Laws, school, 93-95.

Legends, origin, 12; taught, 34.

Leipziger, cited, 93-94 .

Leisure, necessary for study, 78, 82.

Lemuel, referred to, 52.

Levites, as priests and teachers, 22,
32-34; teach music, 105; Temple
musicians, 105, 106, 108.

Leviticus, taught, 98.

Libraries, Babylonian, 42.

Literature, evolution, 25-27; priestly,
34, 42; prophetic, 36, 42; taught in
prophetic communities, 37; learned
in infancy, 63; morals taught by,
66-67; dominates curriculum, 79;



132



EDUCATION IN ANCIENT ISRAEL.



scope, 97. 5** also Hellenism;

Law; Legends; Myths.
Lot, 68, 72.
Love, divine, 15-16; paternal, 53.

Maccabean period, u, 43-44.

Magic, 35, 58.

Manhood, primitive ideal, 20.

Manners, education in, 68-72; taught
to girls, 1 1 6.

Masses, education, see Universal edu-
cation.

Mater synagogae, 115.

Matriarchy, in. See also Mother.

Meekness, 69.

Memoriter work, 63, 97, 98, 100-101.

Mesa stone, 28.

Methods, native period, 21; music,
dancing, 25; prophetic, 37; morals,
67; in synagogue, 88ff; elementary,
98; higher, 101-102.

Meturgeman, 88, 89.

Mezuzah, 62-63.

Military training, 23-24.

Mishna, 101 note 69.

Monarchy, rise, 8-10.

Monotheism, rise, 13-14, 15, 16.

Moral education, native period, 30-31;
by priests, 34; by prophets, 38;
post- Exilic, 66-67; girls', 116. See
also Manners.

Moral virtues, of Yahweh, 15-16; em-
phasized 30-31, 67, 69, 71, 72; of
women, 114-115.

Moses, adolescence, 56; referred to,
69, 108.

Mother, as teacher, 52; responsibility,
55; honored, 67; status, in. See
also Wife; Woman; Parents.

Motives of education, 89, 116. See
also Incentives to study; Ideals.

Mount Sinai, referred to, 108.

Municipal organizations, origin, 8.

Music, learned at home, 24-25, 61,
116; uses, religious, 24-25; pro-
phetic, 36; Temple, 106-108.

Myths, nomadic, 12; taught, 25; trans-
mitted, 34.

Nabi, 34-35-

Naomi, referred to, 22.

Naming of child, 55.

Nationalism, dangers to, 13.

Nebiim, 21, 34-35-

Nebuchadnezzar, referred to, 41.



Nehemiah, referred to, 27.

Neighbors, treatment, 71-72. See also
Hospitality.

Nobility, education, 28.

Nomadism, passage from, 7, 19-20; in-
fluence, n, 12; occupations, 23;
priests, 32; religions, 14; rites, 58;
festivals, 103; woman under, ixx.
See also Tribes.

Notes, numbering explained, 119.

Nurses, 22.

Obedience to parents, 66; to the law
77-

Object lesson, method, 37; the Tem-
ple as, 107.

Oral instruction, native period, 25; in
synagogue, 89. See also Law, oral;
Literature.

Oratory, prophetic, 36, 37.

Order of service in synagogue, 88-90;
in Temple, 105-106.

Organization of schools, 95.

Orphans, education, 86, 94, 95.

Ostentation, 69.

Palestine, physical features, 12.

Parables, 102.

Parents, as teachers, 22, 50, 63 ; author-
ity, 51; responsibility, how im-
pressed, 59; reverenced, 66, 67.
See also Father; Mother.

Passover, 65-66, 103, 104.

Pastoral occupations, 23.

Pater synagogae, 115.

Patriotism, 26, 45.

Pentateuch, 89, 98, 99.

Pentecost, 103, 104.

Periods in child life, rites, 54-59.

Periods, educational, 6-7, 22, 58-59.

Periods, historical, 6, u.

Peritz, quoted, 112.

Perushim, 85-86.

Pharisees, 85-86.

Phylacteries, 57-58, 63, 112.

Physical education, 24, 79.

Play, 23, 24.

Poets, prophets as, 36.

Political institutions, Greek, 43.

Political instruction, 34.

Political weakness, influence, n.

Polytheism, 12, 14. See also Relig-
ion.

Prayer, in family, 64 and note 73; in



INDEX.



133



synagogue, 88, 89, 90; in Temple,
105, 106.

Precepts, moral, 31, 67, 101.

Priesthood, power, 44-45; organiza-
tion, 80.

Priestly benediction, 90.

Priestly code, 80.

Priests, educational services, 32-34,
42, 80; Temple services, 106.

Professional training, see Scribes.

Prophetic conceptions, Yahweh, 15-16;
democracy, 45.

Prophets, Books of, in synagogue ser-
vice, 88, 89.

Prophets, educational service, 34-38,
42, 80.

Proverbs, Book of, as textbook, 70-98.

Proverbs, used in moral instruction,
67, 101.

Psalms, moral instruction, 67 ; a school
text, 98; used in Temple, 105, 106.

Ptolemy I, referred to, 43.

Public instruction, 104, 105. See also
Universal education.

Punishment, capital, 51; corporal, 52,
S3-

Purification rites, 55.

Purim, 65, 104.

Questions, children's, 63.
Question and answer method, 102.

Rabbi, as artisan, 60; title, 84-85.

Rachel, referred to, 49.

Reading, origin and extension, 27-30;
in prophetic communities, 37; diffi-
cult to learn, 97, 98.

Rebecca, referred to, 49.

References, method of indicating, 119.

Reforms, needed, 35.

Religion, Greek, 43.

Religion, Hebrew, nomadic origins,
12; evolution, 13-14; in national life,
12, 77, 85; in child's mind, 63, 99;
basis of morals, 66; basis of man-
ners, 68. See also Festivals; Rites.

Religious instruction: native period,
30, 34; in school, 59; in adoles-
cence, 58-59; importance, 62;
through worship, 88; divinely com-
manded, 65; to girls, 1 1 6.

Renaissance, Babylonian, 42.

Reviews, 98.

Riddles taught, 25.



Riding taught, 24.

Rites, Baal, 14.

Rites, entrusted to first-born, 22;
taught, 26, 31, 34; overemphasized,
46; divide child life, 54-59; educa-
tional significance, 59; for moral
instruction, 67; child's knowledge,
99; woman's place, 112. See also
Festivals

Roeh, 34-35-

Roman period, 44.

Ruth's child, referred to, 22.

Sabbath, worship, 64; synagogue ser-
vices, 87-91.

Sacrifices: human, 15; only at Jeru-
salem, 15; public, 1 06; private, 107.

Sadducees, 85, 93.

Sage, 81.

Salome, Queen, referred to, 92.

Samuel, referred to, 34, 35; adoles-
cence, 56.

Sanhedrin, 45.

Sar,ah, referred to, 49.

Sargon, n.

Saul, reign of, 8-9; death of sons, 16;
as physical ideal, 20; resorts to
Samuel, 34.

Saul of Tarsus, referred to, 100.

Schools, Babylonian, 42, 91.

Schools, Greek, 43.

Schools : lacking, native period, 2 1 ;
post-Exilic, outline, 60; elementary,
91-100; higher, 100-102; closed to
girls, 115.

Scribes, court, 28.

Scribes (Soferim), educational ideal,
78; as teachers, 80-84; schools of,
. 100-102.

Seer, 34-35-

Seidel, quoted, 106-107.

Seleucids, 43.

Self-control, 69-70.

Services, see Order of service.

Sex basis of education, 21, 79; mas-
culine, privileges, 88, 89.

Shalmaneser IV, u.

Shammai, referred to, 100.

Shechem, referred to, n.

Sheiks, influence, 8.

Shema, learned in infancy, 63; taught
in schools, 98; recited by men, 88;
in synagogue, 88, 90; in Temple,
105; forbidden to women, 112.



134



EDUCATION IN ANCIENT ISRAEL.



Shemini Atsereth, 104.

Shetach, claims of, 92, 93-95.

Shetach's son's martyrdom, 77-78.

Siloam, inscription, 29.

Simeon the Just, referred to, 81.

Simlah, 56, 63.

Simon ben Shetach, see Shetach.

Simplicity, 69.

Social institutions, factors determin-
ing-, 11-16.

Social reform, need of, 35.

Sodom, referred to, 72.

Soferim, see Scribes.

Solomon, reign, 10; Temple, 31-32.
See also Jerusalem; Temple.

Songs, 24, 25, 1 08. See also Levites;
Music.

Sons of prophets, see Prophets.

Spiers, cited, 93-94.

Stones as records, 20.

Stories, see Literature.

Story-tellers, professional, 26.

Succoth, young man of, referred to,
28.

Summaries of chapters, 3, 19, 41, 49.

75. in-
Symbolical methods, 37.

Symbolism of Temple, 107.

Synagogue, 87-91 ; modeled after Tem-
ple, 105; woman's place in, 112-115.

Tabernacles, Feast of, 103, 104. See
also Festivals.

Table manners, 71.

Tables: feasts and .festivals, 104;
moral virtues, 67; periods, histor-
ical, 5 ; periods, educational, 7 ;
schools and studies, 60.

Tallit, 57.

Talmud, 84, 101 and note 69; quoted,
93; quoted, 94-95-

Tamid, 106.

Tattooing, 58.

Teachers, native period, 22, 32-38:
post-Exilic, outline, 60; sex, 79;
ranks, 81; number, 91; public, 94,
95; per class, 95; status, 96; wages,
96, 102: See also Bards; Father;
Hassan; Levites; Mother; Nurses;
Parents; Priests; Prophets; Rabbi;
Scribes; Tutors.

Tsfillin, 57-58, na.

Tekoa, referred to, in.

Temple, Solomon builds, 10; sacrifice.



14; rebuilt, 42; profaned, 43; after
the Exile, 104-108; teaching in court,
too.

Temples, educational functions, 31.

Ten Commandments, 105. See also
Law, oral.

Texts, evolution, 26, 36, 84; Proverbs
and Ecclesiasticus, 52; in elemen-
tary schools, 98. See also Law;
Literature.

Three R's, 28, 29. See also Reading;
Writing; Weights and measures.

Titus, referred to, 44.

Totemism, 13.

Trade education, 60-6 1.

Traditions taught, 25, 26.

Training versus instruction, 21, 31.

Tribe, organization, 8, 9, 10; dissen-
sions, 12; as educative institution,
21 ; religion, 14, 24, 56. See also
Nomadism.

Trumpets, Feast of, 104.

Tutors, Ahab's sons', 22.

Twisted threads, 57, 63.

Universal education, 86-89, 90, 91-95.
Unleavened Bread, Feast of, 104.

Weaning, 55.

Weapons, training in use of, 23-24.

Weights and measures, $, 27, 29.

Wife, see Mother; Woman.

Woman, 111-115; as prophetess, 36;
status, 51, 52; in synagogue, 89, 115.
See also Mother; Wife.

Work, 23. See also Industrial educa-
tion; Physical education.

Worship of Baal, 14.

Worship, training in, 34, 80, 103.

Worship of Yahweh, 14-15.

Writing, 8, 27, 30; difficult, 98;
taught to prophets, 37. See also
Stones.

Writings, the, 27 and note 31.

Yahweh, conception of, primitive and
prophetic, 15-16, 34; ethical, 53, 66;
founder of institutions, 77; sym-
bolized in Temple, 107.

Yahweh, worship of, 14-15. See also
Temple; Worship.

Zedukim, 85, 93.
Zekenim, 81.
Zisit, 57, 63.



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