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Florence Merriam Bailey.

Handbook of birds of the western United States : including the Great Plains, Great Basin, Pacific Slope, and lower Rio Grande Valley online

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A N D B O (
)F BIRDS OF
THE WESTERN
UNITED STATES



Florence Merrieun Bail



X






BANCROFT
LIBRARY

THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA




RING-BILLED GULL (Page 23)



HANDBOOK OF BIRDS

OF THE

WESTERN UNITED STATES

INCLUDING

THE GREAT PLAINS, GREAT BASIN, PACIFIC SLOPE, AND
LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY

BY

FLORENCE MERRIAM BAILEY



WITH THIRTY-THREE FULL-PAGE PLATES BY

LOUIS AGASSIZ FUERTES, AND OVER SIX

HUNDRED CUTS IN THE TEXT



FOURTH EDITION, REVISED




BOSTON AND NEW YORK
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY



1915



r >






COPYRIGHT, 1902, BY FLORENCE A. BAILEY
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Publish** Navembtr, tgos



nAfv f c



PREFATORY NOTE.



THE preparation of this book has been facilitated by the good
offices of many ornithologists. To Mr. Robert Ridgway and Dr. C.
Hart Merriam I am indebted for use of the National Museum and
Biological Survey collections, and to Mr. Ridgway for generous
help in the study of the museum skins. I am also indebted to Mr.
Ridgway for use of the proof of his forthcoming Part II. of Birds
of North and Middle America, and to Dr. Merriam for use of the
Biological Survey records. Dr. A. K. Fisher has given me kindly
advice at all points and important help by a critical reading of the
entire manuscript, with especial examination of distributions. From
my husband, Mr. Vernon Bailey, I have had untiring advice and
assistance, in addition to the preparation of the water bird descrip-
tions and keys, and a large number of biographies of both water
and land birds. Mr. E. W. Nelson has generously corrected and
extended the ranges of the birds in Mexico, and Mr. H. C. Ober-
holser has rendered much valuable critical aid, while Dr. T. S.
Palmer has contributed an important chapter on bird protection.
To all those who have helped in the preparation of the book I would
express my sincere gratitude and appreciation.



FLORENCE MERRIAM BAILEY.



WASHINGTON, D. C.
October, 1902.



NOTE TO FOURTH EDITION.



IN the Addenda to the Fourth Edition of the Handbook will be
found a list of the changes in families and genera made by the No-
menclature Committee of the American Ornithologists' Union since
the publication of the Handbook ; descriptions of new species recog-
nized in the third edition of the Check- List of North American Birds
(1910) and in the Sixteenth Supplement to the Check-List (1912) ; a list
of species that should be dropped from the Handbook, either because
they have been eliminated from the Check-List, rejected by the No-
menclature Committee, thrown out of the western United States by
the subdivision of species, or because the records on which they were
included have been found unsatisfactory ; and also a list of the birds
of the western United States in the nomenclature of the 1910 Check-
List with corrected ranges ; together with a list of books of reference
published since the first edition of the Handbook.

F. M. B.

May, 1914.



CONTENTS



_ T PAGE

LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS ix

INTRODUCTION xxv

Acknowledgments xxv

Collecting and preparing Birds, Nests, and Eggs. By Vernon

Bailey xxvi

Collecting Birds . xxvi

Measuring .......... xxvii

Making Bird Skins . xxviii

Skinning xxix

Stuffing xxx

Labeling xxx

Sexing xxx

Collecting and preserving Eggs and Nests .... xxxi

Note-Taking, Note-Books, and Journals . . . . . xxxiii

Life Zones xxxiii

Migration . . . . . . xxxvi

Economic Ornithology xxxvii

Bird Protection. By Theodore S. Palmer .... xxxix

Books of Reference xliv

Use of Handbook Keys . xlix



BIRDS OF THE UNITED STATES WEST OF THE ONE
HUNDREDTH MERIDIAN.

KEY TO ORDERS , . .

KEY TO FAMILIES OF WATER BIRDS "



vi CONTENTS

ORDER PYGOPODES: DIVING BIRDS 5

Family Podicipidse : Grebes 5

Family Gaviidae : Loons .9

Family Alcidae : Auks, Murres, and Puffins . . . .11

ORDER LONGIPENNES : LONG-WINGED SWIMMERS .... 17

Family Stercorariidse : Jaegers, etc. ...... 17

Family Laridae : Gulls and Terns 19

ORDER TUBINARES : TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS 32

Family Diomedeidae : Albatrosses 32

Family Procellariidae : Fulmars and Shearwaters ... 33

ORDER STEGANOPODES : TOTIPALMATE SWIMMERS .... 39

Family Anhingidae : Darters 39

Family Phalacrocoracidae : Cormorants 39

Family Pelecanidae : Pelicans 42

Family Fregatidae : Man-o'-War Birds 43

ORDER ANSERES : LAMELLIROSTRAL SWIMMERS .... 44
Family Anatidse : Ducks, Geese, and Swans . . . .44

ORDER HERODIONES : HERONS, STORKS, IBISES, ETC. ... 70

Family Ibididse : Ibises 70

Family Ciconiidse : Storks and Wood Ibises . . . .72

Family Ardeidae : Herons, Egrets, Bitterns .... 72

ORDER PALUDICOL.E : CRANES, RAILS, ETC 78

Family Gruidae : Cranes 78

Family Rallidae : Rails, Gallinules, and Coots .... 79

ORDER LIMICOL^J : SHORE BIRDS 84

Family Phalaropodidae : Phalaropes ...... 84

Family Recurvirostridae : Avocets and Stilts .... 86

Family Scolopacidae : Snipe, Sandpipers, etc 87

Family Charadriidae : Plovers . . . . . . . 102

Family Aphrizidae : Surf Birds and Turnstones .... 106

Family Haematopodidse : Oyster-catchers 107

Family Jacanidaa : Jacanas 108

KEY TO FAMILIES OF LAND BIRDS 108

ORDER GALLIN/E : GALLINACEOUS BIRDS 113

Family Tetraonidae : Grouse, Partridges, Quail, etc. . . . 113

Family Phasianidae : Pheasants and Turkeys 134

Family Cracidae : Currassows and Guans 137

ORDER COLUMB-E : PIGEONS 138

Family Columbidae : Pigeons 138

ORDER RAPTORES: BIRDS OF PREY 144

Family Cathartidae : Vultures 144

Family Falconidae : Falcons, Hawks, Eagles, etc. . . . 146

Family Strigidae : Barn Owls 173

Family Bubonidae : Horned Owls, etc. 175

ORDER PSITTACI : PARROTS, MACAWS, PAROQUETS, ETC. . . 192

Family Psittacidae : Parrots and Paroquets 192



CONTENTS vii

ORDER COCCYGES: CUCKOOS, ETC 193

Family Cuculidse : Anis, Road-runners, and Cuckoos . . . 193

Family Trogonidae : Trogons 197

Family Alcedinidae : Kingfishers 198

ORDER PICI : WOODPECKERS, ETC 200

Family Picidse : Woodpeckers . . . . . . . 200

ORDER MACROCHIRES : GOATSUCKERS, SWIFTS, AND HUMMINGBIRDS 222

Family Caprimulgidae : Goatsuckers 222

Family Micropodidae : Swifts 229

Family Trochilidse : Hummingbirds 232

ORDER PASSERES : PERCHING BIRDS 245

Family Cotihgidae : Cotingas 245

Family Tyrannidae : Tyrant Flycatchers . . . . .245

Family Alaudidae : Larks 265

Family Corvidae : Crows, Jays, Magpies, etc 269

Family Sturnidae : Starlings 285

Family Icteridse : Blackbirds, Orioles, etc. ^ . . . . 285

Family Fringillidae : Finches, Sparrows, etc. . . . . 303

Family Tanagridae : Tanagers . 379

Family Hirundinidae : Swallows 382

Family Ampelidse : Waxwings and Phainopeplas . . . 387

Family Laniidae : Shrikes . . . 391

Family Vireonidae : Vireos 394

Family Mniotiltidae : Wood Warblers 401

Family Motacillidae : Wagtails 431

Family Cinclidae : Dippers 432

Family Troglodytidae : Wrens, Thrashers, etc. . . . . 433

Family Certhiidae : Creepers 451

Family Paridae : Nuthatches and Tits 452

Family Sylviidae : Kinglets, Gnatcatchers, etc 463

Family Turdidae: Thrushes, Solitaires, Bluebirds, etc. . 467

APPENDIX.

Color Key to Genera of some of the Common Passerine Birds . 479

ADDENDA 486

INDEX . . 545



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



FULL-PAGE PLATES.

PACING PAGK

I. RING-BILLED GULL Frontispiece.

II. ZONE MAP xxxiv

III. TOPOGRAPHY OF BIRD 1

IV. EARED GREBB 7

V. FORSTER TERN 29

VI. PELAGIC CORMORANT .42

VII. SHOVELLER 64

VIII. BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON - 77

IX. WILSON PHALAROPE 85

X. BLACK-NECKED STILT . . . . . . .86

XI. LONG-BILLED CURLEW 101

XII. SNOWY PLOVER 105

XIII. SCALED PARTRIDGE 118

XIV. MEARNS QUAIL 122

XV. WHITE-TAILED PTARMIGAN 129

XVI. MARSH HAWK 150

XVII. AUDUBON CARACARA 171

XVIII. POOR-WILL 224

XIX. SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER 246

XX. ARKANSAS AND CASSIN KINGBIRDS 249

XXI. ASH-THROATED FLYCATCHER 253

XXII. MAGPIE 270

XXIII. LONG-CRESTED JAY 273

XXIV. WOODHOUSE JAY .274

XXV. NORTHERN RAVEN 280

XXVI. YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD 288

XXVII. WESTERN LARK SPARROW 336

XXVIII. TEXAS PYRRHULOXIA 371

XXIX. LARK BUNTING 377

XXX. PILEOLATED WARBLER 428

XXXI. ROCK WREN . . .443

XXXII. CANYON WREN 445

XXXIII. LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN 450



x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

XXXIV. PYGMY NUTHATCH 454

XXXV. MOUNTAIN CHICKADEE . 458

XXXVI. VARIED THRUSH 474

DIAGRAMS.

Measurement of Bill xxviii

Measurement of Tarsus xxviii

FIGURES IN THE TEXT,

FIGURE PAGE

1. Western Grebe, foot 2

2. Loon, foot 2

3. Tufted Puffin, foot 2

4. Herring Gull, foot 2

5. Parasitic Jaeger, bill 2

6. Short-billed Gull, bill 2

7. Black-footed Albatross, bill 3

8. Giant Fulmar, bill 3

9. Cormorant, foot 3

10. Man-o'-War Bird, bill 3

11. White-crested Cormorant, bill 3

12. White Pelican, bill 3

13. Merganser, foot 3

14. White-faced Glossy Ibis, bill 4

15. Green Heron, head .........4

16. Sandhill Crane, foot 4

17. Florida Gallinule, foot 4

18. White -rum ped Sandpiper, foot 4

19. Eilldeer, foot 4

20. Western Grebe, head 5

21. Horned Grebe, head 7

22. Least Grebe 8

23. Pied-billed Grebe .8

24. Loon, bill .9

25. Pacific Loon, head . . 11

26. Tufted Puffin, bill 11

27. California Murre, bill 11

28. Rhinoceros Auklet, bill 12

29. Pigeon Guillemot, bill 12

30. Paroquet Auklet, bill 12

31. Least Auklet, bill 12

32. Tufted Puffin, head 12

33. Rhinoceros Auklet, bill 13

34. Paroquet Auklet, bill 14

35. Least Auklet, bill 14



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xi

36. Marbled Murrelet . 15

37. Pigeon Guillemot, head 16

38. California Murre 17

39. Long-tailed Jaeger, head 19

40. Herring Gull, bill 19

41. Forster Tern, bill . . - 19

42. Heermann Gull 24

43. Franklin Gull, head 25

44. Franklin Gull, wing tip 26

45. Bonaparte Gull, wing tip 26

46. Sabine Gull, bill 27

47. Sabine Gull 27

48. Caspian Tern, head 28

49. Least Tern 30

50. Black Tern 31

51. Sooty Albatross, bill 32

52. Black-footed Albatross, bill 32

53. Sooty Albatross, bill 33

54. Forked-tailed Petrel, bill 33

55. Slender-billed Fulmar, bill 33

56. Giant Fulmar, bill 84

57. Slender-billed Fulmar, bill 34

58. Kaeding Petrel 37

59. White Pelican, bill 42

60. Man-o'-War Bird, bill 43

61. Merganser, bill 44

62. Mallard, bill 44

63. Red-breasted Merganser, head .46

64. Hooded Merganser, head 47

65. Mallard, head 48

66. Baldpate, head 50

67. Green-winged Teal, head 51

68. Blue-winged Teal, head 52

69. Cinnamon Teal, head 53

70. Pintail, head 54

71. Wood Duck, head 55

72. Redhead, head . ' 56

73. Canvas-back, head 57

74. Scaup Duck, head 58

75. Golden-eye, head 59

76. Buffle-head, head 60

77. Old-squaw, head 61

78. Harlequin Duck, head . . . . . . .62

79. White-winged Scoter, head 63

80. Ruddy Duck, head 64



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

81. White-fronted Goose, head 66

82. Canada Goose, head 67

83. White-faced Glossy Ibis, head . 71

84. Bittern, head 73

85. Bittern, foot 73

86. Green Heron, head ... 76

87. Sandhill Crane, foot . 79

88. California Clapper Rail . .80

89. Virginia Rail, head . 80

90. Virginia Rail, foot 80

01. Carolina Rail, head 81

92. Yellow Rail 82

93. Black Rail 82

94. Florida Gallinule 82

95. Florida Gallinule, foot 83

96. Coot 83

97. Coot, foot "... 83

98. Red Phalarope, foot 84

99. Red Phalarope 84

100. Northern Phalarope 85

101. Avocet, head . 86

102. Wilson Snipe, head 88

103. Long-billed Dowitcher 89

104. Stilt Sandpiper 90

105. Knot . 91

106. Pectoral Sandpiper 91

107. White -rum ped Sandpiper .... ... 92

108. Baird Sandpiper 92

109. Least Sandpiper 92

110. Red-backed Sandpiper 93

111. Semipalmated Sandpiper 93

112. Western Sandpiper 94

113. Sanderling 94

114. Sanderling, foot . 04

115. Marbled Godwit v 95

116. Greater Yellow-legs 96

117. Lesser Yellow-legs 07

118. Solitary Sandpiper .97

119. Black-bellied Plover, head .102

120. Killdeer, head 104

121. Semipalmated Plover, head 104

122. Mountain Plover 105

123. Surf Bird . 106

124. Black Turnstone, summer plumage 107

125. Black Turnstone, head, winter plumage 107



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii

126. Black Oyster-catcher 107

127. Black Oyster-catcher, foot . 107

128. Bob-white, bill 108

129. Dove, bill 108

130. Turkey Vulture, bill 109

131. Turkey Vulture, foot . 109

132. Sparrow Hawk, bill 109

133. Fish Hawk, foot 109

134. Owl, bill 109

135. Saw- whet Owl, head 109

136. Western Horned Owl, head 109

137. Kingfisher, head 109

138. Kingfisher, foot 109

139. Cuckoo, foot 109

140. Cuckoo, bill 110

141. Woodpecker (Sphy rapicus) , bill 110

142. Woodpecker (Sphyrapicus), tail . 110

143. Woodpecker (Dryobates), foot . . . . . . .110

144. Woodpecker (Picoides), foot 110

145. Hummingbird, bill 110

146. Swift, bill .110

147. Nighthawk, foot . . . . . .' . . . .110

148. Swift, foot 110

149. Song Sparrow, foot 110

150. Skylark, bill 110

151. Horned Lark, foot 110

152. Flycatcher, bill . .111

153. Swallow, wing ....... r .. Ill

154. Sprague Pipit, foot Ill

155. Pipit, foot Ill

156. Warbler (Dendroica), bill Ill

157. Black and White Warbler, foot Ill

158. Song Sparrow, bill Ill

159. Goldfinch, bill . . . Ill

160. Crossbill, bill Ill

161. Longspur, bill Ill

162. Evening Grosbeak, bill . - Ill

163. Scarlet Tanager, bill .111

164. Summer Tanager, bill Ill

165. Oriole, bill . 112

166. Cowbird, bill 112

167. Crow Blackbird, bill 112

168. Shrike, wing feathers . .112

169. Loggerhead Shrike, head . . 112

170. Wren, bill . 112



xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

171. Jay, bill 112

172. Wren-Tit, bill 112

173. Robin, wing feathers 112

174. Kinglet, foot . .112

175. Warbling Vireo, foot 113

176. Warbling Vireo, bill 113

177. Vireo, tail . 113

178. Gnatcatcher, tail 113

179. Sage Thrasher, foot 113

180. Brown Creeper, bill . . . 113

181. Brown Creeper, tail 113

182. Chickadee, bill 113

183. Nuthatch, bill 113

184. Sage Grouse, tail 113

185. Sharp-tailed Grouse, tail 114

186. Ptarmigan, foot 114

187. Dusky Grouse, foot 114

188. Ruffed Grouse, foot 114

189. Mearns Quail, foot . .114

190. Bob-white, foot 114

191. Bob-white 115

192. Texan Bob-white . . . 116

193. Masked Bob-white 116

194. Plumed Partridge . . . 117

195. Valley Partridge, female 120

196. Valley Partridge, male 121

197. Gambel Partridge, male 121

198. Gambel Partridge, female 121

199. Dusky Grouse 124

200. Richardson Grouse 126

201. Franklin Grouse . " 126

202. Gray Ruffed Grouse 128

203. Southern White-tailed Ptarmigan . - 129

204. Prairie Hen 130

205. Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse 132

206. Sage Grouse 133

207. Band-tailed Pigeon 138

208. Mourning Dove 140

209. White-winged Dove . 142

210. Mexican Ground Dove . 143

211. Inca Dove 143

212. Turkey Vulture, head 145

213. Fish Hawk, foot 146

214. Prairie Falcon, feather 147

215. Sparrow Hawk, bill 147



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv

216. Swallow-tailed Kite, tail . 147

217. White-tailed Kite, foot .147

218. Audubon Caracara, bill 147

219. Mexican Goshawk, feather 147

220. Swallow-tailed Kite 148

221. Mississippi Kite 149

222. Sharp-shinned Hawk . , . . 151

223. Cooper Hawk 152

224. Goshawk 153

225. Sennett White-tailed Hawk, primaries 155

226. Red-bellied Hawk, primary 155

227. Zone-tailed Hawk, tail 155

228. Red-tailed Hawk 155

229. Zone-tailed Hawk, tail .... ... 158

230. Swainson Hawk 159

231. Rough-legged Hawk 162

232. Ferruginous Rough-leg 163

233. Golden Eagle .......... 164

234. Bald Eagle 165

235. Duck Hawk . . . 167

236. Pigeon Hawk .168

237. Sparrow Hawk 170

238. Fish Hawk 173

239. Barn Owl, foot 173

240. Barn Owl .174

241. Saw-whet Owl 175

242. Western Horned Owl, head 175

243. Long-eared Owl 176

244. Short-eared Owl 177

245. Barred Owl .178

246. Saw-whet Owl, head 180

247. Screech Owl 182

248. Dwarf Screech Owl 185

249. Western Horned Owl, head 186

250. Snowy Owl 187

251. Hawk Owl 188

252. Burrowing Owl 189

253. Pygmy Owl 190

254. Elf Owl 191

255. Groove-billed Ani 193

256. Road-runner 194

257. Yellow-billed Guckoo 195

258. Black-billed Cuckoo, tail 196

259. Coppery-tailed Trogon 197

260. Belted Kingfisher 198



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

261. Texas Kingfisher . 199

262. Woodpecker (Dryobates), foot 200

263. Woodpecker (Sphyrapicus), bill 200

264. Woodpecker (Dryobates),. bill 200

265. Woodpecker (Picoides), foot 200

266. Northern Pileated Woodpecker 200

267. Flicker .200

268. Northern Hairy Woodpecker . . . . . . 201

269. Harris Woodpecker . . . 202

270. Gairdner Woodpecker . ' .203

271. Texan Woodpecker . . .204

272. Nuttall Woodpecker . .205

273. White-headed Woodpecker 207

274. Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker . 208

275. Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker . . . . . . .209

276. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 210

277. Red-naped Sapsucker 211

278. Red-breasted Sapsucker 211

279. Williamson Sapsucker . 213

280. Northern Pileated Woodpecker . . . . . . .214

281. Red-headed Woodpecker . 215

282. Ant-eating- Woodpecker, head 216

283. Lewis Woodpecker . . .217

284. Red-bellied Woodpecker, head .218

285. Golden-fronted Woodpecker, head . . . . .219

286. Gila Woodpecker 219

287. Northern Flicker . 220

288. Whip-poor-will, head 223

289. California Poor-will 224

290. Nighthawk, foot 226

291. Nighthawk, head 226

292. Nighthawk, wing 226

293. Texas Nighthawk, wing 228

294. Swift, tail feather . . .229

295. Black Swift -. . .229

296. Chimney Swift . .230

297. Vaux Swift 231

298. White-throated Swift 232

299. Lucifer Hummingbird, bill ....... 232

300. Calliope Hummingbird, tail 233

301. Anna Hummingbird, female, tail . . . . . . 233

302. Black-chinned Hummingbird, tail . . . . . .233

303. Rivoli Hummingbird 233

304. Blue-throated Hummingbird 234

305. Ruby-throated Hummingbird, wing 234



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xvii

306. Ruby-throated Hummingbird 235

307. Black-chinned Hummingbird, female, tail 235

308. Anna Hummingbird, female, tail 236

309. Anna Hummingbird, male, tail 236

310. Costa Hummingbird 237

311. Anna Hummingbird 237

312. Broad-tailed Hummingbird, outer primaries .... 238

313. Broad-tailed Hummingbird, male, tail 238

314. Broad-tailed Hummingbird, female, tail 239

315. Rufous Hummingbird, male, tail 240

316. Rufous Hummingbird 240

317. Allen Hummingbird, male, tail . 241

318. Allen Hummingbird, female, tail 241

319. Calliope Hummingbird, tail 241

320. Calliope Hummingbird 242

321. Lucifer Hummingbird 242

322. Broad-billed Hummingbird . 244

323. Xantus Becard 245

324. Kingbird 248

325. Arkansas Kingbird, wing tip 248

326. Cassin Kingbird, wing tip . .249

Crested Flycatcher
Wood Pewee



327. Flycatchers



Pho3be



251



Kingbird

Least Flycatcher

328. Flycatcher (Myiarchus), foot . .251

329. Phoebe 254

330. Western Black Phoebe, head 256

331. Flycatcher (Contopus), foot . . . . . . .256

332. Olive-sided Flycatcher 257

333. Coues Flycatcher 257

334. Western Wood Pewee . 258

335. Flycatcher (Empidonax), foot 259

336. Western Flycatcher, bill 259

337. Hammond Flycatcher, bill 259

338. Wright Flycatcher, bill . . 259

339. Western Flycatcher, bill 260

340. Hammond Flycatcher 262

341. Hammond Flycatcher, bill 262

342. Wright Flycatcher, bill 262

343. Horned Lark, head 266

344. Pallid Horned Lark 267

345. Blue Jay 272

346. Rocky Mountain Jay, head . .277



xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

347. Oregon Jay, head 278

348. Crow, bill 279

349. Clarke Nutcracker 282

350. Bobolink, tail 285

351. Bobolink, head 285

352. Cowbird, bill 285

353. Meadowlark, head 285

354. Bronzed Grackle, bill 285

355. Oriole, bill 285

356. Yellow-headed Blackbird, foot 285

357. Red-wing, head 286

358. Bobolink 286

359. Cowbird 287

360. Red-winged Blackbird 290

361. Meadowlark 292

362. Scott Oriole 294

363. Arizona Hooded Oriole 296

364. Baltimore Oriole . . 297

365. Bullock Oriole, head 298

366. Brewer Blackbird 300

367. Bronzed Grackle 301

368. Redpoll, wing 303

369. Crossbill, bill ' . . .303

370. Western Evening Grosbeak, bUl 303

371. Redpoll, head 304

372. Snowflake, head . . .304

373. McCown Longspur, tail . . 304

374. Pine Finch, head 304

375. Black-headed Grosbeak, head . . . . . . .304

376. Western Lark Sparrow 304

377. Longspur, foot 304

378. Vesper Sparrow, tail 304

379. Dickcissel, head 305

380. English Sparrow, male 305

381. Pine Grosbeak, head 305

382. Pyrrhuloxia 305

383. Cardinal, head 305

384. Arctic Towhee 305

385. Slate-colored Jujco, head 305

386. Sparrow (Aimophila), wing 306

387. White-crowned Sparrow 306

388. Green-tailed Towhee, head 306

389. Fox Sparrow, head 306

390. California Towhee .306

391. Bunting (Cyanoapiza), bill 306



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xix

392. Song Sparrow, head 306

393. Western Evening Grosbeak . 307

394. Pine Grosbeak 308

395. California Purple Finch, tail 310

396. Purple Finch 311

397. Cassin Pur,ple Finch, head . . 312

398. House Finch, male 812

399. House Finch, female . 312

400. Crossbill, bill 313

401. White-winged Crossbill 315

402. Gray-crowned Leucosticte, head . . . . . . . 315

403. Hoary Redpoll . . . . . . . . . .318

404. Redpoll, head 319

405. Goldfinch 321

406. Arkansas Goldfinch, adult 322

407- Arkansas Goldfinch, immature 322

408. Lawrence Goldfinch 323

409. Pine Finch 323

410. English Sparrow, male ....... 324

411. English Sparrow, female . 324

412. Snowflake 325

413. Lapland Longspur, summer male ...... 326

414. Lapland Longspur, winter male 326

415. Smith Longspur, summer male . ... . . . . 327

416. Chestnut-collared Longspur, summer male ..... 328

417. Chestnut-collared Longspur, winter male 328

418. McCown Longspur . . . 328

419. Western Vesper Sparrow, tail 329

420. Sandwich Sparrow . . . . . . . . .331

421. Large-billed Sparrow . 833

422. Baird Sparrow 333

423. Western Grasshopper Sparrow 334

424. Sharp-tailed Sparrow, tail 335

425. Harris Sparrow ... 337

426. White-crowned Sparrow ........ 338

427. Gambel Sparrow, head . 339

428. Golden-crowned Sparrow ........ 340

429. White-throated Sparrow, head 340

430. Western Tree Sparrow ........ 341

431. Western Chipping Sparrow, head ...... 342

432. Brewer Sparrow, head . .843

433. Worthen Sparrow, head 344

434. Black-chinned Sparrow 345

435o Slate-colored Juneo 846

436. Thurber Jiraeo .348



EC LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

437. Red-backed Junco ... 349

438. Black-throated Sparrow, head 350

439. Sage Sparrow, head 352

440. Cassin Sparrow 353

441. Rufous-winged Sparrow, head 354

442. Rufous-crowned Sparrow, head 354

443. Song Sparrow, head .... .... 356

444. Desert Song Sparrow 357

445. Mountain Song Sparrow . 357

446. Samuels Song Sparrow 358

447. Rusty Song Sparrow 358

448. Lincoln Sparrow 359

449. Fox Sparrow 361

450. Townsend Sparrow 361

451. Thick-billed Sparrow, bill . .' 362

452. Slate-colored Sparrow, bill . 363

453. Stephens Sparrow, bill 363

454. Calif orniaTowhee 363

455. Towhee, head 363

456. Towhee, head 364

457. Arctic Towhee 364

458. Spurred Towhee . 365

459. Oregon Towhee . 365

460. California Towhee, head . 367

461. Green-tailed Towhee, head . . 368

462. Cardinal, head 369

463. Rose-breasted Grosbeak 372

464. Black-headed Grosbeak, head 372

465. Bunting (Cyanospiza), bill 374

466. Dickcissel, head 377

467. Scarlet Tanager, head . . . 379

468. Summer Tanager, bill 379

469. Scarlet Tanager, bill 380

470. Summer Tanager, bill 382

471. Barn Swallow, tail 382

472. Rough- winged Swallow, feather 382

473. Cliff Swallow, head 384

474. Barn Swallow, foot 385

475. Barn Swallow 385

476. White-bellied Swallow 386

477. Bank Swallow 386

478. Rough-winged Swallow, feather 387

479. Rough-winged Swallow, head 387

480. Cedar Waxwing 389

481. Phainopepla 390



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xxi

482. Shrike, bill 391

483o Northern Shrike 392

484. White-rumped Shrike 392

485. Black-capped Vireo, head 394

486. Cassin Vireo, head 394

487. Red-eyed Vireo, head 394

488. Warbling Vireo, head . 394

489. Red-eyed Vireo, head 395

490. Warbling Vireo, head 395

491. Cassin Vireo, head 396

492. Black-capped Vireo, head 397

493. Redstart, bill 401

494. Red-faced Warbler, bill 401

495. Black and White Warbler, head . . . . . . .401

496. Black and White Warbler, foot 401

497. Warbler (Helminthophila), foot 401

498. Chat, head 401

499. Northern Parula Warbler, head . 401

500. Warbler (Dendroica), bill 401

501. Black and White Warbler, head .402

502. Calaveras Warbler, head 402

503. Calaveras Warbler, head .404



Online LibraryFlorence Merriam BaileyHandbook of birds of the western United States : including the Great Plains, Great Basin, Pacific Slope, and lower Rio Grande Valley → online text (page 1 of 65)