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Florence Merriam Bailey.

Handbook of birds of the western United States : including the Great Plains, Great Basin, Pacific Slope, and lower Rio Grande Valley online

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local laws is prohibited, and through cooperation between federal
and state authorities statutes which were formerly dead letters are
now being enforced. The chief value of the law, however, lies in
the interest in protection which it has aroused throughout the coun-
try even among persons who formerly gave the subject no thought.
Largely through its influence game protection is now being estab-
lished on broader lines, rapid progress is being made in legislation,
and the laws are better observed than ever before.

1 See Palmer, "Extermination of Noxious Animals by Bounties," Yearbook Dept.
Agr. for 1896, pp. 55-68.



Z liv INTRODUCTION

BOOKS OF REFERENCE. 1

GENERAL WORKS.

AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. Check-List of North American

Birds. Third Edition (1910).

AUDUBON, JOHN JAMBS. Birds of America. Ornithological Biography.
BAIRD, SPENCER F. Review of American Birds. Smithsonian Mis. Col.

1864-1866 ; U. S. and Mexican Boundary Survey, vol. ii. part ii. 1859.
BAIRD, S. F.. CASSIN, J., and LAWRENCE, G. N. Pacific R. R. Reports,

vol. ix., Birds, 1858.
BAIRD, S. F., BREWER, T. M., and RIDGWAY, R. History of North

American Birds. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 3 vols., Land Birds,

1874; 2 vols., Water Birds, 1884.
BEDDARD, F. E. Study and Classification of Birds. Longmans, Green &

Co., New York, 1898.

BENDIRE, CHARLES E. Life Histories of North American Birds. Smith-
sonian Institution, 2 vols. 1892, 1895. (Land birds through Icteridae.)
CASSIN, J. Illustrations of the Birds of Texas, California, etc., 1853, 1855,

1856.

COOPER, J. G., and STTCKLEY, G. Pacific R. R. Report, vol. xii. No. ii. 1860.
COUES, ELLIOTT. Bibliography of Ornithology, Part i., Faunal Papers,

Appendix to Birds of Colorado Valley, 566-784, 1878 ; Parts ii. and

iii., Systematic Papers, Bull. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., Hayden, vol.

v. Nos. 2 and 4, 1879 ; Part iv., Faunal Papers on British Birds, Proc.

U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. ii. for 1879. Birds of the Colorado Valley, U. S.

Geol. Surv. Terr. 1878. Birds of the Northwest, U. S. Geol. Surv.

Terr. 1874. Key to North American Birds, 5th ed., Dana Estes & Co.,

1903.
EVANS, A. H. Cambridge Nat. Hist., vol. ix., Birds. Macmillan Co.,

New York, 1899.
FISHER, A. K. Rept. Orn. Death Valley Exped., N. A. Fauna No. 7,

1893. U. S. Dept. Agr.
HEERMAN, A. L. Pacific R. R. Rept., vol. x. part iv. Nos. i. and ii., Birds,

1859.
HENSHAW, H. W. Rept. Orn. Spec., Wheeler's Surv. for the Years 1871,

1872, and 1873. Exp. West Hundredth Meridian, vol. v. chap. iii. Zo-
ology, 1875.

KENNERLY, C. B. R. Pacific R. R. Rept., vol. x. No. 3, Birds, 19, 1859.
MERRIAM, C. H. Mammals and Birds. 6th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv.

Terr. 1872.
NELSON, E. W. Rept. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska Arct. Sep., No. iii. part i.,

Birds, 1877.
NEWTON, ALFRED. Dictionary of Birds. Macmillan Co., New York, 4

vols., 1893-1896.
RIDGWAY, ROBERT. Birds of North and Middle America. Bull. No. 50,

U. S. Nat. Mus. 1901, 1902. Hummingbirds, Ann. Rept. U. S. Nat.

Mus. 1890, sec. iii. 253. Nomenclature of Colors, Little, Brown &

Co., Boston, 1896. Manual of North American Birds, J. B. Lippin-

cott Co., Philadelphia, 2d ed. 1896. Ornithology of Survey of 40th

Parallel, U. S. Geol. Expl., part iii. 1877.
STEJNEGER, L., and Others. Riverside Natural History, vol. iv., Birds,

(1885.) Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.

1 For additional books of reference see Addenda, p. 537.



INTRODUCTION xlv

TOWNSBND, C. H. Notes on Birds of Kowak River, and other portions of

Alaska, Cruise of the Corwin, 1885.

TURNER, L. M. Contr. to Nat. Hist. Alaska, Arctic Ser. No. ii. 1886.
WOODHOUSE, S. W. Rept. Sitgreaves Exped. Zufti and Colo. Rivers, 1853.

PERIODICALS.
AMERICAN FIELD. American Field Publishing Company, 801 Masonic

Temple, Chicago.
AUK, THE. For subscriptions and Index to Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club and

Auk, Vols. I-XVII (1876-1900), address Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., 134

West 71st St., New York.

BiRD-LoRE. D. Appleton & Co., Harrisburg, Pa.
BULLETIN OF THE COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB. (See Condor.)
BULLETIN OF THE NUTTALL ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB. Cambridge, Mass.,

1876-1883. (See Auk.)
CONDOR, THE. For subscriptions and Index to Vols. I-X (1900-1908)

address J. Eugene Law, Hollywood, California (vol. i. published as Bull.

Cooper Orn. Club).

FOREST AND STREAM. 127 Franklin St., New York.
NIDOLOGIST, THE. Alameda, California, 1893-1896.
ORNITHOLOGIST AND OOLOGIST. Hyde Park, Mass., 1881-1892.
OSPREY, THE. Washington, D. C., Sept., 1896-July, 1902.
PROCEEDINGS CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Cal. Acad. Sci., San

Francisco, California.

OUTDOOR WORLD AND RECREATION. Nos. 2-8 Duane Street, New York.
ZOE. San Diego, California, 1st ser. 1890-1894.

STATE LISTS.

Arizona. COUES, ELLIOTT. Birds of Fort Whipple, Proc. Acad. Nat.
Sci. Phila. xviii. 1865, 1866 ; Birds of Colorado Valley, U. S. Geol. Surv.
Terr. 1878. HENSHAW, H. W. Annotated List of Birds of Arizona,
Expl. and Surv. West 100th Meridian, 1875. MEARNS, E. A. Avi-
fauna of Portions of Arizona, Auk, vii. 45, 251, 1890. MERRIAM, C.
H., San Francisco Mountain Region and Desert of Little Colorado, N.
Am. Fauna, No. 3, Biol. Surv. U. S. Dept. Agr. SCOTT, W. E. D.
Notes from Mountains of Southern Arizona, Auk, ii. 348, 1885. Avi-
fauna of Final County, with Remarks on Birds of Pima and Gila Coun-
ties, Auk, iii. 249, 383, 421 ; iv. 16, 196 ; v. 29, 159.

British Columbia. CHAPMAN, F. M. Collection of Birds of British
Columbia, by C. P. Streator, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. 3, No. i. 1890.
FANNIN, JOHN. Check-List of British Columbia Birds, Provincial Mu-
seum, 1898. OSGOOD, W. H. Natural History of Queen Charlotte
Islands, N. Am. Fauna, No. 21, Biol. Surv. U. S. Dept. Agr.

Canada. MACOUN, JOHN. Catalogue of Canadian Birds, Geol. Surv.
Canada, 1900.

California. General. BELDING, LYMAN. Land Birds of the Pacific
District, Cal. Acad. Sci., San Francisco, 1890. COOPER, J. G. Orni-
thology of California, Geol. Surv. Calif. 1870. GRINNELL, JOSEPH.
Check-List of California Birds, Pacific Coast Avifauna, No. iii. 1902.
Looms, L. M. Calif ornia Water Birds, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. Ser. 2 and
3, 1895, 1896, 1900. Local. BARLOW, C., and PRICE, W. W. List of
Birds, Placerville to Lake Tahoe, Condor, iii. 150, 1901. BLAKE, E.
W. Summer Birds of Santa Cruz Island, Auk, iv. 328, 1887. BRYANT,
WALTER. Birds and Eggs from the Farallon Islands, Proc. Cal. Acad.
2d Ser. i. 1888. COOPER, J. G. Additions to Birds of Ventura County,
Auk, iv. 85, 1887 ; Calif ornian Garden Birds, Am. Nat. x. No. 2, 90,



xlvi INTRODUCTION

1876. EVERMANN, B. W. Birds of Ventura County, Auk, iii. 86, 179,
1^86. GRIKNELL, JOSEPH. Birds of Pacific Slope of Los Angeles
County, Pasadena Acad. Sci. No. ii. 1898. KEELER, CHAS. A. Bird
Notes Afield, Elder & Shepard, San Francisco, 1889. McGREGOR, R.
C. Land Birds of Santa Cruz County, Pac. Coast Avifauna, No. 2, 1901.
MERRIAM, C. H. Biological Survey of Mount Shasta, N. Am. Fauna,
No. 10, Biol. Surv. U. S. Dept. Agr. OBERHOLSER, H. C. Birds from
Santa Barbara Islands, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxii. No. 1195, 205,
1900. TAYLOR, H. R., and BARLOW, C. Story of the Farallones,
Alameda, Cal., 1897. TOWNSEND, C. H. Field Notes on Mammals,
Birds, and Reptiles of Northern California, Birds, Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. x. 190, 1887. VAN DENBURGH, JOHN. Birds Observed in Cen-
tral California in 1893, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1898 : Birds of Santa
Clara County, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. vol. xxxviii. 157, 1899.

Colorado. COOKE, W. W. Birds of Colorado, State Agr. Coll. Bull.
37, 1897 ; 44, 1898 ; 56, 1900. DREW, F. M. Vertical Range of Birds
in Colorado, Auk. ii. 11, 1885.

Hudson Bay. PREBLE, EDWARD A. Biological Investigations of
Hudson Bay Region, N. Am. Fauna, No. 22, U. S. Dept. Agr. 1902.

Idaho. MERRIAM, C. H. Biological Reconnoissance of South Central
Idaho, N. Am. Fauna, No. 5, U. S. Dept. Agr. MERRILL, J. C. Notes
on Birds of Fort Sherman, Auk, xiv. 347, 1897 ; xv. 14, 1898.

Kansas. Goss, N. S. Birds of Kansas, Crane & Co., Topeka, Kan., 1891.

Lower California. BELDING, LYMAN. Catalogue Coll. Birds from
Western Coast and Cape Regions of Lower California, Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. vol. v. 527, 1882. BREAVSTER, WILLIAM. Birds of Cape Region,
Lower California, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xli. 1, Sept. 1902. BRYANT,
WALTER. Catalogue of Birds of Lower California, Mexico, Proc. Cal.
Acad. Sci. 1889.

Manitoba. THOMPSON, E. E. Birds of Manitoba, Proc. U. S. Nat
Mus. vol. xiii. 458, 1890.

Montana. COOPER, J. G. Fauna of Montana, Am. Nat. ii. and iii.
1869. RICHMOND, CHARLES W., and KNOWLTON, F. H. Birds of
South Central Montana, Auk, xi. 298, 1894. SILLOWAY, P. M. Sum-
mer Birds of Flathead Lake, University Montana, Bull. No. 3, Biol.
Ser. i. 1901. THORNE, P. M. Birds of Fort Keogh, Auk, xii. 211,
1895.

Nebraska. BRUNER, LAWRENCE. Notes on Nebraska Birds, Neb.
State Horticult. Soc. 1896. WALCOTT, R. H. Corrections to Bruner,
Proc. Neb. Orn. Union.

Nevada. FISHER, A. K. Ornithology of Death Valley Exp., from
N. Am. Fauna, No. 7, 1893, U. S. Dept. Agr. HOFFMAN, W. J.
Birds of Nevada, Bull. Geol. and Geog. Surv. vol. vi. No. 2, Hayden
Surv. 1881.

New Mexico. ANTHONY, A. W. Birds of Southwestern New Mex-
ico, Auk, ix. 357, 1892. HENRY, T. C. Catalogue of Birds of New
Mexico, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. xi. 104, 1859 ; Notes on Birds of
New Mexico, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. vii. 306, 1855. HENSHAW,
H. W. Birds of Upper Pecos River, Auk, ii. 326, 1885 ; iii. 73, 1886.
MITCHELL, W. I. Birds of San Miguel County, Auk, xv. 306, 1898.

Oregon. ANTHONY, A. W., Birds of Washington County, Auk, iii. 161,
1886. BELDING, LYMAN. Birds of Pacific Coast, California Acad.
bci., San Francisco, 1890. BENDIRE, CHARLES E. Notes on Birds of
Southeastern Oregon, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. xix. 1877, 109.
MERRILL, J. C. Birds of Fort Klamath, Auk, v. 139, 251, 357, 1888.
TOWNSEND, J. K. Catalogue Birds of Oregon, Narrative Journ. across



INTRODUCTION xlvii

Rocky Mts., Appendix, Perkins & Marvin, Boston, 1839. WOODCOCK,
A. R. Annotated List of Birds of Oregon, Ore. Agr. Exper. Station,
Bull. No. 68, 1902, Corvallis, Ore.

South Dakota. GRINNELL, G. B. Ludlow's Rept. Reconn. Black
Hills, Zool. Rept. chap, ii., Birds, 1875. McCnESNEY, C. E. Birds of
Cotean des Prairies of Eastern Dakota, Forest and Stream, vol. viii. 176,
192, 224, 214, 261.

Texas. ATTWATER, H. P. Birds of San Antonio, Auk, ix. 337, 1892.
BROWN, N. C. Second Season in Texas, Auk, i. 120, 1884. CHAPMAN,
F. M. Birds of Corpus Christi, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Hi. No. 2, art.
xxii. 315. LLOYD, W. Birds of Tom Green and Concho Counties, Auk,
iv. 181, 289, 1887. MERRILL, J. C. Notes on Texan Birds, Bull. Nutt.
Ornith. Club, i. No. iv. 88, 1876. SENNETT, G. B. Notes on Orni-
thology of Lower Rio Grande, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. iv. No. i. 1,
1878; v. No. 3, 371, 1879.

Utah. HENSHAW, H. W. Annotated List of Birds of Utah, Ann. Lye.
Nat. Hist. N. Y. xi. 1874, 1 ; Notes on the Bird Fauna of the Salt
Lake Valley, Bull. Essex Inst. v. No. ii. xi. 168, 1873.

Washington. COOPER, J. C., and SDCKLEY, G. Birds of 47th and
49th Parallels, Pacific R. R. Rept. vol. xii. book ii. part iii. No. 3, 1860.

DAWSON, W. L. Birds of Okonogan County, Auk, xiv. 168, 1897 ;
Birds of Yakima County, Wilson, Bull. New Ser. vol. ix. No. 2, No. 39,
1902. KOBBE, W. H. Birds of Cape Disappointment, Auk, xvii. 349,

1900. LAWRENCE, R. H. Birds of Gray's Harbor, Auk, ix. 39, 352,
1892. RATHBDN, S. F. Birds of Seattle, Auk, xix. 131, 1902.
RHOADS, S. N. Notes on Washington and British Columbia Birds, Auk,
x. 16, 1893.

Wyoming. GARY, MERRITT. Birds of Black Hills, Auk, xviii. 231,

1901. KNIGHT, WILBUR C. Birds of Wyoming, University of Wyo-
ming, Laramie. Bull. No. 55. Sept. 1902.

SPECIAL SUBJECTS AND POPULAR WORKS.

SPECIAL SUBJECTS.

Bird Protection.

A. 0. U. COMMITTEE ON BIRD PROTECTION. Annual Repts., Auk, xiv. 21,
1897; xv. 81, 1898; xvi. 55, 1899; xvii. 51, 1900; xviii. 68, 1901 ; xix.
31, 1902. Game Laws in Brief, Forest and Stream Publishing Co.
(Quarterly), New York. PALMER, T. S., and OLDYS, H. W. Digest of
Game Laws, 1901, Bull. 16, Biol. Surv. U. S. Dept. Agr. Game Laws
for 1902, Farmer's Bull. No. 160, U. S. Dept. Agr. PALMER, T. S.
Legislation for the Protection of Birds other than Game Birds, Bull.
No. 12, Biol. Surv., revised ed. 1902. LANGE, D. Our Native Birds,
How to Protect them and Attract them to our Homes, The Macmillan
Company, New York, 1899. MASEFIELD, J. R. B. Wild Bird Pro-
tection and Nesting Boxes, Taylor Bros., Leeds, England, 1897. Bird-
Lore, Audubon Department, D. Appleton & Company, Harrisburg, Penn.

BABCOCK, C. A. Bird Day ; How to Prepare for It, Silver, Burdett
& Co., New York and Boston, 1901.

Food of Birds.

Publications of Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agriculture. BE AL,
F. E. L. Food of Woodpeckers, Bull. No. 7, 1895. Food of Bobo-
link, Blackbirds, and Grackles, Bull. No. 13, 1900 ; Some Common



xlviii INTRODUCTION

Birds in their Relation to Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin, No. 54 ; Crow
Blackbirds and their Food, Yearbook for 1894 ; The Meadowlark and
Baltimore Oriole, Yearbook for 1895 ; The Blue Jay and its Food, Year-
book for 1896 ; Birds that Injure Grain, Yearbook for 1897 ; The Food
of Cuckoos, Bull. No. 9, 1898 ; How Birds affect the Orchard, Yearbook
for 1900. FISHER, A. K. Hawks and Owls from the Standpoint of
the Farmer, Yearbook for 1894 ; Two Vanishing Game Birds, Wood-
cock and Wood Duck, Yearbook for 1901. JUBD, S. D. Four Common
Birds of the Farm and Garden, Yearbook for 1895 ; The Food of Shrikes,
Bull. No. 9, 1898 ; The Food of Nestling Birds, Yearbook for 1900 ; The
Relation of Sparrows to Agriculture, Bull. No. 15, 1901. MEKBIAM,
C. H., and BARROWS, W- B. The English Sparrow in America, Bull.
No. 1, 1889. PALMER, T. S. A Review of Economic Ornithology in
the United States, Yearbook for 1899.

Migration.

BAIRD, S. F. Distribution and Migration N. Am. Birds, Am. Journ. ScL
Arts, vol. xli., Jan. 1866. BELDING, LYMAN. Land Birds of Pacific
Coast District, Cal. Acad. Sci., San Francisco, 1890. BREWSTER, WIL-
LIAM. Bird Migration Memoirs Nutt. Orn. Club, Cambridge, Mass., 1886.

CHAPMAN, F. M. Remarks on Origin of Migration, Auk, xi. 12, 1894.

COOKE, W. W. Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley, Div. Econ.
Orn. Bull No. 2, U. S. Dept Agr. GATKE, H. Heligoland, David Doug-
las, Edinburgh, 1895. LOOMIS, L. M. Water Birds of California, Proc.
Cal. Acad. Sci., San Francisco. STONE, WITMER. Bird Waves and
their Graphic Representation, Auk, viii. 194, 1891 ; Graphic Representa-
tion of Bird Migration, Auk, vi. 139, 1889. See, also, sections on Migra-
tion in Chapman's Bird-Life and Newton's Dictionary of Birds.

Moult and Protective Coloration.

CHADBOURNE, A. P. Individual Dichromatism in Megascops asio, Auk,
xiii. 321, 1896 ; xiv. 33, 1897. CLARKE, H. L. Pterylography of the Ca-
primulgidae, Auk, xviii. 167, 1901. D WIGHT, JONATHAN, JR. Moult of
Quails and Grouse, Auk, xvii. 143, 1900 ; Plumage Cycles and Relation
between Plumages and Moults, Auk, xix. 248, 1902 ; Sequence of Moults
and Plumages of Laridae, Auk, xviii. 49, 1901 ; Sequences of Plumages
and Moults of Passerine Birds, Annals New York Acad. Sci. vol. xiii. 77,
1896. STONE, WITMER. Moulting of Birds, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
Phila. 1896, 108 ; Moult and Alleged Color Change in Birds, Ibis, Apr.
1901, 177 ; Summer Moulting of Plumage of Certain Ducks, Proc. Acad.
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1899, 467. See, also, Newton's Dictionary, Moult, and
Chapman's Bird-Life, chap, iii., Colors of Birds.

Nests and Eggs.

BENDIRE, CHARLES E. Life Histories of North American Birds, 2 vols.
Smith. Inst. 1892, 1895. DA VIE, OLIVER. Nests and Eggs of North
American Birds, 5th ed. Landon Press, Columbus, Ohio, 1898. See, also,
the Condor, Osprey, and Nidologist.



BICKNELL, E. P. A Study of the Singing of our Birds, Auk, i. 60, 126,
209, 322, 1884 ; ii. 144, 249, 1885. CHENEY, S. P. Wood Notes Wild,
Lee & Shepard, Boston, 1892. OLDYS, H. W. Parallel Growth of Bird



INTRODUCTION xlix

and Human Music, Harper's Monthly, August, 1902, vol. cv. No. dcxxvii.
474. WITCHELL, CHARLES A. Evolution of Bird-Song, Adam &
Charles Black, London, 1896.

POPULAR BIRD BOOKS.

BASKETT, J. N. The Story of the Birds, D. Appleton & Co., New
York, 1897. BURROUGHS, JOHN. Wake-Robin ; Fresh Fields ; Birds
and Poets ; Locusts and Wild Honey ; Pepacton ; Winter Sunshine ;
Signs and Seasons ; Riverby, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.
CHAPMAN, FRANK M. Bird Life (popular colored ed.), 1902 ; Bird
Studies with a Camera, 1900 ; Handbook of Birds of Eastern North
America, 1895, D. Appleton & Co., New York. ECKSTORM, FANNIE
HARDY. The Bird Book, D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, 1901; The
Woodpeckers, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, 1901. ELLIOT, D.
G. Shore Birds, 1895 ; Game Birds. 1897 ; Wild Fowl, 1898, Francis
P. Harper, New York. HERRICK, FRANCIS H. Home Life of Wild
Birds, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1901. JOB, HERBERT K.
Among the Water-Fowl, Doubleday, Page & Co., New York, 1902.
KEELER, CHARLES A. Bird Notes Afield, Elder & Shepard, San
Francisco, 1889. KEYSER, LEANDER S. Birds of the Rockies, A. C.
McClurg & Co., Chicago, 1902. LORD, W. R. Birds of Oregon and
Washington, J. K. Gill Company, Portland, Oregon, revised edition,
1902. MERRIAM, F. A. A-Birding on a Bronco, Houghton, Mifflin &
Co., Boston, 1896. MILLER, OLIVE THORNE. Bird- Ways; In Nesting
Time ; Little Brothers of the Air ; A Bird-Lover in the West ; Upon
the Tree-Tops ; First Book of Birds ; Second Book of Birds, Houghton,
Mifflin & Co., Boston. TORREY, BRADFORD. Birds in the Bush ; A
Rambler's Lease ; The Foot-Path Way ; Everyday Birds, Houghton,
Mifflin & Co., Boston. SANDYS and VAN DYKE. Upland Game
Birds, Macmillan Co., New York, 1892. VAN DYKE, T. S. Game
Birds at Home, Fords, Howard & Hulbert, New York, 1895. WRIGHT,
MABEL OSGOOD. Birdcraft, 2d ed., Macmillan Co., New York, 1899.
WRIGHT, MABEL OSGOOD, and Dr. ELLIOTT COUES. Citizen Bird, 2d
ed., Macmillan Co., New York, 1900.

USE OF THE KEYS.

If you are a beginner with a bird to identify, and do not know the
orders into which birds are divided, go first to the Key to Orders,
pp. 1,2. If your bird is a plover, you may not be sure whether it is
classed with the water or land birds ; so begin with the Key to
Water Birds. This key, as all others in the book, is dichotomous,
that is to say, at every step the birds are divided into two classes,
which have or have not a given character birds are black or they
are not black, they have crests or they have not crests, their feet are
webbed or their feet are not webbed. At each step of the key a
number and its prime are used to set apart the two classes. In the
case of the Key to Orders of Water Birds the first two classes are
birds which have

1. Feet fully webbed.



1 INTRODUCTION

1'. Feet incompletely or not at all webbed.

If the bird you want to name has fully webbed feet, read down
the key from 1 ; if not, go to 1', and read down. The numbers fol-
low consecutively from each heading. In this case the birds with
fully webbed feet are divided again into several classes, and those
without fully webbed feet also have subdivisions.

1 Feet fully webbed (except Grebes in Pygopodes, which have the toes

lobed or margined).
2. Foot with three webs, all four toes connected.

Steganopodes : Totipalmate Swimmers, p. 3.
2'. Foot with two webs, three front toes connected.
3. Nostrils tubular . Tubinares : Tube-nosed Swimmers, p. 3.
3'. Nostrils not tubular.

4. Edges of mandibles toothed or serrate.

Anseres : Lamellirostral Swimmers, p. 3.
4'. Edges of mandibles not toothed or serrate.
5. Legs placed far back, wings short.

Pygopodes : Diving Birds, p. 2.
5'. Legs placed near middle of body ; wings long and pointed.

Longipennes : Long-winged Swimmers, p. 2.
1'. Feet incompletely or not at all webbed.
2. Lores and ring around eye naked.

Herodiones : Herons, Storks, and Ibises, p. 4.
2'. Lores and ring around eye feathered.

3. Hind toe long and approximately on a level with front toes (except
in Cranes which are over three feet long).

Faludicolee : Cranes, Rails, Coots, Gallinules, etc., p. 4.

3'. Hind toe short and elevated or absent ; bird never over twenty-six

inches long Limicolee : Shore Birds, p. 4.

Read down the key, passing the orders to which it does not
belong till you come to the order to which it does belong. For in-
stance, if your bird is a duck it has feet fully webbed (1), with two
webs, three front toes connected (2'), nostrils not tubular (3'), and
edges of mandibles toothed or serrate (4). It belongs to the Order
Anseres : Lamellirostral Swimmers. If , on the other hand, the bird
you want to name is a great blue heron, as it has not fully webbed
feet, you throw out 1 and all its subdivisions, passing on to 1',
feet incompletely or not at all webbed. The first subdivision here
is

2. Lores and ring around eye naked.

Herodiones : Herons, Storks, and Ibises.

You know if there is a naked ring around the eye, and to find
what lores means you turn to the diagram of a bird, p. 1. When
you find that your bird belongs to Order Herodiones, turn to the
page given (4), where you will find a key to the families in the order.



INTRODUCTION li

Read down this as before, when, by throwing out the families to
which it does not belong, you come to Ardeidce 2'. Bill straight
and sharp, neck and most of head feathered, to which it does belong.
Go now to the page specified (72), and run down the Key to Genera,
contained in Family ArdeidaB, and you find that it belongs to the
genus Ardea, to which you are referred (p. 74). Here you find the
general characters of the genus and a key to its species. As you
know the bird is bluish gray and its size large you find it to be Ardea
herodias, of which a detailed description is given (p. 75). If you
have been identifying a bird that you have shot, you will have your
own fresh measurements to compare with those in the description
(see page xxvii.).

In some of the more obscure birds you will find on getting to the
description of the species that you have made a mistake in running
down the keys, but by patience and care in following them you will
be able to identify all but the most difficult birds.

After a little study you will grasp the general classification of
birds so that it will not be necessary to go through the whole series
of keys for each bird. You may not know what it is, but you
know many things that it is not, and if you make a practice of
eliminating you will narrow down the possibilities so that it will be
much easier to find your bird. You may not know whether it
is a crow or a raven, but you do know that it is not a water bird,
a hawk, owl, or sparrow, and so you can go on throwing out what
you know it is not until you have to look up only those about which
you feel uncertain.

The question as to which subspecies a bird belongs to, unless de-
terminable by geographic range, can often be decided only by expert
ornithologists with large series of skins for comparison, and, in such
cases, found often among some of the flycatchers, the song spar-
rows, and wrens, the only way to be sure of your bird is to send it
to a museum for identification. The National Museum in Washing-
ton and the American Museum of Natural History in New York will
both identify material sent them.




Measurement of Bill




Measurement of Tarsus




Inner toe

Middle toe



TOPOGRAPHY OF A BIRD



BIRDS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES



KEY TO ORDERS.

WATER BIRDS.

1. Feet fully webbed (except grebes in Pygopodes, which have the toes

lobed or margined).
2. Foot with three webs, all four toes connected.

Steganopodes : Totipalmate Swimmers, p. 3.
2'. Foot with two webs, three front toes connected.
3. Nostrils tubular. Tubinares : Tube-nosed Swimmers, p. 3.
3'. Nostrils not tubular.

4. Edges of mandibles toothed or serrate.

Anseres : Lamellh ostral Swimmers, p. 3.
4'. Edges of mandibles not toothed or serrate.
5. Legs placed far back ; wings short.

Pygopodes : Diving Birds, p. 2.
5'. Legs placed near middle of body ; wings long and pointed.

Longipennes : Long-winged Swimmers, p. 2.
1'. Feet incompletely or not at all webbed.
2. Lores and ring around eye naked.

Herodiones : Herons, Storks, and Ibises, p. 4.
2'. Lores and ring around eye feathered.

3. Hind toe long and approximately on a level with front toes (except

in cranes, which are over three feet long) . . . Paludicolae :

Cranes, Rails, Coots, Gallinules, etc., p. 4.



Online LibraryFlorence Merriam BaileyHandbook of birds of the western United States : including the Great Plains, Great Basin, Pacific Slope, and lower Rio Grande Valley → online text (page 4 of 65)