Florence Merriam Bailey.

Handbook of birds of the western United States : including the Great Plains, Great Basin, Pacific Slope, and lower Rio Grande Valley online

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Male: length (skins) 5.58-6.02, wing 2.69-2.80, tail 2.60-2.83, bill .37-.39.
Female : length (skins) 5, wing 2.44, tail 2.47, bill .37.

Remarks. The reddish bill and absence of pectoral blotch are enough
to distinguish this sparrow from the western tree sparrow.

Distribution. Breeds in the northwestern part of the Plains in Ne-
braska, South Dakota, and Montana ; migrates to northern Mexico.

Nest. On or near the ground, in old weed grown fields and thickets,
made mainly of grass stems, Eggs : 3 to 5, white, tinged with green or
buff, and speckled with reddish brown.

Food. Insects and weed seed.

564. Spizella wortheni Ridgw. WORTHEN SPARROW.

Top of head dull reddish brown, indistinctly streaked with darker, rest
of head, including forehead, ashy ; back pale
tawny, broadly streaked with black; under
parts whitish, tinged with buffy gray on cheeks
and sides ; bill pinkish brown or cinnamon
rufous. Male: length (skins) 4.98-5.07, wing
2.63-2.76, tail 2.35-2.53, bill .37-.39. Female:
length (skins) 5.06-5.25, wing 2.55-2.69, tail
2.27-2.50, bill .3S-.36.

Remarks. The Worthen sparrow may be
distinguished from the western chipping by the
absence of black on forehead and black streak
433 ' behind eye.

Distribution. From Silver City, New Mexico, south on plateau of
northeastern Mexico to southern Puebla.


565. Spizella atrogularis (Cab.). BLACK-CHINNED SPARROW.

Adult male. Throat and ring around bill black ; head, neck, and lower
parts gray, becoming- white on belly and under tail cov-
erts; back and scapulars rusty brownish narrowly streaked
with blackish ; bill pinkish brown. Adult female : like
male, but usually with black of chin restricted, often want-
ing-. Young : similar, but black replaced by gray, streak-
ing on back narrower, chest indistinctly streaked. Male : Fig> 434 '
length (skins) 4.80-5.53, wing- 2.37-2.75, tail 2.41-2.92, bill .34-.42.
Female : length (skins) 4.90-5.45, wing- 2.37-2.55, tail 2.33-2.75, bill .34-

Distribution. Breeds from the desert ranges of California, Arizona, and
southern New Mexico south to Lower California and to southern end of
Mexican tablelands.

Nest. In bushes. Eggs : 3 to 5, plain light greenish blue.

The black-chinned sparrow is common in Los Angeles County,
California, in summer, on brushy mountain sides from the base of
the foothills up to 7000 feet. Its song is said to resemble closely
that of the eastern field sparrow.


General Characters. Bill conical ; wing rounded, primaries exceeding
secondaries by much less than length of tarsus; tail double-rounded;
tarsus decidedly longer than middle toe with claw ; hind claw nearly or
quite as long as toe.


1. Head black or blackish.

2. Back dark brown oregamis, p. 347.

2'. Back light brown.

3. Sides pinkish-brown connectens, p. 347.

3'. Sides buffy-brown.

4. Sides of head and throat deep black . . . thurberi, p. 347.
4'. Sides of head and throat slaty black .... pinosus, p. 348.
1'. Head gray or brownish.
2. Upper parts wholly gray.

3. Wing with two white bars aikeiii, p. 345.

3'. Wing unmarked hyemalis, p. 346.

2'. Upper parts gray and brown.
3. Back bright rufous.

4. Wing coverts and tertials rufous .... palliatus, p. 349.
4'. Wing coverts and tertials not rufous.

5. Under parts uniform ashy white .... dorsalis, p. 349.
5'. Under parts not ashy white.

6. Sides gray caniceps, p. 349.

6'. Sides pinkish annectens, p. 348.

3'. Back dull brown.

4. Sides slightly pinkish montanus, p. 348.

4'. Sides broadly pinkish mearnsi, p. 348.

566. Junco aikeni Bidgw. WHITE- WINGED JUNCO.
Adult male. Entire body almost uniform light slaty gray except for


abruptly white belly ; wings usually with two white bars and tail with three
outermost feathers almost wholly white. Adult female : similar, but
paler, upper parts tinged with brownish ; wing bars less distinct, often
obsolete. Young : entire body profusely streaked ; under parts with
whitish ground. Male: length (skins) 6.18-6.69, wing 3.21-3.66, tail
2.96-3.10, bill .46-.51. Female: length (skins) 5.89-6.62, wing 3.19-3.32,
tail 2.80-3.00, bill .45-. 49.

Remarks. This is the only junco with white wing bars, and there is
only one other in the west in which back and chest are of the same color.

Distribution. Breeds in northwestern Nebraska, the Black Hills, North
Dakota, and Wyoming ; migrates to Colorado and Kansas ; casually to
Indian Territory.

Nest. On the ground, usually near canyon bottoms, made of grass, lined
with grass and hair. Eggs : greenish white, lightly spotted with reddish
brown and lavender.

The white- winged junco winters in Colorado from the Plains to
an altitude of 8000 feet in the mountains, where Professor Cooke
finds it the commonest winter junco.

567. Junco hyemalis (Linn.). SLATE-COLORED JUNCO.

Adults. Whole body, except white belly, dark slaty gray, often blackish

.^1^. on head in male and washed with brownish in irnma-

*|^ ttire male and female, when the sides are also washed

Ilk with pinkish brown ; < wo pairs of outer tail feathers

^^k white ; bill in life pinkish white or flesh-color. Young

jS^L. * n fi rs t plumage : streaked on brown upper parts, and

Wp|MP^ buffy white under parts, wings with brownish band.

Male : length (skins) 5.44-6.23, wing 3.02-3.24, tail 2.49-

2.80, bill .40-.46. Female: length (skins) 5.22-6.10, wing

Fig. 435. 2.78-3.08, tail 2.45-2.64, bill .39-.46.

Distribution. Breeds in Transition and Canadian zones of North
America, chiefly east of the Rocky Mountains, and south in the mountains
of northeastern United States to Pennsylvania ; winters south to the Gulf
States ; casual in Arizona and California ; straggling to Siberia.

Nest. Usually on the ground, rather bulky, composed largely of
dried grass stems and rootlets, lined with softer materials. Eggs: usu-
ally 4 or 5, white, greenish, or buffy, speckled with reddish brown.
Food. Insects and weed seed.

Juncos are foresters or mountaineers who are driven down from
the mountains into the mild valleys when the severe snows come.
In this way the Sierra species spends the winter in the parks and
cemeteries of San Francisco. Others come from the far north and
go on to spend their winters in the south. Several species winter
in the Great Basin country. Some members of the west coast con-
tingency spread out over the interior valleys or even go to such
popular resorts as Pasadena, where they hop about over the ground
under the pepper-trees as if finding the pink aromatic berries a feast
spread to their taste.

When seen away from home, or at any time except the nesting
season, they are quiet, social birds, always sitting around in flocks,


flying up together with a twitter and a flash of their white outer
tail feathers, or singing in concert a sunny, pleasing warble.

In the breeding season the gray -headed junco may be found nest-
ing on the cold crests of the desert ranges in Nevada and the Great
Basin, the pink-sided in grassy parks in the pine forests of Mon-
tana, and the Point Pinos at Monterey, where the fragrance of the
pines is mingled with the distant roar of the Pacific. In their homes
you find them more interesting than when in flocks, because they
are now leading individual lives, but they are still the same trustful,
gentle birds, ready to come into camp or to let you examine their
nests. On Mt. Shasta and in the Sierra Nevada the Thurber junco
nests in the fir forests and mountain meadows from an altitude of
7000 to 8000 feet, frequently building near a brook under shelter of
a broad-leafed hellebore. One nest found on Donner Peak was sunk
in a bed of blooming heather. The brooding birds as a rule are very
tame, though they sit around and tsip at you when you come near,
and on rare occasions the mother will decoy.

56 7a. J. h. oreganus (Towns.). OREGON JUNCO.

Adult male. Head, neck, and chest black or dark slaty, the black
chest pattern outlined on the white of the under parts as a black convex ;
middle of back dark brown ; sides deep pinkish brown ; three outer tail
feathers with white, outside pair wholly white. Adult female : black of
male replaced by slaty ; crown and hind neck washed with brown, and
rest of upper parts brownish ; sides and flanks duller ; bill in life pinkish,
tipped with dusky, and iris dark brown or claret color. In winter : colors
stronger, and feathers of chest tipped with whitish. Young: streaked,
on brown above, buffy below. Male : length (skins) 5.50-6.07, wing 2.86
3.08, tail 2.43-2.69, bill .41-.45. Female: length (skins) 5.17-5.79," wing
2.78-2.86, tail 2.34-2.46, bill .41-.45.

Remarks. The subspecies of hyemalis are black-headed and chested
instead of gray as in hyemalis, aikeni, and annectens, and the chest line is
convex instead of straight across from wing to wing. Of the hyemalis
subspecies oreganus is the darkest, the head, neck, and chest of the adult
male being deep black and the back dark chestnut brown.

Distribution. Breeds on the Pacific coast from Alaska to British Co-
lumbia ; winters south to California ; straggling to eastern Oregon and

567b. J. h. connectens Coues. INTERMEDIATE JUNCO.

Similar to oreganus, but head and neck blackish slate instead of jet
black, back dull brown and sides pinkish brown. Male : length (skins)
5.55-6.20, wing 3.00-3.22, tail 2.62-2.84, bill .42-46. Female: length
(skins) 5.40-5.92, wing 2.82-3.08, tail 2.30-2.71, bill .41-.43.

Distribution. Breeds in the Rocky Mountain region from British Co-
lumbia and Alberta to Washington and northern Oregon ; east probably to
Montana and Idaho ; winters over the Rocky Mountain plateau to western
Texas and northern Mexico ; straggling to California.

56 7c. J. h. thurberi Anthony. THURBER JUNCO.

Similar to oreganus, but wings and tail longer ; head, throat, and breast


deep black, sharply contrasting with light brown of back ; sides buffy rather
than pink; young resembling oreganus, but
upper parts lighter. Male: length (skins)
5.32-5.95, wing 2.94-3.12, tail 2.48-2.68, bill
.40-.46. Female: length (skins) 5.00-5.67,
wing 2.82-2.94, tail 2.38-2.56, bill .41-.43.
Distribution. Breeds from southern Oregon south through the Sierra

Nevada, desert, and coast ranges, probably to northern Lower California ;

straggles to Arizona in winter. Migration mainly vertical.

Nest. On the ground, usually under a weed or bush or in a bank,

made largely of fine grass and other plant stems, shreds of inner bark,

lined with vegetable fibers and long porcupine or horse hairs.

567d. J. h. pinosus Loomis. POINT PINOS JUNCO.

Like thurberi, but black replaced by slaty on sides of head and throat ;
bill longer, general dimensions somewhat less. Young much mere strongly
tinged with buff below. Male : length (skins) 5.00-5.49, wing 2.40-2.90,
tail 2.30-2.55, bill .40-. 45. Female: length (skins) 4.90-5.65, win< 2.62-
2.79, tail 2.31-2.39, bill .40-.45.

Distribution. Southern coast range of California (Point Pinos, near

Nest. As described by Emerson, in a slight hollow at the foot, of a
bunch of grass, made of leaves and lined with dead grass and a few cow

567.1. Junco montanus Eidgw. MONTANA JUNCO: MOUNTAIN

Adult male. Head, neck, and chest slate color ; back dull light brown ;
sides pale pinkish ; belly white ; outer tail feathers largely white. Adult
female : similar, but duller, and brown of back extending up over crown.
Adults in winter : plumage softer. Young injirst winter : similar to winter
adults, but duller, feathers edged largely with brownish. Male: length
(skins) 5.49-6.00, wing 3.02-3.28, tail 2.58-2.78, bill .39-.44. Female:
length (skins) 5.25-5.69, wing 2.88-3.03, tail 2.35-2.65, bill .39-.44.

Remarks. Montanus resembles connectens, but is paler. It also sug-
gests mearnsi, but its wings and tail are shorter, and the color of the
head, neck, and chest darker.

Distribution. Breeds from Alberta south to Montana and Idaho ; win-
ters south to Texas, Arizona, and Chihuahua, Mexico; irregularly or
casually to the Mississippi Valley and eastward.

568. Junco mearnsi Eidgw. PINK-SIDED JUNCO.

Adult male. Head, neck, and chest clear light slaty gray ; sides exten-
sively pink ; lores blackish ; back and scapulars dull brown. Adult female :
similar, but brown of back extending up on crown; sides less pinkish.
Young : head and back brownish, streaked with blackish ; wings with
brownish bars ; under parts streaked, on buffy or grayish ground. Male .
length (skins) 5.67-6.11, wing 3.14-3.34, tail 2.64-2.89, bill .40-.45. Fe-
male: length (skins) 5.43-5.94, wing 2.90-3.37, tail 2.59-2.90, bill .40-.45.

Distribution. Breeds in Rocky Mountain region of Idaho and Mon-
tana ; migrates to Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico.

568.1. Junco annectens Baird. RIDGWAY JUNCO.

Similar to caniceps, but with sides and flanks pinkish vinaceous as in
mearnsi. Length : 6.40, wing 3.13, tail 3.05, bill .47.


Distribution. Not well defined ; has been taken in Nevada, Wyoming,
Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico.

569. Junco caniceps (Woodh.). GRAY-HEADED JUNCO.

Adults. Ash gray, except for white on middle of belly, bright rufous
back, black lores, and white outer tail feathers ; iris dark brown or claret
color. Young : streaked ; ground color of upper parts brown. Male :
length (skins) 5.62-6.19, wing 3.21-3.41, tail 2.70-2.94, bill .42-.47. Fe-
male: length (skins) 5.54-5.94, wing 2.95-3.30, tail 2.48-2.81, biU .41-.46.

Remarks. The gray sides distinguish this junco from all but the adult
male hyemalis, which has no reddish brown back patch.

Distribution. Breeds in Rocky Mountain region, from the Black Hills
to the Guadalupe Mountains in New Mexico and Texas ; west from Col-
orado to Nevada ; migrates to northwestern Mexico ; casually to southern

570. Junco phaeonotus palliatus Eidgw. ARIZONA JUNCO.

Adults. Top of head and rump ash gray ; back bright brown ; greater
wing coverts and tertials with outer webs chiefly rusty or rufous ; under parts
whitish ; outer tail feathers largely white ; iris yellow. Young : streaked.
Male : length (skins) 5.91-6.53, wing 3.00-3.26, tail 2.72-3.01, bill .44-
48. Female : length (skins) 5.56-5.94, wing 2.91-3.00, tail 2.46-2.82,
bill .44-.4S.

Eemarks. The Arizona and the red-backed juncos have the under
parts nearly uniform, but the brown on the wings distinguishes palliatus
from dorsalis. These two, with caniceps and male hyemalis, are all with-
out pink on the sides.

Distribution. Breeds in mountains of southern Arizona and probably
of northern Mexico.

570a. J. p. dorsalis (Henry). RED-BACKED JUNCO.

Adults. Upper parts ashy gray, except for bright rufous back; under
parts ashy white ; iris brown. Young : streaked ;
back reddish brown. Male : length (skins)
5.81-6.45, wing 3.22-3.41, tail 2.87-3.03, bill
.44-.50. Female: length (skins) 5.49-6.12, Fig 437

wing 3.00-3.21, tail 2.69-2.92, bill .45-.4S.

Remarks. The absence of brown on the wings distinguishes this sub-
species from palliatus.

Distribution. Breeds in Transition and Canadian zones in mountains of
New Mexico and northern Arizona ; winters south to western Texas and
northern Mexico.

Nest. In clumps of oaks on hillsides, or, as described by Dr. Mearns,
on ground in pine woods, concealed by bunch of wire grass, composed of
loosely put together roots, stems of plants, grasses, and an occasional
feather. Eggs : 4, greenish white, marked with lilac and reddish brown
around one end.

The coloration of most of the juncos is not particularly protective
except as the color pattern disguises the bird's form, but the red-
backed on the pine plateau of San Francisco Mountain, Arizona,
spends a large part of its time about the fallen pine -tops, where the
red of its back and the red of the dead pine needles and old bark
make a protective combination that, added to the gray of the body,


which offsets the gray of the branches, results in a most effective


General Characters. Bill small, nearly straight ; wing slightly rounded,
but without elongated inner secondaries ; tail nearly equal to wings,
feathers rounded at ends ; tarsus longer than middle toe and claw, side
toes of unequal length.


1. Throat black.
2. Smaller ; upper parts darker. Kansas to central Texas.

bilineata, p. 350.

2'. Larger, upper parts paler and browner. Western Texas to California.

deserticola, p. 350.
1'. Throat white.

2. Smaller and darker. West of Sierra Nevada . . . belli, p. 351.
2'. Larger and paler. Sagebrush plains . . . nevadensis, p. 351.

573. Amphispiza bilineata (Cass.). BLACK-THROATED SPARROW.
Adults. Lores and throat patch black ; sides of head dark gray with
two white stripes, under parts mainly white ;
upper parts plain grayish brown ; tail, except
middle feathers, marked with white. Young:
without distinct black markings ; throat white,
often marked with gray ; chest streaked ; wing
coverts and edges of tertials light buffy brown.
Male : length (skins) 4.80-5.25, wing 2.43-2.60,
tail 2.27-2.47. bill .3S-.39. Female: length
(skins) 4.75-5.35, wing 2.38-2.60, tail 2.18-2.45,
bill .38-.40.

Distribution. From western Kansas south
to middle and eastern Texas and northeastern

Nest. In bushes, sagebrush, and other
desert shrubs, composed of fine shreds of bark.

Eggs : o or 4, plain greenish or bluish white, rarely lightly spotted.

573a. A. b. deserticola Ridgw. DESERT SPARROW.

Adults. Similar to A. bilineata " but averaging larger ; upper parts
paler and browner, and white spot at end of inner web of outermost tail
feather much smaller." (Ridgway.) Young: feathers of back edged
with buffy rufous ; breast streaked with gray ; belly white. Male : length
(skins) 4.90-5.45, wing 2.52-2.78, tail 2.40-2.69, bill .39-.42. Female:
length (skins) 4.80-5.20, wing 2.45-2.60, tail 2.32-2.49, bill .36-.41.

Distribution. Breeds in Lower Sonoran zone on the arid plains from
western Texas and New Mexico west of 103 to the coast of south-
ern California, and from northern Utah and Nevada south to northern
Mexico and Lower California.

Nest. In sagebrush, cat's-claw, cactus, or other bushes, loosely made
of dry grass and fine plant stems, lined with feathers, horsehair, and wool.
Eggs : 3 or 4, bluish white.

On long hot rides over the larrea and low mesquite plains of New
Mxico the desert sparrow is the commonest bird of the way, its


black tail always disappearing in the bushes ahead of the horses as
you pass.

When we were camped on the arid mesa of the Pecos River,
among the sounds that were oftenest in our ears were the songs of
the mockingbird and nonpareil, the iterant pe-cos' of the scaled quail,
and the calls of the verdin and roadrunner, while, mingled with them,
always tinkling from the bushes, was the cheery little tune of
Amphispiza. Tra-ree' -rah, ree'-rah-ree was one of the commonest of
its varied modifications, and it was generally given with a burr like
that of the lark sparrow. On all our walks through the thorn brush
and climbs over the agave -speared hills we found the lovely little
bird everywhere, sitting on top of the bushes singing with head
thrown back in fine enjoyment of his bright lay.

One small father bird, trying to attract us when we were taking
notes on the first plumage of his brood, after twittering and calling
in vain, flew excitedly to a bush top and fairly burst into song while
his mate was trailing over the ground beside us, with the result that
the brood grew so unmanageable that they popped out of the nest
faster than we could put them back !

574. Amphispiza belli (Cass.). BELL SPARROW.

Adults. Throat bordered with black and white stripes ; breast with
black blotch ; rest of under parts white ; orbital ring and spot above
lores white ; upper parts brownish gray, grayer on head, usually without
distinct streaks; wing- coverts and tertials edged with buffy; edge of wing
yellowish ; tail feathers black, indistinctly marked with lighter. Young :
upper parts light grayish brown, streaked with black ; under parts buffy,
streaked except on throat ; wing with two rather distinct buffy bands.
Male : length (skins) 4.90-5.70, wing 2.32-2.79, tail 2.32-2.87, bill .32-.41.
Female: length (skins) 5.00-5.60, wing 2.40-2.61, tail 2.30-2.70, bill .31-

Distribution. From about latitude 38 in valleys and foothills of Cali-
fornia, west of the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains, to north-
ern Lower California.

Nest. About 3 feet from the ground, made of grasses and slender
weeds, lined partly with hair. Eggs : 4, pale greenish, thickly spotted
with reddish brown dots.

In Los Angeles County, California, Mr. Grinnell finds the Bell
sparrow locally common on the brush-covered washes of the mesas,
extending up to 50QO feet in summer.

574a. A. b. nevadensis (Eidgw.). SAGE SPARROW.

Adults. Sides of throat with a series of narrow blackish streaks, but no
continuous stripe ; chest with black spot ; sides and flanks faintly tinged
with light brown ; rest of under parts whitish ; upper parts light grayish
brown, back usually streaked narrowly but clearly ; outer web of lateral
tail feather white. Young : like adults but upper parts and chest streaked,
and wings with two buffy bands. Male : length (skins) 5.50-6.20, wing


3.05-3.20, tail 2.78-3.09, bill .37-.41. Female :
length (skins) 5.40-6.20, wing 2.85-3.15, tail
2.65-2.98, bill .37-41.

Remarks. The absence of a continuous
stripe on the side of the throat is enough to
distinguish the sage sparrow from the Bell.

Distribution. Breeds on sagebrush plains
of Upper Sonoran zone from Oregon and Idaho
south to California and New Mexico ; winters
in western Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and
southern California.

Nest. In sage and other low bushes, made
largely of fine shreds of sagebrush bark and
Sage Sparrow. dried grass stems. Eggs : 3 or 4, greenish
white or dull grayish white, speckled, chiefly
around larger end, with reddish brown, mixed with a few darker markings.

As Amphispiza bilineata is the bird of the creosote and mesquite
deserts of the Lower Sonoran zone, so nenadensis is one of the most
characteristic birds of the sagebrush deserts of the Upper Souoran.
He is indeed well named, for you find him everywhere throughout
the sagebrush valleys of the Great Basin. His soft gray tones and
faint streakings blend in well with the gray green brush. As he sits
on top of the tallest bushes his long black tail and its gently tilting
motion are good long range recognition marks.

Most of the year the birds are silent, but during the breeding sea-
son the sagebrush fairly rings with their simple but exquisitely
sweet song. VERNON BAILEY.

General Characters. Similar to Aimophila, but edge of wing yellow.


1. Upper parts ashy, back spotted and barred with sandy brown.

cassini, p. 352.
1'. Upper parts gray, streaked with dull rufous and spotted with black.

botterii, p. 352.

576. Peucaea botterii (Sdat.). BOTTERI SPARROW.

Adults. Upper parts grayish, streaked with dull rufous and spotted
with black ; edge of wing yellow ; under parts plain dull buffy. Young :
upper parts buffy, streaked with dusky ; under parts buffy ; throat, chest,
and sides streaked. Male : length (skins) 5.10-6.35, wing 2.35-2.75, tail
2.65-2.78, bill .45-.50. Female : length (skins) 5.20-5.70, wing 2.30-2.68,
tail 2.22-2.53, bill .43-.50.

Distribution. From southern Arizona and the lower Rio Grande Valley
in Texas south over the plateau of Mexico to Chiapas.

Nest. On or near the ground. Eggs : (1 set) 4, pure white.

678. Peucsear cassini (Woodh.). CASSIN SPARROW.

Adults. Upper parts ashen, streaked with sandy brown ; feathers of back


sandy brown with black shaft streak and black cross bar near tip, the edges
gray ; upper tail coverts with transverse, round-
ish, or crescentic dusky streaks ; middle tail
feathers with indication of transverse bars
from median black shaft streak ; edge of wing: - TTT^T" 1
yellow, and shoulder tinged with yellow ; under Flg * 44 ' Ca8Sm Spam>W '
parts grayish, tinged with brown on chest and sides. Young : chest and
upper parts distinctly streaked. Male : length (skins) 5.15-5.80, wing 2.35-
2.65, tail 2.40-2.82, bill .40-.46. Female : length (skins) 5.30-5.80, wing
2.40-2.53, tail 2.50-2.75, bill .40-.47.

Remarks. In the field the sandy brown streaking of the gray upper

Online LibraryFlorence Merriam BaileyHandbook of birds of the western United States : including the Great Plains, Great Basin, Pacific Slope, and lower Rio Grande Valley → online text (page 40 of 65)