rufous ; in female paler and duller. In winter : upper parts tinged with
brown ; under parts with feathers edged with white. Young : under parts
spotted ; upper parts streaked with white. Young in first winter : head
and neck brownish gray, like upper parts ; rufous of breast paler, more
olivaceous. Length: 10-11, wing 5.20-5.70, tail 3.80-4.70, bill .8S-.95.
Distribution. Breeds in Transition and Boreal zones in the western
United States from the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains to the
Pacific, and from British Columbia south to Lower California and Oaxaca,
Nest. On prairies, on the ground, and, in timber, near the ground ;
compact and bulky, made of leaves, stems, twigs, and grasses, plastered
together with mud, and lined with fine stems and rootlets. Eggs : usually
4, greenish blue.
Food. Largely ants, caterpillars, grasshoppers, and the injurious large
black crickets ; also hackberry, mistletoe and pepper berries, and other
In the east the robin is the familiar bird of the dooryard, like the
mockingbird of the south, or the brown chippie, the house finch, and
the lark sparrow in parts of California. But in the west he nests in
the mountains or far north, and when seen in winter is shy and
nervous. Flocks are sometimes seen eating ivy berries in the ceme-
teries of San Francisco, but are so timid they hide in the brush in
great trepidation on the approach of man.
The robin song, one of the most familiar and best loved of the
east, is not often heard, but in southern California during the spring
migration I have seen flocks of twenty birds in an oak top singing
their soft evening song, and at Stanford I once heard a wonderful
robin chorus equal to the best daybreak chorus one hears in the
In the Sierra as in the mountains of New Mexico and Arizona, in
both Transition and Canadian zones, the robins breed abundantly,
and as you pass are seen shaking their tails as they chirrup in their
old familiar way. In the neighborhood of Lake Tahoe we found
large numbers of them gathered in a field alive with grasshoppers,
and they were running about in all directions, tipping forward to
catch the insects in characteristic manner.
General Characters. Like Merula, but bill not notched.
KEY TO FEMALES.
1. Browner, with white markings restricted Sitkan district.
naevius, p. 473.
1'. Grayer, white markings more extensive. Interior Alaska.
meruloides, p. 474.
474 THRUSHES, SOLITAIRES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC.
763. Ixoreus nsevius (Gmel.). VARIED THRUSH.
Adult male. Under parts bright rusty brown, throat crossed by blackish
necklace ; belly mixed white and gray ; upper parts dark bluish slate,
feathers edged with lighter ; wings banded and edged with brown ; side
of head black, bordered above by brown streak. Adult female : similar,
but much duller ; upper parts washed with brown deeper in winter
and collar obscured by brown feathers. Young : like female, but duller ;
collar less distinct, and more or less spotted with yellowish brown ; feath-
ers of breast edged with dusky and those of upper parts with* distinct
paler shaft streaks. Length: 9-10, wing 4.90-5.20, tail about 3.60-3.80,
bill about 1.
Distribution. Breeds in Boreal zone along the Pacific coast from Ber-
ing Strait to Humboldt County, Gal. ; winters from Washington to Lower
Nest. Compact and bulky, in bushes and small trees. Eggs : 4, pale
greenish blue, sparingly speckled with brown,
Food. Caterpillars, weevils, ants, millipeds, mast, and wild berries.
The varied thrushes reach California in November, and flocks of
the splendid beauties, with orange breast and dark necklace, may be
seen in winter in the arboretum at Stanford and other places where
California holly berries are to be found. The birds are also es-
pecially fond of manzanita berries. In Placer County, Mr. Wil-
liams says, they live on insect food in winter, and are extremely shy,
rarely leaving the dark, heavily wooded canyons or hillsides. In
Oregon, Mr. Anthony tells us they are timid on their first arrival,
but grow tame enough to visit the ranches. They leave California
in March, and at that time Dr. Mearns found them abundant and
tame at Fort Klamath, coming about the houses fearlessly in great
Mr. Fuertes, in describing the song of the varied thrush as he
heard it in Alaska, says that it is "most unique and mysterious, and
may be heard in the deep still spruce forests for a great distance,
being very loud and wonderfully penetrating. It is a single long-
drawn note, uttered in several different keys, some of the high-
pitched ones with a strong vibrant trill. Each note grows out of
nothing, swells to a full tone, and then fades away to nothing until
one is carried away with the mysterious song. When heard near
by, as is seldom possible, the pure yet resonant quality of the note
makes one thrill with a strange feeling, and is as perfectly the voice
of the cool, dark, peaceful solitude which the bird chooses for its
home as could be imagined. The hermit thrush himself is no more
serene than this wild dweller in the western spruce forests."
763a. I. n. meruloides (Swains.). PALE VARIED THRUSH.
Adult female. Similar to female ncevius, but grayer and paler, white
markings more extended, wing longer, more pointed.
Distribution. Breeds in interior of northern Alaska ; migrates to south-
THRUSHES, SOLITAIRES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC. 475
765. Saxicola oenanthe (Linn.). WHEATEAR.
Adult male. Upper parts ash gray ; wings and terminal third of tail
black ; basal two thirds of tail, except middle feathers, white ; forehead,
superciliary, and upper tail coverts, white ; side of head with black stripe ;
under parts buffy anteriorly, white posteriorly. Adult female : duller,
black replaced by dusky. Winter plumage : upper parts brown ; white on
tail as in summer ; wings with lighter edgings ; under parts rusty buff ;
side of head without distinct streak. Young : like female, but feathers
with dark bars and pale centers at tip. Male : wing 3.58-3.98. Female :
Distribution. Breeds in Alaska ; migrates to Asia ; accidental in Col-
Nest. Among rocks and stone walls, made of grasses, lined with feath-
ers. Eggs : 3 to 6, pale greenish blue.
A specimen of the wheatear was taken at Boulder, Colorado, by
Minot, in 1880.
General Characters. Bill not more than half as long as head, notched
near tip ; feet short and stout ; tarsus not longer than middle toe ; side
toes unequal ; claws strongly curved.
KEY TO ADULT MALES.
1. Under parts without blue.
2. Sides of neck blue. Rocky Mountains to Atlantic . sialis, p. 475.
2'. Sides of neck brown. Southern Arizona .... azurea, p. 476.
1'. Under parts with blue.
2. Under parts wholly blue and white arctica, p. 476.
2'. Under parts blue and brown.
3. Back wholly chestnut bairdi, p. 476.
3'. Back blue in middle, chestnut on sides . OCCidentalis, p. 476.
766. Sialia sialis (Linn.). BLUEBIRD.
Adult male. Upper parts bright blue ; under parts reddish brown,
fading to white on belly. In winter ',
feathers of back bordered with brown.
Adult female : upper parts gray, deep-
ening to blue on rump, wings, and
tail ; under parts dull brown, becom-
ing whitish on belly. Young : upper
parts dark gray, streaked with white ;
under parts gray, spotted with white.
Male: length 5.70-7.00, wing, 3.90-
4.15, tail 2.60-2.90, bill .62-.67. Fe-
male: wing 3.80-3.90, tail 2.50-2.60.
Distribution. Breeds in Transition
and Upper Sonoran zones from Mani-
toba and Ontario south to Gulf of From Biological Survey, U. S.Dept. of
Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the Agriculture.
Rocky Mountains ; winters from the ^fif- 601-
middle states to the Gulf states and Cuba.
476 THRUSHES, SOLITAIRES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC.
Nest. In holes in trees, stumps, posts, or bird-boxes ; made largely of
dried grasses. Eggs : 4 to 7, plain pale greenish blue.
Food. Largely caterpillars, grasshoppers, and crickets ; also wild ber-
ries, like hackberry and woodbine.
The eastern bluebird ranges west to the base of the Rocky Moun-
tains, being a rare summer resident in Colorado.
766a. S. S. azurea Baird. AZURE BLUEBIRD.
Similar to sialis, but sides of neck brown, and under parts less ruddy
brown ; upper parts sometimes greenish blue, suggesting arctica. Length :
6.40-7.10. Male: wing 4.05-4.20, tail 2.70-2.95, bill .47-.50. Female:
wing 3.90, tail 2.55.
Distribution. Southern Arizona and Mexico.
767. Sialia mexicana occidentalis (Towns.). WESTERN BLUE-
Adult male. Upper parts dark purplish blue and chestnut ; throat pur-
plish blue; breast dark rufous; rest of under parts mixed brown, dull
purplish and gray. Adult female : head, neck, and upper parts gray, washed
with brown on back; rump and tail bright blue; outside tail feathers
edged with white. Young : like young of sialis, but bill slenderer. Male :
length 6.50-7.12, wing 3.95-4.45, tail 2.62-3.05, bill .45-.50. Female:
wing about 4, tail 2.50.
Distribution. Breeds in Transition zone of the Pacific coast, from Brit-
ish Columbia to Calif oraia. and east to western Nevada and Idaho ; casu-
ally during migrations to New Mexico.
Nest. In woodpecker hole high in a pine or other tree and also in
bird -houses. Eggs: (1 set) 6, pale blue.
Food. Largely caterpillars ; also crickets, weevils, ants, moths, locusts,
and grapes in winter months when insect food is less abundant.
The western bluebird'is often seen on roadside fences from which
it flies down to pick up insects. In the pine woods it sits close to the
tree trunks on short broken-off branches. It has the soft warble of
its kind, and the delicate bluebird way of lifting the wings while
76 7a. S. m. foairdi Ridgw. CHESTNUT-BACKED BLUEBIRD.
Similar to occidentalis, but back wholly chestnut.
Distribution. Transition and Canadian zones of the Rocky Mountain
district, south to Arizona, Texas, and northwestern Mexico.
Food. Partly grasshoppers, weevils, crickets, and sumac berries.
The chestnut-backed bluebird extends east as far as Pueblo, Colo-
rado, during migration, and breeds from the base of the foothills
up to 9500 feet.
768. Sialia arctica Swains. MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD.
Adult male. Upper parts light purplish blue or greenish blue ; under
parts pale greenish blue. In winter color dulled by dull brownish tips to
feathers above and below. Adult female : upper parts brownish gray, wings
and tail bright blue ; under parts fawn color, with blue showing through.
THRUSHES, SOLITAIRES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC. 477
Young: brownish or grayish, streaked with white; wings and tail blue.
Male : length 6.50-7.90, wing 4.60-4.80, tail 3.00-3.15. Female : length
7.00-7.20, wing about 4.25, tail 2.75-2.90.
Distribution. Breeds mainly in Boreal zone, chiefly in the interior
from Great Slave Lake south to New Mexico, and from the western part
of the Plains to the Pacific.
Nest. In old woodpecker hole ; among rocks or about houses. Eggs :
5 to 7, pale greenish blue.
Food. Largely crickets, also cicadas, grasshoppers, ants, weevils, and,
in winter, unpicked grapes and seeds of mistletoe and hackberry.
The exquisite coloring of the arctic bluebird makes it seem the
gentlest, most beautiful of all the lovely bluebirds.
In the Sierra Nevada in August, families of young are common
in the Murray pine meadows. The birds hunt largely in the open,
and are in the habit of hovering a few feet from the ground as they
look about for insects. In Colorado, Prof. Cooke says, the birds
wander up above timberline to at least 13,000 feet.
FOR the use of beginners who do not collect and have not access to
collections of skins, and who may consequently find the technical keys
difficult, the following 1 color key has been made to the more conspicuous
birds one meets in the field. Its use by any one who has skins to consult
is earnestly deprecated, as it is much better to work a little harder and
learn more to begin at the beginning, with ' Keys to Orders,' and follow
through to the species, so learning something of the classification of birds,
something of their fundamental relations, rather than to find their mere
names arbitrarily by the use of purely superficial characters.
FIELD COLOR KEY TO GENERA OF SOME OF THE
COMMON PASSERINE BIRDS.
(All birds preceding the Order Passeres are omitted, including all the
water birds, grouse, quail, turkeys, doves, hawks, owls, cuckoos, kingfish-
ers, woodpeckers, goatsuckers, swifts, and hummingbirds.)
ADULT MALES IN BREEDING PLUMAGE.
BIRDS WITH PLUMAGE PARTLY OR WHOLLY
I. BLACK. IV. BLUE.
II. YELLOW. V. GREEN.
III. RED. VI. BROWN OR GRAY.
I. BIRDS WITH BLACK IN PLUMAGE.
1. Plumage mainly or wholly black.
2. Wholly black (with more or less gloss).
3. Length about 16-26 . CROWS AND RAVENS ; see Coryus, p. 279.
3'. Length about 8.20-13.50.
4. Tail even, not folded laterally.
BREWER AND RUSTY BLACKBIRDS ; see Scolecophagus, p. 299.
4'. Tail graduated, folded laterally.
GRACKLES ; see Quiscalus, p. 301.
2'. Mainly black.
3. Under parts largely white.
4. Wings and tail metallic . ... MAGPIES ; see Pica, p. 269.
4'. Wings and tail not metallic.
5. Sides brown . . . (part of) TOWHEES ; see Pipilo, p. 363.
5'. Sides not brown.
6. Sides pinkish or buffy . (part of) JUNCOS ; see Junco, p. 345.
6'. Sides white like belly.
BLACK PHCEBES ; see Sayornis, p. 254.
3'. Under parts not white.
4. Head yellow or brown, in contrast to black body.
5. Head yellow . . . YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD, p. 288.
5'. Head brown COWBIKDS ; see Molothrus, p. 287.
4'. Head partly or wholly black like body.
5. Back of head whitish or buffy brown . . BOBOLINK, p. 286.
5'. Head wholly black.
6. Wings conspicuously marked with red.-
RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS ; see Agelaius, p. 289.
6'. Wings conspicuously marked with white.
7. Crested ; white patch on quills . PHAINOPEPLA, p. 390.
7'. Not crested ; white patch on coverts.
LARK BUNTING, p. 377.
Plumage not mainly or wholly black.
2. Under parts partly or wholly yellow.
3. Head and neck red LOUISIANA TANAGER, p. 379.
3'. Head and neck not red.
4. Back streaked on brownish or grayish.
5. Chest with black patch or crescent.
6. Under parts deep yellow, except for black crescent.
MEADOWLARKS ; see Sturnella, p. 292.
6'. Under parts mainly or partly white.
7. Under parts white or pale yellow, except for black chest
patch ; wings without brown patch.
HORNED LARKS, see Otocoris, p. 266.
7'. Breast bright yellow ; throat patch black ; wings with
brown patches DICKCISSEL, p. 377.
5'. Chest without black crescent, under parts black, white, and
yellow- AUDUBON WARBLER, p. 413.
4'. Back not streaked on brownish or grayish.
5. Head and breast gray ; tail black.
ARKANSAS AND CASSIN KINGBIRDS ; see Tyrannus, pp.
5'. Head and breast not gray ; tail not always black.
6. Plumage largely black and brown.
BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK, p. 372.
6'. Plumage almost wholly black and yellow or olive green.
7. Wholly yellow or olive green, except for black on head.
8. Head with black cap . PILEOLATED WARBLER, p. 428.
8'. Head with black patch on sides of face.
YELLOW-THROATS ; see Geothlypis. p. 424.
7'. Wings and tail, if not back, as well as crown, black.
8. Length about 4.50-5.40.
GOLDFINCHES ; see Astragalinus, p. 319.
8'. Length about 6.50-10.00.
9. Bill long and slender . ORIOLES ; see Icterus, p. 293.
9'. Bill short and thick.
WESTERN EVENING GROSBEAK, p. 307.
2'. Under parts without yellow.
3. Upper parts brown, streaked.
4. Crown striped black and white ; under parts gray or white.
CROWN SPARROWS ; see Zonotrichia, p. 337.
4 . Crown black ; chest black.
LAPLAND LONGSPUR ; see Calcarius, p. 325.
3'. Upper parts not brown streaked.
4. Throat with black patch.
5. Back streaked with black.
BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER, p. 418.
5'. Back not streaked.
6. Black of throat extending over chest.
BLACK-THROATED SPARROWS ; see Amphispiza, p. 350.
6'. Black of throat not extending over chest.
CHICKADEES ; see Parus, p. 455.
4'. Throat without black patch.
5. Tail forked, plumage marked with salmon or red.
SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER, p. 246.
5'. Tail not forked, plumage not marked with salmon or red.
6. Back blue black or bluish gray ; length 4-6.
7. Back blue black ; throat chestnut.
CLIFF SWALLOW, p. 384.
7'. Back bluish gray.
8. Tail extremely short . NUTHATCHES ; see Sitta, p. 453.
8'. Tail long . . GNATCATCHERS ; see Polioptila, p. 465.
6'. Back gray, brownish gray, or ash gray ; length 813.
7. Tail mainly black or white ; back of head gray.
8. Tail mainly white ; length about 12-13.
NUTCRACKER, p. 282.
8'. Tail mainly or wholly black ; length about 7.50-10.75.
9. 'Belly brown SAY PHCEBE, p. 255.
9 . Belly gray or white . SHRIKES ; see Lanius, p. 391.
7'. Tail mainly gray ; back of head black.
OREGON AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN JAYS ; see Perisoreus,
II. BIRDS WITH YELLOW IN PLUMAGE.
1. Under parts mainly or wholly yellow.
2. Upper parts streaked . . . MEADOWLARKS ; see Sturnella, p. 292.
2'. Upper parts not streaked.
3. Plumage yellow and green, without gray or black.
YELLOW WARBLERS ; see Dendroica, p. 407.
3'. Plumage with gray or black.
4. Length about 6.50-10.50.
5. Head and neck red, yellow, black, or yellow and black.
6. Head and neck red .... LOUISIANA TANAGER, p. 379.
6'. Head and neck black, or yellow and black.
7. Upper parts olive green, lores black.
LONG-TAILED CHAT, p. 426-
7'. Upper parts black and yellow.
ORIOLES ; see Icterus, p. 293.
5'. Head and neck gray.
6. Wings and tail marked with rufous.
CRESTED FLYCATCHERS ; see Myiarchus, p. 251.
6' Wings and tail not marked with rufous.
CASSIN AND ARKANSAS KINGBIRDS ; see Tyrannus. pp. 248, 249.
4'. Length about 4.00-5.40.
5. Wings and tail black.
GOLDFINCHES ; see Astragalinus, p. 319.
5'. Wings and tail green.
6. Crown black PILEOLATED WARBLER, p. 428.
6'. Patches on sides of face black.
YELLOW-THROATS ; see Geothlypis, p. 424.
1'. Under parts not mainly or wholly yellow.
2. Upper parts largely black.
3. Head and neck yellow ; under parts black and yellow.
YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD, p. 288.
3'. Head and neck black ; under parts brown and yellow.
BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK, p. 372.
2'. Upper parts not largely, if at all, black.
3. Head and neck yellow or slate gray.
4. Head and neck yellow ; wings with chestnut patches.
VERDIN, p. 462.
4'. Head and neck slate gray ; wings without chestnut.
MACGILLIVRAY WARBLER, p. 424.
3'. Head and neck not yellow or slate gray.
4. Head with black, yellow, and red crown patch.
GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLETS, p. 463.
4'. Head without crown patch.
5. Head with black horn-like appendages, throat yellow, tail
black, edged with white.
(part of) HORNED LARKS ; see Otocoris, p. 266.
5'. Head without horn-like appendages ; throat not yellow ; tail
with yellow terminal band.
WAXWINGS ; see Ampelis, p. 387.
III. BIRDS WITH RED OR PINK IN PLUMAGE.
1 . Under parts mainly or wholly red or pink.
2. Upper parts largely reddish or pinkish.
3. Bill crossed CROSSBILLS; see Loxia, p. 313.
3'. Bill not crossed.
4. Head crested CARDINALS ; see Cardinalis, p. 369.
4'. Head not crested.
5. Bill thick and short.
6. Length about 5.50-7.00.
PURPLE FINCHES ; see Carpodacus, p. 309.
6'. Length about 8-9.
PINE GROSBEAKS ; see Pinicola, p. 308.
5'. Bill not short and thick . TANAGERS ; see Piranga, p. 379.
2'. Upper parts not largely reddish or pinkish.
3. Head purplish blue NONPAREIL, p. 376.
3'. Head red VERMILION FLYCATCHER, p. 264.
1'. Under parts not mainly red or pink.
2. Plumage strikingly colored.
3. Plumage salmon or pink, black, and white.
4. Tail forked SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER, p. 246.
4'. Tail not forked.
5. Under parts white, with rose patch.
ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK, p. 372.
5'. Under parts black, white, and salmon or red.
REDSTART, p. 429.
3'. Plumage black or brown, marked with red or rose color.
4. Body black, with red wing coverts.
RED- WINGED BLACKBIRDS ; see Agelaius, p. 289.
4'. Body brownish, with rose on under parts.
PYRRHULOXIAS ; see Pyrrhuloxia, p. 370.
2'. Plumage not strikingly colored.
3. Crown with red, yellow, and black.
GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET, p. 463.
3'. Crown with concealed red patch.
4. Rest of plumage wholly black, slate gray, and white.
KINGBIRD, p. 247.
4'. Rest of plumage not wholly black and white.
5. Upper parts olive green ; under parts dull whitish.
KINGLETS ; see Regulus, p. 463.
5'. Upper parts grayish ; under parts gray and yellow.
ARKANSAS AND CASSIN FLYCATCHERS ; see Tyrannus,
IV. BIRDS WITH BLUE IN PLUMAGE.
1. Upper parts glossy steel blue.
2. Tail forked for about half its length . . BARN SWALLOW, p. 384.
2'. Tail forked for much less than half its length.
PURPLE MARTINS ; see Progne, p. 383.
1'. Upper parts not glossy steel blue.
2. Length about 11.00-13.75.
3. Crested STELLER JAYS ; see Cyanocitta, p. 271.
3 '.Not crested.
4. Plumage blue and gray or white.
CALIFORNIA AND WOODHOUSE JAYS ; see Aphelocoma, p. 274.
4'. Plumage uniform grayish blue .... PINON JAY, p. 284.
2'. Length about 4.25-8.00.
3. Bill long and slender .... BLUEBIRDS ; see Sialia, p. 475.
3'. Bill short and thick.
4. Under parts red or partly brownish.
5. Under parts bright red, head purplish blue, back green.
NONPAREIL, p. 376.
5'. Under parts blue, white, and brown, head and back blue.
LAZULI BUNTING, p. 375.
4'. Under parts dark blue like upper parts.
5. Wings with brown patches ; length 7-8.
WESTERN BLUE GROSBEAK, p. 373.
5'. Wings without brown patches ; length 4.75-5.75.
INDIGO BUNTING, p. 374.
V. BIRDS WITH GREEN IN PLUMAGE.
1. Plumage green and yellow, marked with black.
2. Wings and tail black.
3. Length about 4.00-4.50.
(part of) GOLDFINCHES ; see Astragalinus, p. 319.
3'. Length about 7.00-8.50 . WESTERN EVENING GROSBEAK, p. 307.
2'. Wings and tail not black.
3. Head and neck gray . . . MACGILLIVRAY WARBLER, p. 424,
3'i Head and neck yellow, marked with black.
4. Crown black ...... PILEOLATED WARBLE E, p. 428.
4'. Crown not black.
5. Face with black lores . . . LONG-TAILED CHAT, p. 426.
5'. Face with black side patches.
YELLOW-THROATS ; see Geothlypis, p. 424.
1'. Plumage not green and yellow marked with black.
2. Head with crown patch.
3. Crown patch bright red, or red, yellow, and black.
KINGLETS ; see Regulus, p. 463.
3'. Crown patch reddish brown . . GREEN-TAILED TOWHEE, p. 368.
2'. Head without crown patch.
3. Under parts red, head purplish blue, back glossy green.
NONPAREIL, p. 376.
3'. Under parts yellowish or whitish ; head and back mainly green or
gray VIREOS ; see Vireo, p. 394.
VI. BIRDS WITH PLUMAGE LARGELY BROWN OR
1. Back streaked.
2. Crown bright reddish brown or black.
3. Crown black.
4. Back streaked with white.
MARSH WRENS ; see Cistothorus, p. 449.
4'. Back streaked with black .... HARRIS SPARROW, p. 337.
3'. Crown bright reddish brown.
WESTERN CHIPPING SPARROW, p. 342.
2'. Crown not reddish brown or black.
3. Top of head streaked.
4. Head and back uniform ; tail feathers wholly brown, sharp
pointed . - CREEPERS ; see Certhia, p. 451.
4'. Head and back not uniform; tail feathers marked with white,
not sharp pointed LARK SPARROW, p. 336.
3'. Top of head not streaked.
4. Under parts heavily spotted ; outer tail feathers not white.
CACTUS WRENS ; see Heleodytes, p. 442.
4'. Under parts more or less streaked; outer tail feathers marked
with white PIPITS; see Anthus, p. 431.
1'. Back not streaked.
2. Under parts reddish or orange or more or less spotted.
3. Under parts reddish or orange.
4. Chestwithdark necklace . VARIED THRUSHES; see Ixoreus,p. 473.
4'. Chest without dark necklace . . ROBINS ; see Merula, p. 472.
. 3'. Under parts not reddish or orange.
4. Tail strikingly marked.
5. Tail with white corners .... SAGE THRASHER, p. 435.
5'. Tail with black crescent ROCK WREN, p. 443.
4'. Tail not strikingly marked.
5. Tail cinnamon brown, barred with black.
CANYON WRENS ; see Catherpes, p. 444.
5'. Tail not cinnamon brown, nor barred with black.
6. Tail 3.00-3.40 . . . THRUSHES ; see Hylocichla, p. 468.
6'. Tail 4.25-5.80 . . . THRASHERS ; see Torostoma, p. 437.
2'. Under parts not reddish or spotted.
3. Upper parts bluish gray.
4. Tail very short NUTHATCHES ; see Sitta, p. 453.
4'. Tail not very short . . GNATCATCHERS ; see Polioptila, p. 465.
3'. Upper parts gray or brown.