Foster Watson.

The encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) online

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The onset of an infectious disease is preceded
by a period of incubation, during which stage
symptoms are absent or slight.

Symptoms at Onset of Disease. The more or less
characteristic onset is usually associated in children
with headache, feverishness, rigors, sickness and
vomiting. After the onset, the disease runs its
usual course, and characteristic symptoms develop.
In some instances rash is a prominent feature.
Catarrh of the nose and eyes, with a rash following
after the third or fourth day, is observed in measles;
sore throat and a scarlet rash in scarlet fever; sore
throat and membranous exudation on the fauces
in diphtheria; water blisters in chickenpox; papules,
which develop through the stage of blisters to
pustules, in smallpox; and so on. After a time the
disease declines, and convalescence is restored.
Unfortunately, infection is not invariably com-
pletely thrown off when convalescence is reached;
and some children, particularly after scarlet fever
and diphtheria, may continue to be infectious for
some time after they are apparently completely
restored to health. Cases are also atypical, and the
illness so slight and transient that the exact nature
of the ailment is not recognized. These patients
are capable of spreading infection; and, therefore,
when an infectious disease is prevalent among
school children, slight ailments should be investi-
gated with every care, particularly' attacks of sick-
ness and sore throat in the case of scarlet fever or
diphtheria. Other children appear to harbour
infection without developing the disease, a fact
which should be remembered when outbreaks occur
in a class and no known contact can be discovered.
What are apparently minor complications, par-
ticularly catarrh of the nose or sore throat, require
medical investigation if they develop soon after
convalescence. In the case of measles, the early
symptoms of catarrh are indistinguishable from
those of common cold; and, although a child is
excluded after the rash appears, other children
may have contracted the ailment during this period
of catarrh.

The chief points which require to be observed
in schools are the followng —

1. A register should be kept containing the past
history of each child, and this should be kept up
to date.

2. In residential schools, a certificate stating
that the patient has not been exposed to infection
for three weeks previous to return, should be
required. If there has been infection in that period,
or there has been exposure during an " exeat,"
quarantine for the period stated below should be
insisted upon.

3. The earliest possible recognition of an infec-
tious disease should be attempted, followed by
isolation of the patient.

4. If children have been exposed to infection,
they should be excluded for the incubation period
of the disease and a few days over.

5. In times of prevalence, frequent examination
should be made of all children for unrecognized
cases, using the bacteriological method where such
is available (e.g. in diphtheria).

6 Exclusion of convalescents for a period
beyond that of cure is necessary after certain
diseases, as indicated in the table below.

7. " Discharge " cases, " return " cases, and
►"carrier" cases should never be lost sight of in

their relationship to outbreaks.

8. Disinfection should be performed where there

has been a possibility of a patient infecting either
rooms, clothing, or school appliances.

Period of Exclusion. The following table indicates
the duration of usual exclusion from school of
patients, and also the generally accepted period of
incubation and duration of quarantine, the latter
as set out by the Medical Of&cers of Schools Associa-
tion. The period of quarantine should begin after


Period of Exclusion.




For not less than
14 days after the
appearance of the
rash. Satisfac-
tory convales-
cence should also
be established.

10-14 days

16 days


For not less than
10 days after the
appearance of the
rash in uncom-
plicated cases.

7-18 days

20 days


For a fortnight
after disinfection
of the patient.
UncompHca ted
cases are rarely
discharged from
isolation under 4
weeks from at-
tack. CompU-
cated cases may
require prolonged

2- 8 days

10 days


For a fortnight
after disinfection
of the patient.
cases are dis-
charged from iso-
lation in about
three weeks. The
bacterio logical
test should be

2-10 days

The bacterio-
logical test
should be
used ; a neg-
ative result is
desirable on
three succes-
sive occasions
at intervals of
two days, and
no antiseptic
should have
been used for
at least three
hours prior to
taking the


Until aU scabs
have fallen off.

11-19 days

20 days


Until all scabs
have fallen off
and the patient
has been disin-

10-14 days

16 days


A week should
elapse after the
glandular swell-
ing has subsided.
In general, the
duration of the
disease is about
2 weeks.

10-23 days

24 days


A fortnight should
be allowed to
elapse after the
whoop has dis-
appeared. This
usually takes
about 3 or 4
weeks. In case
of persistence of
the whoop, not
less than 6 weeks
should elapse be-
fore return to

7-19 days

21 days





the disinfection of the contact, and during the
period further contact with infection should be

Exclusion of contacts on account of enteric or
typhoid fever and erysipelas are rarely required,
and the period of exclusion of patients suffering
from these diseases, and also the exclusion of
patient and contacts in the case of cerebro-spinal
meningitis (spotted fever) and polio-myelitis (in-
fantile paralysis), should be the subject of special
inquiry in each instance. W. J. H.

INFERENCE. — This is the process of reasoning
which leads from facts which have been observed
to the knowledge of other facts which have not
been observed, and combines the whole in one
comprehensive system of knowledge. The method
of inference is shown in the syllogism.

INFLUENZA. — (See Infection and School

INFORMAL METHOD.— Instruction is some-
times given in connection with a subject of formal
teaching apart from formal lessons on that subject.
Such teaching may be methodical in so far as it is
part of a plan to connect the forms and rules of the
subject with their use. Such a method is called
" informal," and is being increasingly employed in
connection with grammar, which was long taught
quite formally, but is now taught informally to a
large extent in connection with composition and

INFORMATION.— To the educationist-, the
imparting of knowledge is a means of education,
as well as an end. He can educate only through
information, and in the hands of a teacher the
information imparted must always lead to educa-
tional development. The purposes he has in view
are to draw out, exercise, and develop the mental
powers of his pupils, and to enable them to acquire
knowledge in the easiest and most effective way.
On the other hand, the inforniationist has no pur-
pose but to impart as much information as possible
without interesting himself in the development of
the mind of the learner or hearer. Education both
prepares the learner's mind for the reception of
information, and trains it to utilize prepared and
suitable information. Given suitable preparation
of the mental powers, and systematic training of
the power to apply knowledge, there is practically
no limit to the amount of information that may be
provided to the learner. Every fresh supply of
knowledge adds to the store of material required
for the free development of the mind, helps in the
interpretation and application of both old and new
forms of knowledge, and constitutes both a
pleasurable and a profitable possession.

INHIBITION.— This may be either physical or
psychical. By physical or nervous inhibition is
meant the inhibition of movements by control of
the central nervous system. This is found in all
co-ordinated muscular movements. Thus in learn-
ing any complicated series of actions, such as riding
a bicycle, the movements are not perfectly co-
ordinated until there is a definite amount of move-
ment of certain muscles, and a definite inhibition
of others.

Psychical inhibition is the prevention of the
occurrence of one mental process by another.

There are two main conditions of psychical inhibi-
tion. The first is competition between unrelated
ideas, in which some controlling idea inhibits all
others from the mind. Thus a soldier in battle may
suffer from severe and painful wounds without
realizing their existence. The second conflict
occurs when two connected but incompatible ideas
fight for position in consciousness. Such inhibition
is the result of a judgment taking place in which
the mental process already at the focus of con-
sciousness must continue along one of two lines,
and, whichever one is decided upon, inhibits the
other. A feeling of strain always accompanies such
mental conflict, and the inhibition of one of the
two ideas may be due to competition for the motor
nerve tract. M. J. R.

INITIATIVE. — Class-teaching makes for economy
- — of time, effort, and money. But in some measure
also for inefficiency: individuality is apt to be
neglected and personal independence and initiative
disregarded. Unless controlled and modified of set
purpose by the teacher, the forces of our school
system will tend to produce an average of mediocrity
— in which each pupil is one of a crowd, unduly
responsive to suggestion and unduly imitative.
Initiative is choice and selection, and a shaping of
means to an end; it implies the disposition to
challenge authority and to think with originality.
The leader has it rather than the follower. It is a
movement of will, and finds its best expression in
the field of character. In teaching practice, the
heuristic method is here of value, as contrasted with
the " holding-forth " of the lecturer in oral exposi-
tion, with a natural and consequent absence of
forceful compulsion upon the single pupil to think
and do for himself. He should be let alone more.

A. E. L.


INNS OF COURT, THE.— There are, despite the
researches of recent years, many problems in the
history of the Inns of Court which are yet unsolved;
and, especially of their origin, even those who have
made a study of their records can only speak with
hesitation. When these records begin, it is clear
that they speak of bodies which are already of some
age, which have traditions and fixed organization,
which have acquired property and privileges, and
which are powerful to resist attack. Still, it is
possible, by comparison and inference, to form at
least a plausible conjecture as to the origin of these
societies; and a very important and interesting
origin it is.

For it is the cardinal fact in English legal history,
and one of the cardinal facts in English history
generally, that England alone, of all the countrie9| ,
of Western Europe, emerged from the night of the*
Dark Ages with a system of law which was, in the
main, of pure native growth. While France, Ger-
many, Spain, Italy, and Austria (to use modern
names) were, for the most part, governed, or, at
least, judged, by more or less correct versions of
Justinian's Code and Pandects, or, possibly, by
older versions of Roman Law, England, by the
close of the thirteenth century, had developed a
" common " or uniform law of her own, gradually
formed by a kind of consolidation of the numerous
local customs which, in the days of primitive
barbarism, had governed each little village or





It may seem odd to say that this momentous
fact was mainly due to the circumstance that, at
the critical moment when barbarism was passing
into civilization, England fell under the masterful
rule of a line of foreign kings, who, powerful and
ruthless as they were, had the sense to see that it
was wiser to govern by justice rather than by
terror and arbitrary force. In the matter of law,
their policy was very clear. Their subjects should
have their own law {lex terrae) ; but that law
should be administered, not in the sleepy little
tribunals which had grown up with \'illage and
hundred, but by the able and powerful body of
officials who were gathering round the King's
Palace at Westminster. By the end of the thirteenth
century, the King's judges, either in the King's
Courts at Westminster, or in their periodical
circuits or progresses throughout the country, had
secured a virtual monopoly of the important and
lucrative business of administering justice to the

But the establishment of these tribunals inevit-
ably necessitated the establishment of a body of
skilled assistants to conduct the proceedings before
them. There can be no greater mistake than to
suppose that primitive legal procedure is character-
ized by simplicity and straightforwardness. Legal
procedure is a substitute for physical combat; and,
just as in a fight each party endeavours, by feint
and parry, to get the better of his opponent, so in
the lawsuit which is substituted for it. Probably
even in the old local customary courts there were
forth-speakers and other assistants of the parties.
Still more would such assistants be needed in the
new royal tribunals, where the judges did not even
understand the native tongue of the litigant.

Strange to say, the demand did not, apparently,
at first produce the supply; for we have, in the
year 1292, the famous writ which requires Chief
Justice Metingham and his comrades to take order
for the election of a number of suitable attorneys
and apprentices to serve the Icing's subjects in his
Court, to the exclusion of all others. And, as the
King suggests seven score as a suitable number,
it is clear that the legal business expected to come
before the King's judges in their various tribunals
was at least considerable.

It might naturally have been supposed that the
opportunity afforded by the King's writ would
have been eagerly seized by the crowd of " clerks "
who, even in the thirteenth century, were thronging
the halls and lecture rooms of Oxford and Cam-
bridge, with a keen eye to worldly advancement by
their studies. But the law which was taught in
those famous seminaries was either the Law of the
Church, the so-called " Canon Law," or that " Civil "
or Roman Law which the great revival of European
learning in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries had
made the law (one might almost say the faith) of
every student with a claim to philosophic outlook
or scholarship. To such persons, the jargon of the
King's Courts was beneath contempt. Not for 500
years yet were the ancient universities to recognize
English law as a subject worthy of study by
educated men.

Nevertheless, the future really lay with the
despised professor of the barbarous law of the
King's Courts; and it was not long before there
appeared, scattered locally over the irregular
triangle which is still the centre of the English
legal world, certain groups of lawyers of various
denominations and callings — apprentices, clerks.

attorneys — whose common bond lay in the fact
that they were all alike interested in the business
which was so rapidly swelling in the King's Courts,
and not in the ecclesiastical business of the Church
courts, or in the diplomatic business of the civilians.
WTien their recorded history first faintly dawns,
these groups are found to be living together, after
the ancient gild fashion, a common life in buildings
known as Inns of Chancery; though whether the
mysterious word " Inn " stood first for the group
or the building is one of the dark problems of the
subject. And, inasmuch as the Court of Chancery
was still in the future, we may assume, pretty
safely, that the adoption of the word " Chancery "
in the common title points to the close connection
of all these groups with the King's Chancery or
Great Seal office, whence issued, and still issue, the
writs which were the first steps in almost all the
processes in the King's Courts.

Early History of the Inns. The next great stage
in the progress of the new profession is of vital
importance; for it brings us face to face with a
state of things which has existed, unaltered in
essentials, from the fourteenth century to the
present day. Once more the story is dark; and
much must be left to intelligent conjecture. But
it was during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
that four of these lawyer gilds, probably the largest
and most prosperous of the ten reputed to have
existed, migrated to new homes, still in the sacred
triangle, and, by virtue of their size and influence,
acquired that exclusive right to grant admission to
the English Bar, which is the chief secret of the
strength to-day of the four Inns of Court.

Two of these gilds (tradition says those of
Clifford's Inn and St. George's Inn) found an ideal
home in the Hospital or Hospice of the Knights
Templars, partly within and partly without the
City boundary. In the year I3I3 the Order of the
Templars was dissolved, and its possessions given
to the rival Order of St. John. But the Knights
of St. John had already a house in Clerkenwell;
so they were willing to lease their newly-acquired
possessions to the lawyer gilds, one of which took
possession of the eastern third or Inner Tem-ple,
and the other the adjoining third or Middle Temple,
sharing amicably the Templars' Church; while the
western third, or Outer Temple, became the town
house of the Bishops of Exeter. Another of the
gilds acquired, in the fifteenth century (though not
without dispute), the ancient house and coney-
garth of the Bishops of Chichester, on the west
side of Chancery Lane, and, for some mysterious
reason, gave it the name of Lincoln's Inn, or, to
speak more accurately, " The Inn of Lincoln's
Inn "; though the manor of the Earl of Lincoln,
from which the name is, presumably, derived, lay
to the north-east of the Bishop of Chichester's
domain, and never included it. Finally, a little
later in the fifteenth century, a swarm from some
other Inn or Inns of Chancery settled in, and
ultimately bought, the site of the present Gray's
Inn, the ancient Manor of Portpool, then a suburb
with mills and fields.

The Sixteenth Century. The century which
followed was the great period of the Four Inns of
Court. Not only did they then, as hinted above,
in some way acquire the sole right of admission to
the higher branch of the legal profession, and
succeed in reducing to the rank of inferior
appendages the ancient Inns of Chancery from
which they sprang, but they became centres not





merely of professional learning, but of courtly
influence and polite accomplishments. The testi-
mony of Fortescue, the famous Chief Justice of
Henry VI, shows that, even in the fifteenth century,
they were filled by young men of good birth, who
studied not only law, but music, dancing, and
belles lettres. A wholesome system of discipline
restrained the turbulent tendencies of the times;
and even the spiritual needs of the students of the
Inns of Court were provided for by a sj'stem of
exercises in the Scriptures and a due attendance
on Di\'ine worship.

During the sixteenth century, the sons of the
greatest families, even though destined to the
profession of arms, thought their education incom-
plete unless they had spent a year at least as
students of an Inn of Court; while the " Grand
Christmases," and the " masques and revels," of
the Inns were deemed worthy the presence of
crowned heads.

Two of the most famous of these occasions have
passed into recorded history. On the first, the
great Francis Bacon and his fellow-Benchers of
Gray's Inn gave an entertainment which was
honoured by the presence of Queen Elizabeth; and
Bacon, like the true philosopher that he was, has
reasoned out the practice of " Masques and
Triumphs " in one of his masterly essays, which
shows him to have no small knowledge of stage-
craft. The other of the two great historical enter-
tainments was offered by the joint efforts of two
of the Inns on the occasion of the marriage of
James I' daughter, Elizabeth, with the Elector
Palatine, in the year 1613. A full account of the
ceremony is preserved in the records of Lincoln's
Inn, by one of the participants; but the ceremony
itself took place at Whitehall, not at the Inn.
An account of the manner of keeping " Grand
Christmas " at the Inner Temple in 1561 will be
found in Gerard Leigh's Accidence of Armorie,
extracts from which are reprinted as an Appendix
to Master Worsley's Book, an eighteenth-century
account of the Middle Temple, in the recently
published edition of 1910.

With the potentates of the neighbouring City
the Benchers of the Temples dwelt on equal terms;
and woe to the City official who treated with any
want of respect the pri\'ileges of the Inns, or
\dolated the sanctity of their territory. But per-
haps their greatest triumph was that, in this great
sixteenth century, when so much was in the melting
pot, the Inns of Court once more fulfilled the
original purpose of their being, and, as there is
good reason to beheve, again repelled the powerful
forces which were striving to substitute Roman
for English Law, and saved to England her unique
national life.

Not the least remarkable feature of these powerful
institutions is the fact that, despite the public
functions which they have so long performed, they
have no recognized position in the eye of that law
which they exist to maintain. Wldle their members,
as individuals, are, of course, like all persons,
subject to the law of the land, the societies them-
selves are, in theory, merely private associations,
having no title, save that of immemorial tradition,
to their valuable privileges, no charter, no Act of
ParUament, to prove their claims. They have
always steadily refused to admit that they are
corporations (i.e. legal " persons " who can be
" \'isited " or examined, sued in Court, fined, or
dissolved). Awkward questions of property they

settle by means of the familiar English device of
" trustees." They have no written constitutions;
and they recruit their " Benchers," or governing
bodies, by the cautious process of co-optation.
Certain bold judges, like Lord Mansfield, have
claimed to exercise authority over them; but as all
the judges are necessarily chosen from among
their members, and as most of the judges are
actually Benchers, the probability of conflict
between the Courts and the Inns is remote. With
Parliament the Inns have, prudently, never tried
a fall, preferring to defend themselves by the
eloquence and influence of their many members
to be found in both Houses. Truly, institutions
which are characteristically English.

A Period of Depression. The Inns of Court
reached their apogee in the sixteenth centvury.
In the struggles of the Civil War they played a
great part; but not unitedly, with the result that
internal discord broke up the strong common Life.
During the triumph of the Parliamentarian party,
to which the law^^ers of the Temple furnished many
leading figures, the Roj-aUsts were expeUed or per-
secuted. After the Restoration, these naturally
took their revenge. Discipline became relaxed, or
was exercised to discover " malcontents," " delin-
quents," " malignants," and other pohtical and
religious victims. The courtly revels of Tudor
times degenerated into coarse and gluttonous
feeding; and Readers paid handsome fines to avoid
an office which entailed enormous expenditure in
entertaining. A great fire destroyed many of the
Temple chambers in 1679; and, when they were
rebuilt, the new chambers (though, to our thinking,
primitive enough) contained so many more of the
amenities of life than their predecessors, that the
common life of the Halls, in which before that
time the members had fed, studied, played, worked,
and done almost everjrthing but sleep, decayed;
until they became little more than dining places.
Later on, with the spread of the suburbs, " resi-
dence " became, for all but a diminishing band of
celibates, merely a question of seeing chents and

Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) → online text (page 101 of 142)