Foster Watson.

The encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) online

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Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) → online text (page 30 of 142)
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the artist, an outcome of his so-called " indi-
viduality," and its appeal is to the few. If, how-
ever, we survey the history of the Fine Arts as a
whole, there emerges — as the work of art par
excellence, exceeding all others in scale, in beauty,
and in fullness of expression — the great architectural
monument, completed with decorative sculpture
and painting, and supplied with fittings and furni-
ture, each piece of which is a thing of beauty as
well as of use. Monuments of this order are the
expression of all the great peoples save the Hebrews,
and of all the great periods of the past. The medi-
aeval Gothic cathedral and town hall are perfect
examples, and so are the temples of the Greeks,
and the vast utilitarian but, at the same time,
artistic monuments of the Romans. If the charac-
teristic structures of the older Oriental peoples
seem to glorify the individual potentate rather than
the body politic, they are none the less, as Hegel
has claimed them to be, the outcome of the spirit
of their times, for this spirit was embodied in the

Nor are these works merely instructive documents
for national or local history. They are connected
with the higher intellectual, emotional, and religious
life of men, and possess a spiritual content which
gives them a universal ethical interest. A learner
who, through a study of the Hellenic temple, is
made to understand the reverence for form, the
ffoxppoffvvt), the care for fine accompUshment, that
marked the Greek mind at its best, has increased
not only his intellectual, but his moral, endowment;
and this is the case, too, when the aspiring devo-
tional spirit of mediaeval religion is seen to be
incorporated in such a storied pile as Rheims or

The Method of Aesthetics. There are other aspects
of artistic study that can only be briefly indicated.
The older philosophers regarded Art as one out-
come of the aesthetic sentiment, the place of which
in the mental economy of man it was their business
to investigate. Proceeding deductively, they started
with the abstract principle of the Beautiful — ^the
object of this aesthetic sentiment — and worked
down to the ultimate concrete embodiment of the
Beautiful in works of art made by man. In recent
days, the point of view has been changed, and the
treatment has become inductive; so that, in philo-
sophizing on aesthetics, a start is made with the
concrete, with the simplest and most primitive
ascertainable facts of art; and from these an
endeavour is made, by induction, to evolve principles
of universal application.

Now, these most primitive facts, which have only
emerged into view in quite recent times, are among
the most striking facts of Art that human history
reveals, and afford abundant material for the

modern science of anthropology. There was art.
in its kind, of extraordinary excellence, among the
cave-dwellers at a period, the remoteness of which
is measured by tens of thousands of years; and the
earliest civilized people of whom we know anything,
the pre-dynastic race in Egypt, were accomplished
workers in some of the artistic crafts.

The economics of such a situation offer a curiously
interesting field of study. How is it possible, it may
be asked, for savages in a primitive condition, when
the struggle for existence is necessarily severe, to
devote so much time and labour to pursuits that,
to us, seem mere frivolity ? The truth is that these
early forms of Art, though, like all artistic activities,
indulged in by the performers with a full sense of
pleasurable freedom, are yet, in the hidden economy
of Nature, forced on them in the interests of race
education and individual advancement. The dance,
or, to take another primitive form of Art, the rude
stone monument, involves the disciplined efforts
of a large number of agents working to order and
in unison, than which nothing more educational
can be conceived. Personal adornment confers^
distinction on the individual, and is of practical
value in courtship, in council, and in war. Art can
be seen to be, in a sense, of greater and greater
importance the further we go back in the records-
of humanity; our impression of it as a serious
element in human life is proportionately increased.

Thus it may fairly be claimed that the study of
Art, pursued on these broad lines, is highly educa-
tional, bringing the learner into touch with some
aspects of modern science as well as with the older
metaphysic; introducing him to the history of
ancient and mediaeval peoples under conditions of
peculiar interest; training him in investigation by
scientific methods into material that furnishes his-
mind, not only with knowledge, but with informing
and ennobling ideas; and, finally, opening out
avenues along which he may walk amid sights of
beauty: effluent, in the Platonic phrase, of healthful-
influences blown from good places. G. B. B.

THE. — The title of this article at once brings us up
against a fundamental doctrine — ^the doctrine of the
Unity of Art. What is meant by the phrase is this.
The forms of Art are various; but, at bottom, all of
them are the expression of one and the same thing,,
namely, human emotion and imagination sensibly
embodying and communicating themselves. This
is the ultimate account of Arts so different as,
for instance, are those of Literature, Music, Dancing,
Architecture, Painting, Sculpture. Nor is to say"
this merely a transcendental, academic assertion.
The truth, once really grasped, is fruitful of many
practical results. For our immediate purpose, how-
ever, we are restricted to a consideration only of
the Arts Formative and Pictorial, for it is to these
specially that the term Fine Art is ordinarily applied.
Within comparatively recent years, this doctrine of
the Unity of Art has undergone, so to say, a kind
of renaissance, and been much insisted on. Thinking
of individual influence, and of our own country,
undoubtedly this has been largely the result of the
teaching of two men, Ruskin and William Morris.
Based upon and embodjdng their teaching, some
five-and-thirty years ago sprang the movement
known as the Arts and Crafts Movement. It is
notorious now the world over, and its practical
influence has grown to be as wide as unquestion-
ably is its repute. One immediate result of this-





movement showed itself in a growing width of
-Significance coming to be attached to the terms
Fine Art and Artist. Until well within the memory
of the elder of us, their significance was restricted
indeed. The term Fine Art stood practically for
no more than Picture-painting and Sculpture.
Even Architecture was regarded rather as a pro-
iession than as an art; while as for the artistic crafts,
these were looked upon merely as so many forms of
trade-work. The one annual exhibition of art was
that of the Royal Academy; and the Academy was
virtually an exhibition of pictures : even sculpture
and architectural designs made but an insignificant
.annexe to these. Perhaps nothing can show
more significantly how times have changed and
men's conception of Art enlarged than an Exhibi-
tion, in 1916, of the Artistic Crafts at Burlington
House under the immediate sanction of the Royal
Academy itself.

Alfred Stevens. We may pertinently here recall
the name of Alfred Stevens. Alfred Stevens is
allowed on all hands to be one of the greatest artists
that England has produced. His masterpiece, the
WelUngton Monument in St. Paul's, is known to
■everybody. But Alfred Stevens was not only a
sculptor; he was an architect, a painter, a decorative
designer, as well. It was a saying of his that he
knew of only one Art, which included Architecture,
Sculpture, Painting. In that dictum, and in his own
practice, he proved himself to be of the hneage of
the great ItaUans, of his prototype Michael Angelo.
There was no form of design which, as an artist,
he thought of as beneath him. And the result of
this wide knowledge and sympathetic study showed
itself in all his efforts. His larger work is character-
ized by a delicate refinement born of care over his
small craftsman's designs; and these latter are
characterized by a dignity of effect that unmistak-
ably reveals the architect's and sculptor's sense of
style and structure. It is, indeed, only once in many
a long day that a genius such as Stevens arises,
combining in himself at their highest so many varied
gifts. But, when he does arise, he shows us the
value to each gift of such a combination with others;
he shows what their inter-relation one with another
effects. He sets an ideal before us, which, however
we may fall short of it in realized practice, yet does
tell upon our practice. For, in truth, as the old
proverb has it, " He shoots higher that aims at the
moon, than he who means a tree."

The Scope of the Fine Arts. Through the wider and
sounder apprehension of Art, of its meaning and
importance, now gradually being re-awakened in us,
we are coming to see that the epithet Fine must no
longer be exclusively appropriated by but one or
two of its branches, however exalted, as, for instance,
are unquestionably Painting and Sculpture. To use
a common distinction, to the Minor Arts as well
as to these Major ones, the epithet may properly
be appUed whenever they display artistic imagina-
• tion and technical abiUty. That man must as truly
be called an artist, a worker in Fine Art, who makes
a beautiful jewel or cabinet, as he who paints a
beautiful picture. It is here precisely as in literature
with the word poet. Herrick, for instance, is not less
genuinely a poet than Milton is, though Herrick
gives us only his Lyrics to Julia, while Milton gives
us Paradise Lost. Still, the ring of true poetry is in
both men; and it is merely a confused idea as to
what poetry really is that would deny the name
to work upon the lower plane, restricting it wholly
to that upon the higher. In the same way, the terms

Art, Fine Art, Artist, are properly applicable to
any and every work and workman in this province
of creative energy, where there is shown imaginative
invention and technical skill. Certainly it was so,
to take but one instance from history, in the great
age of Italian Art. Certainly it must be so in any
age in which Art is in the healthy condition of
flourishing, not as a luxury for the privileged few,
but as a vital interest of the community at large.

Educational Aspects. To turn to Education: there
remains, indeed, yet much to be done; but nobody
of experience, and without prejudice, would deny
that, in recent years, striking advances have been
made in the matter of artistic training here in Eng-
land. One reason of this is that in our Technical
and Art Schools opportunity is now given the
students of far wider practice and education than
formerly obtained. In the best of these schools, a
varied selection of examples of fine work is to be
found always ready to hand for purposes of study;
while, apart from instruction in drawing and design,
there are classes in painting, modelling, and in
practical work at many of the artistic and industrial
crafts. Further, in some of the schools a course in
elementary Architecture is part of the ordinary
curriculum for most of the pupils; and a number of
lectures are provided, these dehvered not unfre-
quently by outside authorities of eminence, on the
history and technique of various special arts, or
upon the History of Art generally. These latter
lectures, in particular, all the students are not only
encouraged, but are expected, to attend with the
end that they may thus obtain a broader, more
intelligent outlook upon the significance and course
of Art in different countries, times, and directions
than is possible if their entire energy is absorbed in
learning but some one single specialized craft.
The result of this more liberal condition of things
prevailing in our schools is certainly not that the
students are turned out " Jacks-of-all- trades and
masters of none." The result rather is that even
those students whose business it is to learn some
one of the more restricted arts, for instance, that
of Printing, produce work of a fresher and more
intelligent character, showing often some quite real
initiative. Clearly, their introduction, sound how-
ever slight, to a more extended comprehension of
Art, to some insight into the development of other
branches of it than their own, to an understanding
of all these as being various expressions and applica-
tions — intimately related one with another — of
certain underlying common ideas and principles,
has awakened a new interest in them and sharpened
their wits.

Architecture, Special Position of. It is a common-
place to speak of Architecture as the Mother of the
Arts: and, so far as historic times go, there is much
truth in the phrase. The earliest important buildings
in a nation have been those devoted to divine
worship; and it is for the adornment of these, or
for the purpose of the services conducted in them,
that the most choice art of all kinds has been
evoked. Naturally, it is this fact that confers upon
much early art a certain restraint and dignity ;
and it is by no means fanciful to say that, through-
. out history, so far as Architecture has flourished
and the various Arts have kept in touch with it,
it has been greatly to the advantage of these latter
in directness of purpose, largeness of treatment,
and sobriety of motive. We have already noted the
case of Alfred Stevens. Even though his was an
entirely unique genius, it suggests some practical





counsel. For serious students in almost all the Arts
(if not, indeed, absolutely in all) some historical
study of Architecture, and an elementary course to
initiate them at least into some of its first principles
and practices, could not be other than of first-rate
service. It would be foolish, indeed, of them on the
strength of this to suppose themselves capable of
architectural designing; but a little serious study
of this austere, structural, comprehensive Art
would mean a discipline of thought and hand, that
would assuredly leave its mark upon the execution
of their own special work, whatever this might be.

S. I.

FINGER MANIPULATION.— The invention of
signs to represent numbers is probably older than
that of any form of writing. But the origin of
■counting by the use of signs may not be so ancient
as is generally supposed. Uncivilized tribes are slow
in acquiring the power of apprehending even small
numbers, and rarely go beyond the number of their
iingers. The earliest signs for numbers were
undoubtedly the ten fingers, to which our decimal
notation is due. The rude method of counting and
calculating by finger-signs has developed into a very
complicated system, especially among pedlars in
Eastern Europe, where various positions of the
iingers are employed to denote numbers up to
10,000. Many Greek and Roman writers make
references to the use of fingers in expressing num-
bers; and systems employed in England, and
described by Bede and other writers, continued to
be in use until the middle of the sixteenth century,
vi^hen modern arithmetic was introduced into the
universities. The following description illustrates
the use of fingers in multiplying : e.g. 8x9; since
5+3=8 and 5 -f- 4 =9, raise 3 fingers on one
hand and 4 on the other. Add 3 and 4 to make
7 tens. Multiply I and 2 (the fingers not raised)
to make 2 units. Hence the product 72.


(See Deaf-mutism and Education.)

FINLAND, EDUCATION IN.— When Pestalozzi's
plans for national education reached Finland at the
beginning of last century, there were already in
existence there, at Abo and Helsingfors, several
schools on the Bell-Lancaster system. The ordinance
ior establishing the system of Folk Schools in Fin-
land was issued 1 1th May, 1866, in substantial agree-
ment with the proposals drawn up by Pastor Uno
Cygnaeus, " The Father of the Finnish Folk School,"
who thereupon as Chief Inspector gave it its organ-
ization. (See Cygnaeus.) According to Cygnaeus's
proposal, the folk school had for its object to train
men in their duties as citizens, and not merely to
impress upon them reUgious truths or Church
dogmas. It should be governed, therefore, by a
Council for folk schools, and not by the cathedral
chapter. The Finnish Folk School has, in its work-
ing, right down to the present time, taken a more
independent position than the corresponding schools
in the other northern countries and in Germany.
The so-called " real " subjects received from the
first a prominent place in the time-table. The
instruction in handwork aims at developing dex-
terity and enterprise, whilst at the same time
adapting itself to the needs of daily life. Corporal
punishment, which at a former period was employed
exceptionally, with the consent of parents and head
master, is now entirely done away with. Each school
is under the government of a Board chosen by the

commune, but the inspectors are chosen by the
Government Department. The course in the country
schools lasts four years, and consists of two classes
with two divisions in each. No teacher is allowed
to have more than fifty pupils in one class. Schools
in the country are co-educational, but in towns
there are boys' schools and girls' schools. Schools
work thirty-six weeks a year. The pupils before
entrance should have completed their ninth year,
and for six weeks a year should have attended the
Infant School attached to the folk school. The
preliminary instruction in country districts is not
yet fixed in all its details. In towns the folk schools
have six classes, the two lowest of which correspond
to the rural infant schools. The first instruction in
country places is given either in the home or in
ambulatory schools, for which the Church is

Seminaries. There are in country places eight semi-
naries: six Finnish and two Swedish. Of the former,
two are co-educational, two for men and two for
women. Of the entire population of the country,
about five-sixths speak Finnish in their homes;
but in the capital, two-thirds are Finns and one-
third Swedes. One of the Swedish seminaries is
for men and one for women. The course extends
over five years. To give teachers opportunities
for further training, supplementary courses have
been arranged at the University since 1907. The
Commune provides the teacher with a free dwelling,
firing, and certain payments in kind. Since 1908
the State contribution to teachers, both men and
women, amounts to 900 Finnish marks (= francs),
which is raised to 1,100 if the teacher be married
and has the care of a family. After 5, 10, 15, and
20 years' service, there is an addition amounting
each time to 20 per cent, of the initial salary.
But by what is called the " dear-time supplement "
salaries have had to be many times increased accord-
ing to the circumstances in each locality. There is,
as yet, no compulsory school attendance in Finland ;
but since 1898 the Communes have had to divide
their areas into districts, in each of which a school
must be established as soon as thirty pupils of school
age offer themselves. Since 1889, 42 people's high
schools have been established — 28 Finnish with
1,516 pupils, and 14 Swedish with 299 pupils.

Secondary Education. The State secondary school
in Finland, when it has eight yearly classes, bringing
the pupils to their eighteenth or nineteenth year
is called a lyceum. In 23 of the 32 lyceums,
Finnish is the language of instruction; Swedish in
9. Of these 25 are for boys, 4 for girls and 3 are
co-educational {samlyceums). Four of the 32
lyceums are classical lyceums and 26 real lyceums;
but in the real lyceums, pupils may take Latin
in the higher classes and have a shorter course in
mathematics and physics. There are also two
normal lyceums in the Capital — one Finnish and
one Swedish — which serve as training colleges for
such secondary teachers as are university graduates.
These are double schools, having each a full real
line with 8 classes and a full classical line. The
goal to which the education in these schools is
directed is the State leaving examination {student
examen) which here, as in the sister countries,
serves as the sole passport to the university. This
examination is now entirely held in the schools
(no longer in the university) by means of written
tests ; and is conducted by a commission appointed
in part by the Education Department and in part
by the University of Helsingfors.





The State has also 12 schools in the provinces,
which have only five classes of the eight. Those
who have passed through these so-called middle
schools or the five classes corresponding to them
in the lyceums receive a certificate, which gives
admission to the lower branches of the civil service
or to technical schools. There are also 16 State
schools for girls {Flickskolor): two in the Capital
with seven classes each, and the rest with five.
The two in the Capital — one Finnish and one
Swedish — have advanced classes, which serve both
for the training of teachers and for the higher
education of women.

Private Secondary Schools and Higher Education.
Alongside these State schools with 12,000 pupils,
are about 100 State-recognized " private schools "
{i.e. schools established by the Commune, by a
company, or by an individual), with an aggregate
of about 15,000 pupils. No such school may be
established without permission from the State;
and the most important of them — about two-
thirds of the whole — receive substantial grants
(about ;^300 a year for each class that corresponds
to one or other of the eight classes of a lyceum).
Applications for grant must, in addition to the
particulars given prior to the opening of the school,
show that the school has been in existence two
years, must give a statement of income and ex-
penditure, a time-table and list of pupils, and
must state the courses of instruction. Such schools
tend to economy. The 15,000 cost the State
considerably less than the 12,000 pupils in the
State schools; and, moreover, it is in them that
many new features and useful developments make
their first appearance. The most striking of these
is co-education, which seems specially suitable to
Finland, and since 1883 has had a wide extension,
almost entirely in these private schools.

The school Council (Skolstyrelsen) in Helsingfors
is the supreme authority both for primary and for
other schools; and meets sometimes in full session
sometimes in three sections. It consists of a
chief director, three heads of departments and
twenty councillors.

The University, which was formerly at Abo, the
old Capital, was in 1827 removed to Helsingfors.
It has 164 professors and nearly 3,000 students.
A new university at Abo {q.v.) with four faculties
for Swedish students only, dates from 1919. (See
also Cygnaeus, Uno.) J. S. T.

References —

Finland in the Nineteenth Century.
" Special Reports on Educational Subjects " (Vol. XVII,
pp. 25-35).


Technical College, Finsbury, London, E.C.2, of the
City and Guilds of London Institute, was founded
in consequence of the success which attended the
establishment by the City and Guilds Institute in
1879 of the evening classes at Cowper Street, in
the subjects of Electrical Engineering and Chemis-
try. The foundation stone of the present building
was laid on 10th May, 1881, by H.R.H. the Duke
of Albany. The accommodation very quickly
became inadequate, and the work overflowed into
neighbouring premises, with the result that a new
wing, devoted chiefly to Civil and Mechanical
Engineering and Applied Art, was added to the old
building in 1906.

The original schemes of instruction for the day
classes embraced Technical Chemistry, Applied

Physics, and Electrical Engineering; but Mechanical.
Engineering was added when the building was-
opened. The evening class instruction included
these subjects, together with Applied Art and
Building Trades Classes. Special courses of even-
ing lectures on different branches of engineering,
science and practice were given from time to time
by outside specialists. The day courses were framed
to give as practical a college training as possible,,
the students spending nearly all their time in the
laboratories, drawing office, and workshops. The
technical instruction given was of such a nature as-

Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) → online text (page 30 of 142)