Foster Watson.

The encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) online

. (page 33 of 142)
Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) → online text (page 33 of 142)
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not commonly used by the modern musician.

One difficulty in presenting folk-songs to children
sometimes lies in the words. The makers sang of
subjects that interested them and their fellows; and
so, in folk-song, there is much that is unsuitable
for children, arising from the outspokenness of the
words.

Use of Folli-songs in Class. Editors of folk-song
collections have more or less successfully overcome
this difficulty by judicious pruning, even sometimes
by re-writing a whole song. How far the thing
remains a folk-song after these changes is a ques-
tion I will not discuss ; at any rate, the air is
preserved intact. There are also many harmless
and delightful unaltered folk-songs in various col-
lections which any child can sing with pleasure:
the teacher can seek these out and select with
discretion. Folk-song is frequently the expression
of personal sentiment or emotion, love being the
chief theme. If such a song be selected, it is perhaps
not the best taste to hand over the rendering of it
to a whole class. The more artistic method would
be for it to be treated by a single voice; and the
pupil should give such expression to the song as
will bring out the best effect.

With a class, light and shade and individuality



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are lost in the type of song I mean; but, for class-
singing, there are numerous folk-songs which are
eminently suitable .and gain considerably by the
union of voices. Such are songs relating to sheep-
shearing, the pleasures of the harvest-home, and
farm Ufe, which indicate that a number of persons
are expressing a particular sentiment — ^joy and
pleasure, mainly. Any rollicking song, even if a
personal one, can be suitably sung in class; but the
singing of tender or emotional songs (except as
solos by sympathetic voices) is to be deprecated.

The teacher will explain the differences between
the folk-song and the song of modern times. He
should point out that folk-songs have sprung almost
spontaneously from the lips of the humble folk who
have made them, being the outcome of genuine
sentiment; that, even if the verse be rugged and
crude, their earnestness has held them in public
esteem for ages; that the melodies, which appear
rather strange to modern ears, are formed on scales
of intervals formerly used in the Church service;
and that these tunes (and, in many cases, the words)
have passed down to our time entirely without
notation, until they have been gathered from the
lips of old men and women who have treasured
them in their memory as precious things. All this
will help to make his scholars appreciate folk-music
and to understand why folk-song is so different
from the songs they hear in ordinary life.

The choice of folk-songs for school use depends
on the taste of the master and the liking the children
show for particular examples; it is obvious that such
will be sung with greater effect. Perhaps a certain
admixture of English national songs is advisable.
These are born of the soil and many have a folk-
song basis; all have had acceptance with successive
generations of the English-speaking nations.

Where possible, the teacher should give some
little account of what the song means, the circum-
stances which called it forth, and the age of its
composition. For example, " The Vicar of Bray "
is a good text on which to hang a brief story of
political interference with the forms of worship
which were in force from the Stuart period to that
of the early Georges. Without this explanation,
the song is meaningless to any present-day child.
The fine song " Heart of Oak," written in 1759,
may introduce an account of the events of that
" wonderful 3'^ear "; while " Bonnie Dundee " pro-
vides a whole chapter of Scottish history. " The
Arethusa " narrates an actual engagement in 1778,
and brings to mind the war with France in the
eighteenth centur}^. " Tom Bowling " may furnish
a little sermon on duty.

Suitable Songs for School Use. National songs
present fewer difficulties than do folk-songs. To
give a full list of folk-songs that might find a place
in school singing is obviously impossible in this
short essay, but a personal choice lies among such
songs as the following: (1) "I will give you the
Keys of Heaven "; (2) " The good Old Leathern
Bottle "; (3) " We Shepherds are the Best of Men ";
(4) "Green Broom"; (5) "The Painful Plough";
(6) " The Carter's Health." These will be found in
English County Songs, edited by Lucy Broadwood
and J. A. Fuller-Maitland. There is also an excel-
lent book edited by Miss Broadwood, called
Traditional Songs and Carols.

In Mr. Baring-Gould's collection. Songs of the
West, are (1) " Widdicombe Fair "; (2) " The Blue
'Kerchief"; (3) "The Sweet Nightingale," among
other good singable songs.



In Mr. Cecil Sharp's Songs from Somerset are
(1) " The Raggle-taggle Gipsies "; (2) " Oh no,
John ! "; (3) " It's a Rosebud in June "; (4) " Dicky
of Taunton Dean "; (5) " The Greenland Fishery ";
and (6) " Admiral Benbow."

" The Keys of Heaven " and " Oh no, John ! "
might be sung in dialogue form, that is, by male
and female voices singing alternately such portions
as are indicated by the words. F. K.

FOLK-TALES.—" Folk-lore," in imitation of the
German Volksepos and Volkslied, has been used in
English literature of the past seventy years to denote
the traditions current among the common people of
all countries of all times. Each nation and each
locality has its own folk-lore, which throws light on
the past intellectual, social, moral, and rehgious
condition of the people to whom it belonged. The
folk-lore of ancient Greece and Rome has been a
matter of deep study and investigation, and has
proved very instructive. In Germany, the study of
folk-lore has been scientifically pursued, and
received a great impulse from the publication by
the brothers Grimm of the Kinder-und Hans-
Mdhrchen (1812) and the German Mythology (1835).
These writers made a very large collection of the
oral traditions and unwritten customs of the Ger-
man race. The tales show the unity of belief that
prevailed throughout the Teutonic race, being col-
lected " from the mouths of the spinning rooms of
German villages," and demonstrate also that the
Teutons are only one branch of a far greater family,
including Hindus and Celts. Since the time of
Grimm, many skilled investigators have continued
the work in various parts of the world, and much
has been learnt from traditionary tales about the
history and primitive customs of savage tribes as
well as of civilized races.

FOOTBALL (ASSOCIATION), THE TEACHING

OF. — The Association, like its sister game, presup-
poses certain physical conditions in the player —
youth, vigour, soundness and suppleness of limb,
a quick eye and natural balance of body: it requires
pluck, speed, and control of temper, and helps to
develop these as well as the physical powers already
enumerated; and it teaches co-operation, quick
decision, readiness in emergency, keeping the
head, and (in some cases), for a captain of a side,
leadership.

Some boys learn very quickly by observation, or
in other words, have the knack of teaching them-
selves; and these, especially if ready to take a hint,
develop quickest into good or brilliant plaj^ers;
others gain their proficiency' more laboriously and
gradually under coaching and practice games and
matches. AH aUke learn much from playing against
players better than themselves.

A point that is often forgotten in training boys
to play is to insist that the game is a Sport, and
that it must be played as such; that the rules, there-
fore, are to be kept in the spirit as well as in the
letter; that it should not be played looking on
breaches of these rules and accepting the penalties
for such breaches as part of the game; and, conse-
quently, that it is better to lose with honour than to
aim at winning or saving the game anyhow — by fair
means or by foul. There are, for instance, unfair ways
of tackling, which involve the risk of a probable trip ;
or one can be careless about keeping strictly to the
rule of not charging from behind an opponent who
has got past; and again in jumping at an opponent



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in tackling him, or in using arms or elbows to stop
him; all these are not uncommonly condoned and
allowed in modern games, though contrary to rules
and to sportsmanlike play, encouraged as they are
by keen partisans looking on at a match. These are
faults which the coach must try and eradicate in
practice games.

Methods of Instruction. A little, but only very
little, can be taught indoors, with the help of a
"blackboard, perhaps on a wet or frosty day. The
positions in the field for a throw-in, for a corner-
kick (both in attack and defence), in attacking goal,
and in the covering of one back by another in
defence, can be shown by diagrams; as can also the
offside rule which is so seldom understood by
beginners or by the majority of spectators.

Much more may be learnt in practice, apart from
actual games. Forwards, for instance, may practise
runs down the field, learning to keep their line and
formation with, perhaps, three other players to
represent a skeleton enemy; the definite objects and
methods being to run down, passing from one to
another without a check in the run, and keeping a
more or less crescent formation as they go. Again,
for all the backs — halves as well as full-backs — ten
to twenty minutes' practice, either by itself or at
the end of a short practice game, may be very
useful, under certain conditions. The ball must be
taken as it comes, with whichever foot, right or
left, it may come to, without first stopping the
ball, and either at full- volley or at its first possible
bounce, coming down, not half-volley; it must be
ticked straight, that is, in a line parallel to the side
boundary lines; and it must be kept low and kicked,
-therefore, as far as it can be in the direction the
player is facing. The chief objects of the practice are
to teach using both feet, especially the weaker one,
to gain accuracy of . direction, to learn to volley
and to use the proper part of the instep in kicking,
and to gain 9.nd keep the proper balance of the body.
Lastly, practice in shooting at goal — naturally
rather popular with boys — is valuable training, but
again, very emphatically, only under certain condi-
tions: it may be harmful if these are ignored. This
is often the case if too much time is spent at it, if
those practising are allowed to stop the ball before
shooting, or to dribble it slowly close up to the goal
and then make a deliberate shot — conditions which
will teach slowness in shooting, and will form
habits suited only to circumstances which prac-
tically never occur in an actual game. On the other
hand, practice in shooting at once as the ball comes,
either returned from the goalkeeper or passed from
the wing, or off a corner-kick; learning to use the
lower part of the instep, to shoot low and hard by
throwing the weight forward, to shoot with either
foot and to use the one that will cause the ball to
curl away from the goalkeeper — all of these should
be kept to strictly as conditions, if any real value
is to come from the practice. Again, it may be made
more useful by telling off one or more as opponents
to spoil the shot or tackle the shooter. The goal-
keeper, too, can get much useful practice if he sticks
strictly to goalkeepers' rules, resists the temptation
to run, and keeps himself to his two paces, par-
ticularly devoting himself to fisting out a shot; he
can also learn much if corner-kicks are taken as
part of the practice, and if he sets himself to watch
and catch cleanly a shot from close quarters. In
practising corner-kicks, the kicker must be taught
to look only at the ball, to kick it exactly on that
-jspot which he calculates should land it where he is



aiming for, and to avoid looking off the ball at the
goal as he takes his kick. It is obvious that in all
these practices, whether for forwards, backs, or in
shooting at goal, the presence of the coach to direct
— or, failing him, of a captain in control- — will make
all the difference to their value. In games, that is,
where two full elevens are playing against each other
for practice, the usual way of balancing sides is to
pit the best backs and half-backs and goalkeeper
against the strongest forward line.

The Work of a Coach. The great objects of the
coach should be to ensure clean and sportsmanlike
play; to teach, so far as the forwards are concerned,
co-operation, quickness in tackling, in passing,
in getting on to the ball, as well as in taking and
getting away with a pass and in putting in a shot
at goal; to impress on the half-backs the necessity
of constantly feeding their forwards, of tackling
fearlessly and at once, of following up a run of
their forwards, of getting back quickly when
passed, of using their backs to pass to in emer-
gencies, and of learning to avoid sticking to the
ball too long and so putting their forwards offside;
to get the backs to talk to and co-operate with
their halves and to avoid dribbling habits, on the
one hand, and random, aimless kicks, or wrongly-
timed attempts to head the ball, on the other;
lastly, the goalkeeper must be taught to control
with his voice his backs when the ball comes into
his area, to know when to run out, and to be on
his guard against carrying the ball. All the team,
too — and this is essential in the making of a good
side — have to learn to watch the " field " — friend
and foe alike — while they are also watching the
ball, so as to be constantly placing themselves
in the best position to receive or to intercept a pass;
and, instead of becoming mere automata, to
employ mind, eye, and skill together for the advan-
tage of their side. Both coach and captain of the
side must work together in pulling up a player who
fails to use his eyes, and so blunders into a partner
or an opponent; who never thinks of passing back
in difficulties, or is constantly in a position where
he is covered by his adversary; who shoots from
impossible positions or from one in which the shot
is easily saved. The captains, too, must be trained
to carry out their duties, mainly in directing, con-
trolling and encouraging their side rather than in
fault-finding. Their duties include the warning of a
player as to an unseen opponent coming up to
tackle; the directing of the forwards or halves when
to pass and in what direction; the controUing of the
tactics of the side in a wind which may require the
backs to lie further back or further forward than
under normal circumstances, or make it advisable
for the ball to be kept mainly to one of the two
wings; and, most important of all, to encourage
and keep up the spirits of the side in difficulties
and to make them realize that they have a leader
who knows how to use his voice and who can keep
his head. F. M. L.

FOREIGN OFFICE APPOINTMENTS, EDUCA-
TION FOR. — (See Public Services, Education
FOR THE Higher.)

FOREIGN STUDENTS IN ENGLAND. — The

importance of facilitating the study of English in
foreign countries is evident. There is reason to
believe that our language is being learnt abroad
more extensively than ever before; and anything
that can be done to help on this study will lead to



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a wider acquaintance with our literature and with
our outlook and aspirations.

The foreigner generally receives his first instruc-
tion in English at school; and the more recently
published books for his instruction, on the lines
of the reform method, are calculated to give him
a lively interest in the English language as well as
in the British Empire. A visit to England in the
holidays will do much to strengthen that interest.
The Modern Language Association has done good
work in arranging for the exchange of school
children for short periods: for instance, a girl from
a French family spends her holidays with English
people, whose daughter stays for the same period
with the French family. Sometimes foreign children
spend a year or more at an English boarding school;
this is likely to become increasingly common.

As a rule, however, the foreigner who comes to
this country for the purpose of studying English
is either a university student or a teacher; quite
occasionally, a professional man or woman not
engaged in teaching or a private student. If the
foreigner makes a stay of some duration, he will
naturally let the special object of his visit deter-
mine the way in which he spends his time. The
universities offer considerable facilities to the
foreign student; he is, indeed, on an equality with
our own students. On the other hand, it must be
conceded that there is very little provision for his
special needs. In few cases can he obtain any
adequate instruction in English phonetics; this is
all the more regrettable, as the teaching of pro-
nunciation is systematic and scientific only in a
few foreign countries, and the foreign student con-
sequently needs it very much and hopes to obtain
it in this country. Lectures on literary subjects,
however stimulating in themselves, are often so
badly delivered as to be of little value to the
foreigner; and lectures on English life and ways,
which would appeal to him particularly, are hardly
deUvered at all. There is manifest need, in all
great university towns, and above all, in London,
of institutions in which foreigners could obtain, at
a moderate cost, the kind of instruction and advice
that they specially require; and it is obvious that
such institutions should form a recognized part of
our university system. If well organized, it is
likely that they would soon become self-supporting;
but, even if they required a grant, there can be no
doubt that the indirect results would amply justify
the expenditure of public funds.

Holiday Courses. In many cases, foreigners can
only spend in this country a part of their summer
vacation, and for these there is better provision.
For a number of years the universities of London
and Edinburgh have arranged HoUday Courses for
Foreigners, and attention has been paid to the
special requirements of foreign students in organ-
izing the Summer Extension Meetings held at Oxford
and Cambridge in alternate years. The courses held
in London (1904 to 1914) were the first exclusively
intended for foreigners, and their success was so
great that it soon became necessary to limit the
numbers; and a second course was established by
the University of London at Ramsgate (1912 to
1914), to which British teachers were also admitted.
The courses at Edinburgh (1905 to 1913) also
enjoyed considerable popularity; and Oxford and
Cambridge attracted many foreigners.

The extent to which a foreign student of English
derives advantage from a stay in this country
depends largely on himself. The more English he



learns before going abroad, the more he will learn
here; the less he associates with his own country-
men, and the more he seeks opportunities of hearing
and speaking English, the greater will be his pro-
gress; and if he wants to understand what may
often seem strange in our ways, he must put aside
his national prejudices and predilections, and bring
an open and sympathetic mind to the observation
and study of our idiosyncrasies. On our part, we
have the duty of putting aside some of our habitual
reserve so as to render more easy the accomplish-
ment of the foreigner's aim, which is calculated to
be of great value to us, inasmuch as it will enable
him to dispel ignorance and misunderstanding
which are at the bottom of international illwill.

Apart from the students of English, our univer-
sities have welcomed in recent years an increasing
number of foreign students who wish to carry on
the study of various branches of knowledge. Some
take up a course in Arts, Law, Medicine, or
Economics, but the majority study engineering.
These students often present a difficult problem,
as it is found that they suffer from insufficient
grounding or have not enough knowledge of English
to follow the lectures with profit. In such cases,
the foreigner does best to secure competent private
or class instruction in English, Mathematics, etc.,
before attempting regular work of university
standard. W. R.

FORESTRY EDUCATION.— Forestry can be

taught only by a combination of class-room lec-
tures and demonstrations and extensive practical
work in the woods. The term Forestry is applied
to the rearing of trees in the bulk, where the unit
is not the individual tree but the quantity of timber
that the acre or other unit of area can produce.
The final crop is the accumulation of years. In
the case of cultivated, intensively managed woodland
like some English woodlands, and many Continental
woodlands, the rotations would be for 60 to 120
years. It is clear, therefore, that the forester
cannot depend entirely on empirical knowledge
as the life of his crop is longer than his own. He
must take advantage of the accumulated experience
of others. This theoretical part deals with the
principles or laws on which the practice is founded.
These principles and laws, if correctly formulated,
are applicable to all sorts of conditions, and to all
soils and climates. To apply them properly,
however, the forester must study, in the open, as
great a diversity of types of cultivated and natural
woods as possible.

Underlying the practice of forestry there are
parts of nearly all the sciences. The forester must
be, to some extent, a geologist, in order to know
his soils and their capacities. He must be a botanist.
He must know not only how to recognize the differ-
ent species of trees, but he must know intimately
their complete life histories. He must know the
lower forms of plant life that prey parasitically on
the trees, and often cause their death, in order that
he may be able to take preventive and curative
measures, as the case may demand. He must be
a zoologist, in order that he may recognize the
hostile and the helpful animals and insects, and
know the signs of coming attacks in time to take
preventive measures against them. The importance
of this section cannot be over-rated, on account of
the extension of artificially created forests where
the balance of nature is upset and conditions are
created that permit the rapid multiplication of



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these insect pests. He must also, to some extent,
be a mathematician and an engineer. He is called
on to use sometimes complicated formulae to
ascertain his future values. He is called on to
build roads, bridges, tramways, aerial railways or
dry and wet " slides." He must be able to decide
what method is best and most economical for the
handling of his timber and the bringing of it to
market. The forester does not require to be an
expert in sawing timber, as that is a different
branch, but he ought to be able to extract the round
timber from the wood as only then can he control
the method of regeneration or restocking of the
ground with young trees. With so many different
sciences entering into the work of the forester, one
difficulty experienced in the training is to preserve
a proper balance among the many subjects. It
must be remembered that the forester's business is
to produce the greatest bulk of merchantable
timber in the shortest time. The man with a
special interest or with special knowledge of one
branch would be inclined to devote his energies
or attention to that one side, to the possible detri-
ment of the main object. Hence the training
should be mainly in the laws of Silviculture with a
general knowledge of the subsidiary subjects. The
general knowledge should be such as to enable the
practitioner to recognize the signs, and call in the
help of the specialist, when necessary. The
specialist in this case would be the skilled man in
the particular science, and with necessarily only a
moderate knowledge of general Silviculture.

A primary condition in all courses of instruction
in Forestry is that they should be such as will
cultivate a love of nature. Wliile the Forester's
main object is the purely utilitarian one of producing
a maximum crop at a minimum cost, yet it is
necessary for the succeesful fulfilment of his task
that his interests be wider, and that he should have
a knowledge of all branches of nature with which
he is bound to come in contact. Thus his scientific
and theoretical work in the laboratory or class-room



Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) → online text (page 33 of 142)