Foster Watson.

The encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) online

. (page 44 of 142)
Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) → online text (page 44 of 142)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

death, influence in the Academic Senate passed
over entirely to the Faculty of Science. A great
change took place in 1835. The university was
" laicized " by a measure which put an end to the
ancient regimen scolarum of the Church, the Vener-
able Company of Pastors retaining only the super-
vision of the Faculty of Theology. The Academic
Senate and the Rector became a power in the State.
The victors were savants of high intellectual gifts.
The leaders were Auguste de la Rive, the famous
Professor of Physics, son of Gaspard; Alphonse de
Candolle, successor of his father in the chair of
Botany; and Rodolphe Topffer, the novelist,
Professor of Rhetoric.

The Revolution of 1846, the first in date of those
revolutions which shook the whole Continent in
the middle of the past century, hit the Academy
hard. The Senate and Rector, in turn, were deprived
of all the powers they had inherited from the Church,
which were passed on to the Council of State, a
popularly elected body, and practically to one of
its members, the head of the Board of Public

Modern Developments. The Academy, having
lost its privileges, and more than one of its most
distinguished professors, was saved from ruin by
those who, out of a feeling of duty, remained in
their threatened chairs round Pictet de la Rive,
Emile Plantamour, and Caton Cheneviere — a

naturalist, an astronomer, and a theologian — who
were the Rectors of those dark days. In 1872,
Antoine Carteret, head of the Board of Public
Instruction, founded the Faculty of Medicine and
developed the old Academy into a modern uni-
versity. Karl Vogt, the great German naturalist,
organized the Faculty of Medicine, which began its
work in 1876. The Faculty of Science has also been
endowed with long-needed laboratories and insti-
tutes, the most important being those for zoo-
logical research and for physics, the ficole de
Chimie, built in 1879, the Laboratoire de Psy-
chologic (1892), and the Institut botanique (1900).

The Faculty of Letters, of Napoleonic origin,
which had suffered some neglect under the restored
rigime of 1814, was endowed with new professor-
ships; among them that of Litterature comparie,
which was held by Marc Monnier, and, after him,
by Edouard Rod. In the chair of Philosophy was
to be heard, from 1849 to 1880, Henri Frederic
Amiel, who lectured also for some years on French
literature, and whose celebrated Journal intime
may almost be said to have been written while
occupying that chair.

In 1891 the " Seminaire de Fran9ais moderne "
was established in the Faculty of Letters, in con-
nection with summer courses, which achieved an
extensive reputation. Out of the section of Social
Science there has lately grown up a sixth Faculty,
namely, that of Economical and Social Sciences, with
a special Institut des Sciences commerciales. As a
result of the eagerness of both Faculties to retain
a department which each claims, new degrees have
been instituted in both for students in Pedagogy;
and an excellent opportunity for developing peda-
gogical studies was afforded by the founders of the
institut, J. J. Rousseau (1913), where technical and
practical tuition is given in all subjects relating to
education: this is an independent institution, but it
entertains personal, and very probably will have
some day official, relations with the University.

The Faculty of Law developed its teaching in the
direction most natural to it from the geographical
and political situation of Geneva. Roman and
German Law, International Law, the comparative
study of constitutions and legislations, the study
of Swiss federal and cantonal democratic institu-
tions, and the study of the French and German
codes, are the chief features of its syllabus.

The ancient Faculty of Theology, in spite of the
disestablishment of the Church (1908), has retained
the support of the State. It pursues its time-
honoured career as a Protestant school of Christian
learning and research. The aim of the State
authorities is to maintain in their professorial
appointments, as far as possible, the balance
between orthodox and liberal tendencies. The
venerable philosopher, Ernest Naville, one of the
evicted professors of 1846, represented the former,
as also did the genial, prematurely-departed
Gaston Frommel; while his master, Auguste Bouvier,
was perhaps the best representative of the modern
Faculty in the nineteenth century.

The State University of Geneva, which com-
memorated in 1909 the 350th anniversary of its
foundation, in the presence of more than two
hundred delegates from sister universities and
scientific bodies in every part of the world, is more
international than ever. Of its 2,000 students, two-
thirds — sometimes three-quarters — come from
foreign parts. They matriculate on showing certi-
ficates of secondary studies, which would entitle





them to be admitted to their own universities.
Long-standing relations with EngUsh science are
recalled every year on the 5th of June {Dies
Academicus) by the award of the Davy prize for
Chemistry, a foundation in memory of Sir Humphry
Davy, who died at Geneva in 1829.

The teaching staff numbers seventy-one pro-
fessors and an even greater number of privat-
docents. The State, which entirely supports the
University, controls its administration. In 1886,
a Liberal Education Bill restored to the Senate so
much of its former privileges as to amount to a
partial revival of its old academic autonomy.
The Government of 1912 tried to repeal the prin-
cipal articles of that charter. The Bill was passed
by the Legislature, but an appeal was made by
way of Referendum to the electorate; and, after a
inemorable campaign, in which professors opposed
politicians, the former won the day. The Genevan
Alma Mater now rests under the aegis of the
sovereign people of Geneva. Chas. Borgeaud.

References —

Borgeaud, Charles. Histoire de V Universite de

Geneve. Le monument international de la Reforma-
tion a Geneve — Guide historique illustre. (Geneva.)

Heyer, H. Catalogue des Theses de Theologie soutenues
a P Academic de Genive pendant les XVI, XVII,
et XVII e siecles.

Pattison, Mark. Isaac Casaubon.

RoussY, Albert. Guide de I'etudiant d Geneve. (Geneva.)

Walker, Williston. John Calvin. Actes du Jubile
de 1909. (Geneva.) Catalogue des Ouvrages, Articles
et Memoires Publies par les Professeurs de I' Uni-
versite de Geneve. Historique des Facultes, 1896-1914.

GENIUS. — Carlyle described genius as " tran-
scendent capacity of taking trouble " ; but this
description is thoroughly misleading, for the essence
of genius is an inborn power of insight : the man
of genius perceives truth rather by a kind of inspired
iirtuition than by the laborious collation of data.
Doubtless in many cases {e.g. that of Darwin),
genius is accompanied by a vast capacity for
taking trouble, and without this capacity would
be ineffective. Darwin, after he had discovered
the theory of Natural Selection, spent twenty years
of patient work in order to prove its truth to him-
self and to the world, and without this work the
theory would not have been convincing; but the
patient observation supplemented genius, and did
not constitute it.

Genius, then, is an inborn power of insight into
truth; and since truth is many-sided, genius may
take many forms. We may classify it under such
heads as mathematical, scientific, military, political,
artistic, poetic, religious, etc.; each of these may
be further sub-divided, so that artistic genius, for
example, may express itself through painting,
sculpture, architecture, music, drama. The lives
of men who have possessed genius of these various
kinds at once display the distinction between genius
and the power, however great, of careful applica-
tion; Raphael, for instance, produced the " Madonna
di Foligno " when only 28; while a man of moderate
ability, after a life of study, never rises above

Genius and Creation. Since genius shows itself in
so many aspects, the question arises whether it can
be regarded as a single quality, or whether we apply
the word to any characteristic which raises a man
conspicuously above the average.

Genius, as we have said, involves insight; but it
involves also something more, which, however,
probably depends upon insight — it involves the
power of creation. This is seen very clearly in Art,
in which the creativeness of genius is its most
prominent characteristic; but it is true also in the
more purely intellectual forms of genius, such as
the mathematical or scientific. For new truth is
not merely discovered by genius, as a vein of gold
is discovered; the formulation of a great compre-
hensive theory partakes much more nearly of
invention, of the creation of a new idea rather than
the discovery of a new fact. Whatever, then, be
the branch of activit}^ in which it shows itself,
genius always has the character of creative insight,
and, as such, may be regarded as one quality —
whether it appears in Art, Science, Statesmanship,
or Religion. Although genius always has this
character, it does not follow that all men of genius
have similar endowments, and that the form of
their activity depends simply on environment.
For, in most cases, the power is limited to some
special field; and it is possible for a man to show
genius in one direction — for instance, in mathe-
matics^ — and to have average or even low ability
in other fields, such as religion or art. In cases in
which the faculties needed for outstanding ability
in distinct fields are similar, it is not very unusual
for a man of genius to attain high distinction in
each: Napoleon, for example, had great genius in
both war and statesmanship; Shakespeare in poetry
and drama; Aristotle in philosophy and natural
science. But the possession of real genius in quite
distinct fields by one man — as in the case of
Leonardo da Vinci or Michael Angelo — is extremely
rare; and this alone would suggest that genius is
not a single quality which can be turned into almost
any channel by circumstance. The tendency for
genius to be one-sided is one of the justifications
for Dryden's famous line: " Great wits are sure to
madness near allied," since it sometimes leads to
an unevenly balanced mind or character. But
genius, to be effective, must be balanced by less
outstanding, but equally important, qualities in
other directions, and a man of real genius is
eminently sane. Another, and more fundamental,
reason for the apparent alliance between great wit
and madness is the almost necessary association of
genius with a nervous or sensitive temperament,
and with a certain lack of restraint, a disregard for
convention and authority; the man of genius lacks
an inhibiting or restraining factor present in the
minds of ordinary people, and such a lack of
restraint may simulate, or lead to, the want of
control characteristic of insanity.

Genius cannot be produced by education or
environment: it is inborn, and depends on inherited
characters. That it " runs in families " was shown
by Galton, and the fact that a man of genius rarely
has children of such high distinction as himself is
probably due to the fact that genius depends on
a combination of characters which are not neces-
sarily inherited together. The man of genius thus
transmits some of the qualities required to one
child, others to another, but rarely all to any one
child. In this respect, genius, in its inheritance,
resembles most other wide departures from the
average of mankind, the rule being that the majority
of children are less divergent from the average than
their parents. But genius is far more likely to
appear arnong the children of eminent parents or
of parents who have eminent ancestors, than





among those of the mediocre; and the probability
is greatly increased if both parents have conspicuous
abiUty. L. Doncaster.

References —
Galton, F. Hereditary Genius.
LoMBROso, C. The Man of Genius.

1830). — A celebrated French writer usually known
as Mme. de Genlis. Her early education was
neglected, and her attention concentrated on music
so much, that, at 13, she could play eight instru-
ments, in addition to the harp, with a skill that no
contemporary could equal. After an early marriage,
she took up other studies, and in 1770 had qualified
herself to become gonvernante to the daughter of
the Duchess of Orleans. In 1782 she undertook to
superintend the education of the young princes,
including Louis Philippe, who afterwards became
king of France. For her pupils she wrote her most
important work, Adele et Theodore, ou leitres sur
I'iducation, stating her principles of education suit-
able for princes, j^oung men, and young women.
Her teaching of the princes excited both praise and
criticism, and is described as being too narrow and
too much devoted to minor matters and to an
excess of method. The teacher appears to have
lacked all grandeur of character, and to have
suffered in consequence of the negligence and
frivolity which characterized her early j^ears. In
1787 she wrote an essay on Religion as the only
foundation of honour, which was ridiculed by
Buffon. She also wrote Memoirs, consisting chiefly
of praises of herself and her wTitings.

GENLIS, MME DE.— (See "Blue-stockings"
AND Education, The.)

GENTRY, EDUCATION OF.— (See Nobles and
Gentry, Education of.)

GEOFFRIN, MME.— (See " Blue-stockings "
AND Education, The.)

May, 1893, at a meeting of Public School masters.
Membership is open to teachers of geography and
to other persons interested in the teaching of
geography, the purpose of the association being to
improve the teaching of this subject. To unite
teachers in different parts of the Empire in a
common effort to further the right principles of
geographical education, local branches have been
established in the United Kingdom and the colonies.
There is a lending library from which books are
sent by post to all members. A journal, The
Geographical Teacher, published each term, is sent
free to members.


After the discovery of the New World, geographical
work was at first done without regular organization.
One of the earliest geographical works was Eden's
Decades of the New World, published in 1555.
Then followed a succession of collections of Voyages
and Travels, of which Haklu>i;'s is, perhaps, the
best known. The Roj-al Society, founded about
1645, published occasional geographical papers;
and in 1788 the African Association was founded
to promote exploration in Africa, and led to the
discoveries of Mungo Park, Denham, Clapperton,
and Lander.

The Royal Geographical Society was founded in
1830 by members of the Raleigh Dining Club, who
collectively had visited nearly every part of the
known world. The scheme of the Society was
planned by Admiral Smyth, who enrolled the first
list of members. Among the Fellows in 1830 were
the King, the Duke of Wellington, Sir John Franklin,
and Sir John Barrow.

The African Association and the Palestine
Association were merged into the Society at its
foundation. A royal charter was granted in 1859.

From 1830 to 1911 the Society had many meeting-
places; but in the latter year, under the presidency
of Earl Curzon of Kedleston, Lowther Lodge
(Kensington Gore) was purchased from the Speaker
of the House of Commons, and has been made the
permanent home of the Society.

The object of the Society is the promotion and
diffusion of geographical knowledge, and to this
end it welcomes to its fellowship all who support
this object by interest or by the active work of
discovery and exploration.

King William IV granted fifty guineas as an
annual donation, and his successors have continued
the gift. This has been devoted to providing a
" Patron's Medal "; and since 1837 a second medal,
the " Founder's Medal," of equal value, has been
awarded by the Society. In the list of recipients
of one or other of these medals appear the names
of many men whose work is well known to all
geographical students: Richard Lander (Africa);
Sir John Ross (Arctic); Sir R. H. Schomburgh
(Guiana); E^'re and Sturt (Australia); McLure
(N.-W. Passage); Burton and Speke (Africa);
H. M. Stanle3^ Livingston, and Cameron (Africa);
Nansen, Shackleton, Peary, and Lady Scott on
behalf of her late husband (Polar discovery).

The Society has spent many thousands of pounds
in grants of money to encourage geographical
exploration and research. Among the expeditions,
many are of historic importance and interest,
including Schomburgh's Guiana Expedition, 1834-
1839; the rehef of Speke, 1861; the Livingstone
Expedition and expeditions for his relief, 1865-
1874; the Cameron Expedition, 1875-1876; and the
Emin Pasha Relief Expedition in 1887. Eight
thousand pounds were contributed to Captain
Scott's first expedition (1901-1902) and £1,500 to
his second; and a thousand pounds were granted
to Sir Ernest Shackleton for his expedition in

About twenty-four meetings of the council are
held annually, dealing wdth correspondence, finance,
grants, care of library and map collection, papers
to be read or published, and honours awarded.

Library, Museum, and Map Collection. The home
of the Society is a spacious building of three floors
of equal floor space. On the ground floor are the
■^.luseum, Map Room, and Map Store, as well as
other rooms; on the first floor are situated the
Library and Reading Room.

The Museum contains, in museum cases, the
personal relics of famous explorers; and portraits
of medalUsts of the Society are hung on the walls.
Among the relics, a number were found by the
Franklin Relief Expedition; and others include such
things as a candle, a knife, tobacco, and ship-
biscuit discovered in Arctic regions, in some cases,
fifty years after the end of the expedition by which
they were left behind. Only a visit to the Museum
can convey to the student an adequate idea of the
interest attaching to such a collection.





The Library has grown out of an original gift
to the Societ}' of 400 volumes in 1832. The nucleus
of the library consists of descriptions of travels and
explorations in all parts of the world, and few works
of this class are wanting. Collections of works on
general geography have grown very rapidly in
recent years, and there are numerous books on
geology, biography, and ethnography. Among
periodical publications and transactions are many
official Government publications, geographical
journals, transactions and reports of societies and
institutions, and reviews in which geographical
articles appear. Fifty per cent, of the books are
in English, 19 per cent, each in German and French,
and 12 per cent, in other languages.

The Society receives a Government grant of
/1, 250 per annum on condition that its collection
of maps shall be open to the public. This privilege
is much appreciated, and the maps, which include
many valuable manuscript maps and ancient
atlases, are frequently consulted by Government
departments and the public.

Direct Educational Work. For the last thirty
years the Society has made great effoi'ts to improve
the geographical education of the country. In 1885
it opened an exhibition of geographical appliances
for teaching; and the collection has since been kept
at the Teachers' Guild Museum in Gower Street,
London W.C.I. From 1871 to 1887, the Society
pressed upon the authorities of Oxford and Cam-
bridge Universities the urgent importance of giving
geography its proper place as a subject of instruc-
tion. In 1888 a Reader in Geography (Mr. H. J.
Mackinder) was appointed at Oxford, and for five
years the Society paid half the salary. In 1899 a
School of Geography was established at Oxford;
and after Mr. Mackinder's retirement in 1905, Dr.
A. J. Herbertson became Reader and Director of
the school.

At Cambridge the story of geographical teaching
followed almost precisely the same lines as that at
Oxford, and a School of Geography was established
in 1903.

Many other contributions in the form of dona-
tions and prizes have been made by the Society
to promote the teaching of geography in univer-
sities, extension societies, and university schools;
while its efforts have also been successfully employed
in improving the style of geographical text-books
used in schools, and the nature of geographical tests
in Civil Service and other examinations.

Scientific instruction in practical astronomy and
surveying is given in the Society's rooms to intend-
ing travellers at a low fee, and diplomas are awarded
to students who go through the whole course laid
down in the Society's syllabus and pass an
examination in the subjects of instruction.

The publications of the Society are: The Journal,
annual volumes; The Proceedings, in parts; The
Geographical Journal, monthly parts; The Year
Book, annually.

Fellows of the Society (F.R.G.S.) are elected on
the nomination of one or more Fellows, one at
least of whom must certify his personal knowledge
of the candidate. Each Fellow is entitled, free of
expense, to a copy of the monthly publication, and
to other publications at reduced rates.


OF. — Commercial, Economic, or Applied Geography
is concerned with the discovery, production, trans-
port, and exchange of commodities, and the influence

thereon exercised by local conditions and place
relations. This may be epitomized as follows —

Discovery : New geographical sources of profit,
e.g. the opening out of a new way to India by
Vasco da Gama at the end of the fifteenth century,
resulted immediately in cargoes of pepper and
other spices from the Malabar Coast reaping a
profit of 6,000 per cent.

Production : The whole world of " raw
material " — animal, vegetable, and mineral, e.g.
wool from the back of the sheep to that of the

Transport : The collecting, handling, and
delivery of goods, e.g. the great tow barges for
mineral traffic on the Ohio and Mississippi.
Tows will come from Pittsburg with coal cargoes
of anything from 10,000 to 40,000 tons. There
is an instance even of 70,000 tons !

Exchange : Influences, whether natural or

artificial, making for easy exchange, e.g. the

obviously natural transit character of Dutch

commerce, or the general question of currencies

— the instruments of exchange.

American geographers explain the scope of economic

geography as the localization of industries which is

subject to three controls: (1) Natural or physical

environment, e.g. the growth of towns near mineral

deposits; (2) human, or characteristics of man, e.g.

change of conditions brought about by railways

[wheat routes of N.W. Victoria (as in Fig. 1);



Scale. 200 miles direct from Melbourne to Salt Lake.

Termini. Jeparit, Hopetown, Salt Lake, Quambatook

Swan Hill.

Fig. 1.

The N.W. Railways of Victoria, which have
converted barren lands into wheat fields.

trans-Siberian railway] ; (3) economic or social forces,
e.g. quality or type of Government, such as one
finds in the backwardness of all development under
the rule of the Ottoman Empire.

The Value of Economic Geography. It follows,
then, that the main object of Economic Geography
is to emphasize causes and consequfences — geo-
graphical causes and commercial consequences.
Therein lies the educative value of the subject.
One may work forward from cause to consequence,
or backward from consequence to cause, with equal
advantage. Fig. 2 shows that part of Africa which
lies within the Tropics, and has, roughly, an average
temperature of about 80° F. {i.e. about 66 per cent,
of the whole Continent). Fig. 3 expresses this fact
in terms of Economic Geography. The 66 per cent.
is responsible for but 30 per cent, of the total trade.
At the beginning of this century, the percentage
was much lower (about 10); but the development
of Rhodesia, British East Africa, British West
Africa, and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan has improved
the figures. This is working from cause to conse-
quence. The converse is as effective. The





subject has an utilitarian value, too. An effective
study of Economic Geography opens out new
possibilities of production, which may — who knows ?
— pave the way to a fortune, and will at least

Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 2) → online text (page 44 of 142)