Foster Watson.

The encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) online

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tributed in the skin receptors for the appreciation
of several kinds of external influences. We recog-
nize injurious actions by sensations of pain ; the
mechanical contact of various bodies by sensations
of touch ; and the presence of warm or cold bodies

by sensations of temperature. That different recep-
tors are responsible is shown by the fact that
isolated stimulation of minute areas of the skin
evokes one only of these sensations. The number
of receptors in a given area varies greatly in dif-
ferent regions of the skin, that of the tongue and
the finger-tips being most richly endowed, especially
as regards receptors for touch. These, on account of
their special importance in intellectual operations,
are dealt with under a separate heading. (See

Pain. It has sometimes been supposed that
excessive stimulation of any sense organ gives rise
to pain, but it is now known that there are spots
on the skin which always give rise to such sensa-
tions; while other spots, however strongly they may
be stimulated, give rise only to heat, cold, or touch
sensations respectively. The surface of the cornea
is capable of afiording only sensations of pain, in
whatever way it be stimulated. These sensations
are probably due to the stimulation of free endings
of nerves; no receptor organ for intensifying the
force acting is necessary or desirable, reactions not
being required unless the stimulus is really injurious.
The different kinds of pain, such as a " burning "
or a " throbbing " pain, are due to the admixture
of other sensations (heat, touch, etc.) with that of

Temperature Sense. When a body whose tempera-
ture is higher or lower than that of the skin (about
27° C.) is applied to it, a sensation of heat or of
cold is experienced. The receptors for the warm
bodies are distinct from those for the cold ones, and
can be separately mapped out by localized apphca-
tion of pointed warm or cold objects. The tenipera-
ture sense is best developed, as a rule, in unexposed
parts of the body. The phenomena of adaptation
are distinct. Thus, tepid water appears warm to a
hand which has previously been in cold water, but
cold to one which has been in hot water. The
specific sensibihty of receptors is curiouslj' shown
by the fact that, while a warm pointed object wiU
not stimulate a cold spot, if made hotter it may
stimulate the nerve of the same cold receptor
directly, and so evoke a sensation of cold. The
nature of the receptors for temperature is not j'et
known. It is possible that they make use of some
reversible chemical reaction which is very sensitive
to changes of temperature.

The sensations from the general surface of the
body are analysed and regrouped by the brain, as
a first stage, into three classes, as shown by Henry
Head. Deep sensibility is derived from receptors
below the surface, and consists of pressure sensa-
tions and pain; localization is fairly accurate.
Cutaneous sensations proper are divided into pro-
topathic and epicritic. The former are of a more
prinritive type, and tend to emotional disturbance;
while the latter are those connected with the
accurate intellectual analysis of stimuli. Proto-
pathic sensibility returns to an area which has been
deprived of sensation by section of its nerve, at a
considerably earUer date than epicritic sensibility.
The capacity of distinguishing the roughness of
objects, pain, and heat above 38° C. or below 24° C.
are present; but the distinguishing of small differ-
ences of temperature, of light touch and its accurate
localization, with the discrimination of the distance
between two points apphed to the skin, belong
entirely to the epicritic sensations. A given intensity
of painful stimulation is much more unpleasant
when applied to an area endowed with protopathic





sensibility alone than it is when epicritic sensation
has returned in addition. It appears that the latter
has an inhibitory action on the former. W. M. B.

CUTTING (PAPER).— (See Paper Tearing,
Cutting, Folding, and Modelling, How to

CUVIER, GEORGES (1769-1832).— The most
distinguished naturalist, of his age. He was born
at MontbeUard (France) ; educated at Stuttgart ;
and, while a tutor on the Norman coast, studied
the natural history of marine animals and fossils.
He was made Professor of Natural History in the
College of France in 1800, and received honours
from Napoleon I, Louis XVIII, Charles X, and
Louis Philippe. From 1809 to 1811 he was engaged
in organizing educational institutions in Italy,
Holland, and Germany ; and advocated sound
education for the working classes.

founded, in 1878, for the purpose of protecting the
interests of cyclists, and of securing for them special
touring facilities all over the world. At that time,
cycling was in its infancy, and great prejudice
against bicycles prevailed wherever they appeared,
and there was great opposition to their use on pubUc
roads. Exclusion by law was openly advocated
when the old " ordinary " tall machine with rubber
tyres appeared. The Club took steps to secure the
legal rights of a cyclist as a user of the high road,
and in later years it has done much to obtain
improvements in the surface of roads.

The Club is confined to amateur riders, and for
some years has included motor cychsts among its

The Club publishes monthly the Cyclists' Touring
Club Gazette, in which names of applicants for
admission are published for one month before they
can be elected. If no objection is raised within
seven days of the publication of the Gazette, the
candidates are elected at once.

The Gazette is issued free to all members, and
other privileges of members include: Legal assist-
ance in any cycling accident or dispute; assistance
and guidance when touring abroad; discounts at
many hotels at home and abroad; reduced steamer
and railway fares; travel information, road books,
maps, and guides.

The Club is governed by a council and a com-
mittee, and affiliated to it are fourteen district
associations; while for Continental touring it has
its own special agents, who arrange for Customs
concessions to club tourists, and make contracts
with hotels and cycle repairers for the benefit of
Club members.

The encouragement of touring is promoted by the
Club's unceasing exertions for the improvement of
roads; the freeing of bridges from tolls; the pro-
motion of legislation beneficial to cyclists; and the
circulation of literature dealing with roads, routes,
scenery, hotels, and danger spots.

The district associations foster the interests of
cyclists living in more populous centres by pro-
viding runs, short outings, lectures, concerts, and
other social entertainments, besides giving legal
assistance and taking action in matters affecting
the members.

The Club affords much assistance to cyclists who
study the country through which they ride. It
publishes a series of road books containing strip

maps, gradient profiles, and much descriptive
information, with key-maps and maps showing
main thoroughfares in large towns.

The British Handbook and Farmhouse List
contains much information on railway and steam-
boat charges, hotels, coffee-taverns, and country

The Touring Bureau at the Club office affords
much assistance and guidance to members intend-
ing to tour at home or abroad, and has arranged
a system of free reciprocal membership with many
cycling clubs on the Continent, in the United States,
and in Australia.

Members of the C.T.C. can join the Home
Counties Archaeological Society at a reduced
subscription. This Society visits places of interest
in the neighbourhood of London on Saturdays and

The Club office is at 280 Euston Road, London,

CYCLOSTYLE. — A copying apparatus, in which
a pen, with a small rotating toothed wheel at its
point, is used to write upon a sheet of thin paper
saturated in wax and stretched tightly over a
smooth metal plate. The teeth of the wheel make
minute holes through the waxed paper or stencil,
and copies are obtained by pressing ink through
the holes by means of an inked roller. Sometimes
a smooth stylus is used, but then the surface of the
metal plate must consist of a large number of
minute points obtained by the intersection of
finely divided cross-fines.

CYGNAEUS, UNO (" The Father of the Primary
School in Finland "). — He was born at Tavastehus,
12thi October, 1810, and passed in 1827 from the
gymnasium there to the University of Helsingfors,
becoming Filosofie Magister in 1836. From 1837
he was for two years assistant pastor and then gaol
chaplain at Viborg, and devoted much energy to
work in a private school there. From 1840 to 1845
he acted as chaplain to a trading colony of his
countrymen at Sitka, or New Archangel, in what
was then Russian America. It has sometimes been
said that the birthplace of the primary school in
Finland was in Russian America. This is true in a
sense, but only in a sense. At Sitka he was struck
by the distance that separated the cultivated people
he met at the Governor's table from the natives
that came in to barter the produce of the chase;
and the contrast, he observes in the note-books he
kept, " raised in me the thought that education,
beginning %vith the influences of the home, and
extending through the school- or development-
years, is of the utmost importance. Fraternity,
equality, freedom — these great thoughts began to
fiU and animate my soul more and more; and in my
lonely wanderings along the shore of the Pacific,
and through the primeval forests of America, these
thoughts obtained more power over me." His mind
was thus prepared for a further development. The
next twelve years were spent in Petrograd, super-
intending a Finnish school, and taking charge of
the religious instruction in the other Finnish schools
of the city. It was here his half-ripened fancies
shaped themselves to a whole through the study of
Pestalozzi, Froebel, and Diesterweg.

Educational Work in Finland, His opportunity
came in 1857. The year before, Alexander II had
visited Finland and promised a new and complete





organization for the primary schools. According to
Finnish custom, each citizen has the right, whilst
a measure is under debate, to lay upon tlie table
any suggestions he may have for the pubUc good.
This was the origin of Cygnaeus's Strodda Tankar
{Stray Thoughts on the Intended Primary Schools in
Finland), which, in the brief compass of six or
seven pages, is so filled with thoughts and pro-
posals tending to a real education of the people, as
virtually to decide the character of the new schools.
Cygnaeus was thus the first to make educational
handwork — Sloyd, farm-work, gardening — an in-
tegral part of the general school system of any
country. From June, 1858, to October, 1859, he
was occupied in visiting the schools of Finland and
Sweden, and in noting latest developments in
Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Holland. The
results were embodied in his fuller proposals pub-
lished in 1861, Forslag rorande Folkskolevdsendet i
Finland, of which there is a copy in the British
Museum. In 1863 he became first Director of the
new Finnish seminary at Jyvaskyla; and the
scholastic organization was definitely fixed by the
Ordinance of 11th May, 1866.

Cygnaeus died on the 2nd of January, 1888; and
in the following month. Otto Salomon {g.v.), who
was never weary of acknowledging his obligations
to him, devoted a whole number of the Slojd
undeniisningsblad fran Nads to a striking notice;
but the fullest account is to be found in the Life
by Cygnaeus's son-in-law, the late Dr. Gustaf F.
Lonnbeck (Helsingfors, 1890, p. 132).

(See Uno Cygneus in Journal of Education,
Sept., 1890.) J. S. T.

SOCIETY OF.— This was originaUy founded in 1751
by a number of Welshmen resident in London. Its
original objects were to collect and publish valuable
Welsh manuscripts; to form a library of Welsh
books; and to discuss questions affecting the his-
tory, antiquities, and language of Wales. As they
claimed to be direct descendants of the Ancient
Britons, the name " Cymmrodorion " (which means
aborigines) was adopted, and at their meetings the
members discoursed as much as possible in the
" Ancient British " language.

A charity school had been established in 1718 for
poor children of Welsh parents in London, and was
held in Hatton Garden, then in Clerkenwell Green,
and later in Gray's Inn Road. About the middle
of the nineteenth centur}' this school was moved
to Ashford. The Society of Cymmrodorian took
great interest in the Welsh school, and each member
was, by the rules, expected to contribute sixpence
a quarter to the Charity Box. The rules also pro-
vided that in the event of the breaking up of the
Society, its property should be handed over for the
benefit of the school. The museum and library of

the Society were deposited at the School House,
then in Clerkenwell Green, under the charge of the
schoolmaster, who made a catalogue of the books.
The Society had a high reputation for some years,
and pubUshed some important works, but by the
end of the eighteenth century it fell into decay
and was of little note until its revival in 1820.

Activities in the Ninctccntli and Twentieth
Centuries. Under the presidency of Sir William
Watkins Wynn, and the patronage of the Prince
of Wales, the Society resumed its work of pre-
serving and illustrating the ancient remains of
Welsh Uterature and of promoting its cultivation
in the present day.

Out of the Cymmrodorion arose the Canorion,
a Welsh Musical Society, with meetings at the
Freemasons' tavern, giving considerable delight to
lovers of Welsh music. Medals and other prizes
were awarded by the Society for composition in
prose and verse at various Eisteddfodau.

The Society again fell into decay and ceased to
exist in 1843, but was revived in 1873, once more
under the presidency of a Sir William Watldn Wynn.
The present aims of the Society are the improve-
ment of education; and the encouragement of
literature, science, and art as connected with Wales.

The Society holds meetings in London during
spring and summer for the reading of papers on
literature, science, and art, and for the discussion
of practical subjects within the scope of the
Society's aims.

In connection with the Welsh National Eisteddfod
a series of meetings are held in Wales, under the
name of " The Cymmrodorion Section," for the
consideration of educational, social, and hterary
questions which concern Wales. From these meet-
ings arose the National Eisteddfod Association
and the Society of Welsh Musicians. Owing also to
the inquiries instituted by the Society in 1884 and
1885, was founded the Society for Utihzing the
Welsh Language.

Publications. A volume of Transactions is pub-
lished annually, containing an account of the papers
and lectures given at the Society's meetings, with
the yearly report. The Society's magazine, Y Cymm-
rodor, is also published in yearly volumes, and
contains the results of original research by scholars
into Welsh history and Literature. Among valuable
contributions to this magazine may be mentioned
" The Origin of the Welsh Englyn and Kindred
Metres," by John Rhys, D.Litt., Professor of Celtic
(Vol. XVIII); and " The History of Charlemagne,"
a translation of Ystorya de Carolo Magna, with
critical remarks by the Rev. R. Williams, Rector
of Daubedr (Vol. XXI). The Society also collects
unpublished records throwing light on Welsh his-
tory, and from time to time issues them in its
Cymmrodorion Record Series.

The offices are at 64 Chancery Lane,London, W.C. 2 .






DAIRY SCHOOLS. — (See Agricultural

Rural School, Teacher in a.)

The Jaques-Dalcroze Method of.)

THE. — (See Reading, The Dale Method of

A French mathematician and encyclopaedist who
showed at an early age a passion for mathematics.
He was admitted to the Academy of Sciences at the
age of 23, and two years later wrote Trails de
Dynaniique, which based all laws of motion on the
consideration of equiUbrium, and caused a revolution
in the philosophy of mechanics. His Reflexions on the
Causes of Winds gained a prize at the Berlin
Academy in 1746. Other works followed on Equi-
librium and Movements of Fluids (1744), the Pre-
cession of the Equinoxes (1749), and his researches
in connection with the solar system. He published
Opuscules MatMmatiques in eight volumes (1761-
1780), containing many treatises on his mathe-
matical researches. He worked for a time %\'ith
Diderot as co-editor of his EncyclopSdie, and wrote
an introduction as well as numerous mathematical
articles. He became secretary to the Academy in
1772 and, while acting in that capacity, wrote
biographies of all the members who had died since
1700. His other works include books on philosophy
and the theory of music.

DAIHE SCHOOLS.— Previous to the passing of
the Education Act of 1870, there existed, in almost
every English village and in many towns, schools
in which a housewife taught young children in her
own cottage. Shenstone, in The Schoolmistress
(1737), gives a fuU description of a dame school and
its teacher. The " matron old " tamed " unruly
brats with birch " as she turned her wheel around,
knitted, or performed her domestic duties. Crabbe
(1783) gives a similar description, pointing out the
smallness of the room and the consequent over-
crowding. The dame schools were privately sup-
ported, and both management and instruction were
entirely in the hands of the schoolmistress, who
usually taught reading and writing effectively,
with some elements of arithmetic, grammar,
geography, and history. Beginners always learnt
the alphabet first from a " horn-book," that is, a
sheet of printed matter covered with translucent
horn, " to save from fingers wet the letters fair ";
while the later reading books were generally illus-
trated with crude and badly drawn wood-cuts.
Penmanship received more attention than at the
present day. A common type of book was The
Child's Week's-work (1712), containing lessons,
proverbs, fables, sections on behaviour, short
catechism, conundrums, and anecdotes all copiously

and badly illustrated. The Protestant Tutor and
many a Compleat Spelling Book were common.
Punishment was a prominent feature in the dame's
method, and included raps on the head with her
thimble, dunce's caps, labels such as " Idle Boy,"
" Lying Ananias"; fastening of culprits to the door-
latch with a cotton round the neck, or to the dame's
apron with a pin. Since 1870, such schools have
almost disappeared.


There are three species of English folk-dance,
the sword dance, morris dance, and country

The Sword Dance, which is the most ancient of
the three, is generally believed to be the survival
of a primitive, sacrificial rite. The dance is per-
formed once a year only, at the Christmas season.
It is a ring-dance executed by five, six, or eight
performers, each of whom carries a sword in one
hand and grasps the tip of his left-neighbour's
sword with the other. 'The climax of the dance
is reached when the swords are meshed together
in a star-shaped figure and placed around the neck
of one of the company, or exhibited by the leader.
There are two varieties of the dance: (1) the " long-
sword," in which metal or wooden swords of
ordinarjf size are used; and (2) the " rapper," in
which the weapon is of finelj'-tempered, flexible
steel, about 2 ft. in length. The dance is usually
preceded by a song, in which the performers are
severally introduced to the audience; while, in some
instances, a primitive drama, akin to the Mummers'
play, is enacted before the song and continued after
the conclusion of the dance.

The Morris Dance is an ofishoot from the sword
dance, and, hke its prototype, is still danced
ceremonially — at Whitsuntide. It is performed
by six men standing in two parallel lines of three.
There are two varieties of the dance in which,
respectively, the dancers (1) hold a white handker-
chief in each hand, or (2) carry a short stick in one
or both hands. Like the sword dance it is
traditionally a man's dance though, during the
present revival, it has been freely danced by

The Country Dance is, in all probability, a
derivate of the quasi-religious rites associated
with the May-Day ceremonies. It is, however,
many centuries since it lost all trace of its ceremonial
origin and became the every-day social dance of
the English people. It is danced by men and
women in couples, or partners, and is executed
in many different formations. The steps are
extremely simple, but the figures, which are almost
infinite in number and variety, are often intricate.
A few traditional examples of the later forms
of the dance still survive, but the great store-house
of the dance is Playford's English Dancing Master
(1650-1728), which contains the descriptions —
somewhat obscurely worded — of a very large
number of dances, upwards of a hundred of which
have been deciphered and published in modern





Folk-dancing in Schools. Educationists justify
the introduction of folk-dancing into schools on
the general ground that the practice of an art
exercises and develops the imagination and those
faculties which are other than intellectual; and
more particularly because (1) physical movements
which, as in the folk-dance, are executed under the
impulse of emotion and for the purpose of self-
expression, are less calculated to produce a stiff,
wooden and mechanical bearing than those that
are performed in response to the word of command,
and with no other aim than that of training and
developing the muscles; and, again, because (2) in
the folk-dances of their own nation, children have
an inherited form of artistic expression which
must, from its very nature, be congenial to them.
Folk-dancing is a genuine, unspoiled art, because
throughout its historjr its function has been to
provide a means of individual and communal
self-expression, rather than a spectacle or pageant
for the entertainment of others. All its movements
are consequently free, natural and unaffected.
On its physical side, folk-dancing illustrates in a
practical way the fundamental principle that
motion is not a matter of the legs, but of body-
balance, that the legs are supports not ornaments,
and that free, natural movement is initiated and
governed by moving or swaying the body and
inclining it this way or that according to the
direction of motion.

For boys and youths, the Sword Dance is an
excellent physical and artistic exercise. It demands
great agiUty, celerity and neatness of movement,
skilful manipulation of the hands and a nimble
wit. Some of the dances are long and arduous,
and these must be reserved for those only who
are in thoroughly good physical training.

The Morris is a far more highly developed
dance than the sword, but technically more
intricate and physically more exacting. Owing to
its technical difficulties much preliminary practise
is needed, and this to some extent detracts from
its educational utility, because the essential value
of dancing as a school subject is not in the learning
but in the actual practise of it. Again, the move-
ments in the morris are strenuous, and the dance
must, therefore, be used in the school with great
discrimination. Generally speaking, it is a more
suitable dance for adults than for children. At
the same time, if the aim of phj'sical culture be
to acquire complete control over the body, no
student can afford to ignore this dance, for it is
just this faculty which the morris, with its co-
ordinated movements of arms, feet and body, will

The Country Dance is, from the educational
point of view, the most useful of the three. It is
easily taught and quickly learned. It can be
danced by quite young children, and by means of
it many useful lessons maj' be taught — in grace of
manner, in the simple and 'unaffected courtesies
between boys and girls, in the art of moving easily
and naturally, and in bearing a " fair presence."
The ever-changing figures call for an active and

Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) → online text (page 115 of 138)