Foster Watson.

The encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) online

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Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) → online text (page 21 of 138)
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small stock, and
one or two jam
jars for spawn
the animals to

Fig. 1. Aerating Apparatus.

wanted to convey

will be

The net should be thrust well into the weeds
and dragged slowly along through them for two
or three yards, and then drawn out for examination.
With ordinary luck, there will be plenty of weed,
some of which will at once be placed in each
receptacle. There should be pond-snails in variety,
and perhaps their (jelly-like spawn clinging to the
leaves. These may all go into the vasculum, as
they live out of water for some time. Sooner or
later may be found various water beetles or water
scorpions, or the lively waterboatmen: these for the
vasculum also. Rarer specimens, especially carniv-
orous creatures, had better be placed in smaller
tins well packed mth weed. The water spiders want
to travel home in water — likewise any fish. Dif-
ferent parts of the pond should be " dragged," not
forgetting the muddy floor, which often yields the
intensely interesting " caddis worm " concealed in
cases of twigs or leaves. (These for the vasculum

Masses of frogs' spawn or tadpoles may be
collected by dipping a jar into the water and
letting them float in. One can hardly have

Home made

too many tad-polcs, as they serve for teaching
and as lood for the beasts. Adult amphibians
should not be taken home in water, as they
breathe air.

The Nurture of Specimens. In the school the
animals may be kept separate, if desired; but it will
be more interesting to put several kinds together;
thus: (1) Tadpoles, caddis, snails; (2) .newts, fish,
and snails (but ensuring a means for the newts to
reach the air); (3) carnivorous beetles and snails;
(4) caddis, dragon-fly larvae, and snails; (5) silver
beetles, fish, and snails.

Dragon-fly larvae should be provided with means,
for climbing into the
air when they change
into the fly state. A
superstructure of mus-
lin will prevent their

Snails and the large
silver beetle will live
on pond weed or
watercress. Tadpoles
and caddis eat weed,
but also like tiny
shreds of raw meat
occasionally. Stickle-
backs, minnows, and
dragon -larvae devour
meat, or blood-
worms or gentles
(obtained at natural-
ists). Water beetles
and scorpions will eat
live tadpoles and
meat. Water spiders
will eat bloodworms,
but seem to prefer
the miscellaneous
small life of the pond.
Dragon-fly larvae
\vi\\ live on blood-
worms or tadpoles,
and so will newts.
Frogs should be
taken out of their
vivarium and coaxed
with worms, smooth caterpillars, and


AQUARIUM. — (See Apparatus, Home-Made.)

AQUINAS, THOMAS (1227-1274).— This famous
mediaeval schoolman was trained in the established
methods of the early thirteenth century, and,
with slight modifications, his influence perpetuated
them. Flis earliest masters were the Benedictines
of Monte Cassino, near his native place, Aquino.
He then came under the influence of the newly-
established Order of Friars Preachers — the Black
Friars or Dominicans. Through them he went
to Cologne and studied under Albert the Great,
following that master, in 1245, to Paris. There his
ability was recognized owing to his answer in
the schools to Albert the Great ; and in about
1252 he began to lecture publicly. In 1257
he was received as a doctor by the University of
Paris, in spite of its hostility to the Friars. After
that he lectured at various places, and eventually
died near Terracina. He was canonized in 1323,
and is known, after the mediaeval manner, as the
" Doctor Angelicus." His view of hfe and the





universe was taken from a cloister : he had little
contact with the world of affairs, and no experience
of domestic, poUtical, artistic, or scientific life.
With such limitations, his achievements seem
wonderful. The philosophy of Aquinas is referred
to under Scholasticism. Educationally, Aquinas
stood for the highest intellectual development, and
he counteracted the fear of intelligence which
earUer mysticism had almost persuaded the Church
to enforce. He won over the Church officials to
the support of education in general.

In the subject-matter of education, his influence
was not different from that of most mediaeval
thinkers ; and his work had no effect except in
the universities. He has no characteristic view of
education. His commentary on Aristotle's theory
of education in the Politics is a merely verbal
explanation ; and the references to contemporary
experience reduce themselves to remarks such as
that the flute excites passion, " as we see it now
used in war, both for that and to terrify the enemy."
He agrees that flute-playing obstructs the use of
reason ; ftstulationem prohibere usmn rationis
rectum. Apart from the general influence of scholas-
ticism, that of Aquinas on education was in method
rather than in subject-matter. In method, the
Commentaries must be distinguished from the
Summa Theologica, the Contra Gentiles, and the
Optiscula. The Commentaries, especially those on
Aristotle's works, are exact and abrupt explana-
tions of what Aquinas believed the author meant,
with little indication of the commentator's views.
Doubtless these are implied ; but, so far as the
method goes, there could be no clearer understanding
of the true province of commentary. There is httle
reference to the language, but a sustained con-
centration upon the meaning of the text ; and the
result is so persuasive, even when from our modern
laiowledge of Aristotle we cannot accept it, that
Aquinas's meaning is practically what Dante and
the early Renaissance scholars meant by " Aristotle."
Educationally, the effect of this was to reinforce
considerably the weight of tradition ; but the
influence of Aquinas upon method is even more
important because of his omissions. His name,
justly or not, has stood for the discussion of natxural
phenomena -nathout recourse to experiment.

His original works reinforced the thirteenth
century method for acquiring exact knowledge.
The Summa contra Gentiles is, in its beginning,
literary and even emotional ; but, all through, the
eflect is rather that of exact distinctions and abrupt
statements. The Opuscula cover a large number of
subjects, chiefly metaphysical, in the same exact
style as the contra Gentiles ; but it is by the Summa
Theologica that Aquinas has chiefly influenced
educational practice. Its method is systematic.
It aims at expressing, in consecutive form, the
whole view of the Universe as estabUshed in the
thirteenth century ; but, chiefly from the point of
view of "revelation." Thus, although geography,
astronomy, physics and even political theory are
implied, the emphasis is upon what we still call
theological statements. Each leading principle of
the orthodox faith is examined ; the arguments
against it are given ; then a general indication of
" the truth " ; and, finally, replies to the arguments.
This method has continued, with some Cartesian
modifications in the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries, to be that used in seminaries and noviti-
ates ; . and it was revived, along with the general
Thomistic revival, under Leo. XIII. Even when

not exactly followed, its educational effect is (1) a
great exactness of thought, both in its systematic
connection of statements and in the perception of
the value of proof ; and, on the other hand, (2)
so great a concentration of thought upon few
propositions, that little energy is left for the
always-extending sphere of knowledge. C. D. B.

AQUINAS, THOMAS.— (See Scholasticism.)

Mohammedan Education.)


Previous to 1907, there was only one course of
Arabic in the universities of Spain. It was con-
fined to the rudiments of the written language, and
consisted of about 150 lessons (Oct.-May, inclusive).
Thanks to a careful selection of the more important
rules, and the exclusion of subtleties, idioms, and
exceptions, most students learn to translate vocal-
ized texts ; and one or two succeed in reading and
translating texts with the vowels omitted. Once
the lessons are over, they seldom find the need of
recalling the little they have learned and of showing
they have not forgotten it. The syllabuses give no
place to Arabic except for the degree of Doctor,
for which one of the optional subjects has been,
since 1913, Arabo-Spanish (Moorish) literature.
The title of Doctor is required only of candidates for
a university professorsliip, and few trouble them-
selves with this subject. Moreover, the number of
students taking Arabic has always been very small
(it does not exceed sixteen), because the school of
Literature leads to nothing much except certain
masterships in pubUc secondary schools or uni-
versity professorships. Even supposing the students
pursued their studies %vith the maximum of profit,
no result could be obtained other than the manu-
facture of translators of written Arabic, qualified
to undertake liistorical research. The perfect
mastery of a language like Arabic, the popular
pronunciation of which does not correspond to the
■switten characters, presents four quite distinct
phases : (1) Translation of Arabic texts ; (2)
translation into Arabic ; (3) interpretation of
spoken Arabic ; and (4) correct conversation in
that idiom. Only the first of these results can be
obtained from the single university class which was
established to produce scholars qualified to make
researches in the history of Spain under the Moslems.
The other three are not thereby secured, and yet,
when European nations penetrate into Moham-
medan countries they are indispensable for the
training of interpreters, consuls, diplomatists,
masters of native schools, administrative officers,

The Moroccan question becomes more urgent
everj' day, and the authorities realize how necessary
it is for them to prepare a scheme for teaching
Mohammedan languages and institutions. A few
half-hearted, casual steps were taken in 1907
by the Liberal Government. Professorships of
popular Arabic were founded in the commercial
schools at Barcelona, Valencia, Malaga, Cadiz,
Palma (Majorca), and Santa Cruz de Tenerife ; but
a knowledge of Arabic was not required of those
who were to undertake responsible administrative
work. In 1910 a Chair was founded at the School
of Commerce at Madrid, and, in 1913, another at
the Central School of Languages. But in nearly
all these schools the professors have had no pupils





at all, nor have they any to-day. They all suffer
from the same inherent defect, due to a widespread
belief that there is a Moroccan-Arabic vernacular
which can be taught and learned outside Morocco
without any knowledge of the classical idiom.

The profound difference in this dialect between
the spoken word and the written word, together
with the suppression of the major part of the
vowels in writing it, make it very nearly impossible
to learn it properly by the " direct method " out-
side the country in wliich it is spoken. All the
vocalic deUcacies of inflexion and mutation, so
essential in the Semitic languages, lose their deiinite-
ness if the direct method, divorced from writing, is
employed. Besides, the vocabulary wliich can be
acquired by this method is always very limited,
for it reduces itself to that which the teacher pos-
sesses. Should the pupil desire to increase his
vocabulary independently, he must consult Arabic
dictionaries, which, arranged as they are in order
of roots and not of words, require a knowledge of
accidence so that the roots may be extracted.
Again, the Arabic of Morocco taught in commercial
schools is meant to be an instrument of mercantile
intercommunication — especially a means of drawing
up and interpreting commercial documents. Now,
everybody knows that written Arabic is an utterly
illegible cipher without the key of grammar ; and the
lesscorrectit is, the more impossible it is to decipher.

The Hispano-Moroccan Central Society has
established schools of popular Arabic at Madrid,
Barcelona, Valencia, and Saragossa ; the Athenaeum
at Madrid has organized the same sort of teaching
in its upper classes ; the Higher School of War, the
Infantry Academy at Toledo, and similar institu-
tions' possess professorships of the same kind, all
exempt from classical influence.

Some of these classes are joined by many young
people, but the teaching'' method soon discourages
even the most enthusiastic ; and the schools,
unless they happen to have official sanction, all
close down abruptly in consequence of the indiffer-
ence of the students, who quickly abandon them.

The Central Institute of History, which has been
at work since 1910, is very like the ficole des Hautes
fitudes at Paris. There a few post-graduate
students are occupied with liistorical investigation in
collaboration with the professors. In 1911, two pro-
fessorships were founded : one having the political
and social institutions of Moorish Spain, the other
the history of philosophy and theology in Spanish
Islam, as their provinces. The subjects of research
were associated with the study of modern Morocco,
and the literary language was supplemented by the
study of the Moroccan dialects. Since 1917, these
two professorships have not existed.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs founded, in 1912,
the Independent Institute of Instruction for the
Diplomatic and Consular Services and School of
Moroccan Studies, under the aegis of the Royal
Academy of Jurisprudence. The department of
Moroccan Studies is divided into two branches, in
which instruction is given in popular and in classical
Arabic respectively. de M. A.

' At Ceuta and Melilla there are classes in popular Arabic and
Rif&an for soldiers. I know nothing of their organization or method ;
but it is reasonable to suppose that the teaching shuts out classical
Arabic ; the results, however, are perhaps less unfavourable,
because of the intercourse with the natives.

" The grammar generally adopted is Rudimentos del arabc vulvar ,
by P. Lerchundi, a useful and convenient manual for the reader
who knows something of the written language, but inadequate —
as all works of this kind for beginners are — outside Morocco.

ARABIC NOTATION.— Few improvements in
arithmetic have proved more valuable than the
introduction of the system of writing numbers in
the Hindu-Arabic manner. The efficacy of the
method depends on the employment of a symbol
for zero, and the use of place values. By these
means, ten symbols — 0, 1,2... 9 — suffice for the
expression of any number, however large, and the
notation greatly facilitates all arithmetical processes.
Without its aid, men have usually relied for ordinary
practical calculations on the abacus or other
mechanical apparatus.

This system of numeration was evolved in India,
and had there taken definite form before the end of
the eighth century. The extent of the Arab conquests
in that and the previous century, and trade require-
ments, compelled the new rulers to study arith-
metic ; and they, recognizing the superiority of
the Indian over the Greek system, adopted it at
once. It is possible that it also made its way inde-
pendently of them from India into Persia. In the
ninth century, and may-be earlier, it had become
the usual system among the Moslems ; and, through
travellers, pilgrims and traders, its existence was
known elsewhere. The earhest definite description
of it pubhshed in Europe was given by Leonardo
of Pisa in 1202. Leonardo's father was a com-
mercial agent in Barbary, and there the lad had
become familiar with the system, and with the
Arabic writings of Alkarismi in which it is
expounded. Leonardo's work had considerable
influence, so that, by the middle of the thirteenth
century, Italian merchants and European men of
science were commonly acquainted with the notation
and the processes founded on it.

Among men of science, the new system was
generally accepted. In Italy and Greece it also
came to be freely used in commerce, and, since
European trade at that time was largely in Italian
hands, the more important merchants elsewhere
became acquainted with it. A knowledge of it was
further spread by the wide circulation of almanacks
and calendars, wliich, after the end of the thirteenth
century, often included an explanation of the use
of the Arabic symbols, to which the rules of arith-
metic de algorismo were frequently added. But
outside Italy, most merchants continued to keep
their accounts in Roman numerals till the middle
of the sixteenth century, and monasteries and
corporations till somewhat later. No instarice of
a date or number being written in Arabic numer-
als has been discovered in any English parish
register or manor roll before the sixteenth cen-
tury ; there is one instance in Scotland in the
year 1490.

By the close of the sixteenth century, the nota-
tion had become common in Western Emrope.
About this time, it was further extended to frac-
tions by the introduction of a decimal point or
other similar mark : this greatly increased its
value The symbols used have only slowly taken
the forms now current. W. W. R. B.

Reference —

Smith, D. E. and Karpinski, L. C. The Hindu Arabic
Numerals. (Boston, U.S.A., 1911.)

ARANDA, COUNT OF.— (See Abarca y Bolea.)


In the study of the humanities, ancient or modern.





the constant tendency — which needs to be resisted —
is towards bookishness: that is, the student incUnes
to save himself the trouble of imagining to the full
the scene, the material object, or the sentiment,
and to give himself up to what is nearest to hand —
the word, the grammar, tlie form of the sentence.
To this undoubted tendency one of the best anti-
dotes is the proper use and study of visible and
tangible objects, which, rightly used, have been
found very useful in bringing home the reality of
ancient literature and liistory.

Of the general psychological principle, few clas-
sical teachers need to be convinced. But they have
two difliculties: first, how to secure the archaeo-
logical material; and, second, how to use it without
making too serious inroads on their time-table.

The Help ol Public Museums. We have many
excellent public museums in England, where objects
connected with Greek and Roman life can be seen
admirably arranged and labelled in cases. At the
British Museum is a capital collection, illustrated
by a good guide; at Reading is the fine Silchester
collection; and at ChoRerford, Northumberland (a
somewhat remote localit}'), is the splendid Chesters
museum, which could hardly be surpassed as an
introduction to Romano- British life. But compara-
tively few teachers can take their pupils to such
collections; such a visit is apt to be wearisome; when
they get there the pupils cannot handle the exhibits;
and, even if they could, they would not do so " in
the nick of time." A coin or a vase, or a stilus in
the hand during the lesson, is worth a dozen such
in a case two or three days later. AH classical
schools should possess their own archaeological
material, not necessarily laid out museum-wise to
become pointless by indiscriminate and uninstructed
gazing, but better in the cupboards of teachers who
know when to produce the objects and what to sa)'
about them.

Travelling Collections. FaiUng such proprietor-
ship, the best that can be done is to organize
travelling collections, of wluch, for a small fee,
schools may avail themselves. Some years ago
Dublin University organized such loan collections,
and the value of them was instantly and widely
recognized. In England a beginning was made by
the Association for the Reform of Latin Teaching
at its meeting at Cambridge in the summer of 1913.
Here, under the enthusiastic guidance of Professor
Henry Browne, of Dublin, a committee was formed
under the name of the Realien Com.mittee (a name
recently changed to Archaeological Aids Com-
mittee), with Mr. S. E. Winbolt, M.A., of Christ's
Hospital, as hon. secretary. A useful collection was
soon formed, which began to be circulated in
October, 1913. Schools pa}' a guinea a year for
the first two j^ears of membership, and thereafter
half a guinea, for which subscription they have the
right to use, for a fortnight or three weeks each, all
the different sets of exhibits, the cost of carriage
outward being borne by the Committee and the
return carriage by the school. Teachers in London
schools have, from time to time, acted as voluntary
custodians of the various sets of material. Given
proper arrangements for packing, the exhibits stand
the wear and tear surprisingly well.

The kind of objects circulated have been of three
main kinds —

Section A : Coins. Nine cabinets, containing
some hundreds of coins, interesting historically and
aesthetically, have made many journeys, and not a
single coin has been lost during four years' working.

Two cabinets of casts of Roman Aes Grave,
and one each of the following, have added life to
classical reading or history lessons: Original coins
of the Roman Republic, original coins of the Roman
Empire, original silver coins of Sicily, casts of coin
portraits of Roman emperors, original coins of the
Greek Jlainland; and a collection of Roman, Greek,
and Egyptian electrotype coins in two cabinets.
These are accompanied by full catalogues and
suitable books on numismatics.

Section B: Casts , Models, and original Antiques.
Plaster casts of objects in the British Museum and
elsewhere include a diskos, mirror, helmet, sword,
phalera, figures of tragic and comic actors, and so on;
among models are those of a Roman book, writing-
tablets, catapult, militar}' tortoise, hand-mill, and
the Corvus or boarding platform used by the Romans
in naval engagements with the Carthaginians.
Several restored antiques from the British Museum
— by the kindness of the authorities — were put in
circulation (e.g., among others, Mycenean oil jars,
Roman oil flasks and lamps, an Attic black-glaze
bowl, the neck of an Attic black-figure vase, a bronze
mirror, ear-rings and bracelets).

Section C; Wall Pictures and Photographs. These
included pictures of Roman and Greek dress, sfiips,
arms, engines of war, theatres, houses, furniture,
and so on.

Method ot Use. With such material to hand, a
most profitable ten minutes can be spent with a
class at the close of the lesson, or ten minutes can
even occasionally be used in the lesson itself, when,
e.g., on the mention by Livy of a sum of money in
asses, the Aes Grave is produced, handed round, and
explained. Moreover, not only is the thing reaUzed
visualh- and factually, but casts of the most beau-
tiful coins are very easily produced by the boys on
a wet afternoon, and these, mounted on a card, are
introduced as an ornament into the classroom.
The models are copied by the keener spirits in the
carpenter's shop, and our own Corvus, or catapult,
makes us independent in future of the travelling

Wherever these auxiliaries to teaching are tried,
they are pronounced to be a decided success.
Their value need not be exaggerated, nor should a
disproportionate amount of time be spent on them;
but the use of such material spells a very distinct
advantage. Such archaeological aids can easily, and
should certainly, be popularized. S. E. W.

Eeierence —

Browne, Henry. Essays on the Reform and Revival oj
Classical Studies (1917), pp. 117-281.

BRITISH, — This Association was formed in
January, 1844, by a self-elected Committee of
twenty-two members for the purpose of collecting
all kinds of information that could be obtained
relating to antiquities and to the remains then
daily being brought to light by the progress of
railway work. A committee of six was appointed
to compile a Journal, in which the results of the
labours of the members were to be recorded.
A dispute among the members in the first year of
the Association's existence led to a secession and
the establishment by the seceders of the
Archaeological Institute.

Members of the Association are either Associates
or Correspondents ; the former subscribe one
guinea or upwards annually, receive copies of the
Journal, and attend meetings.





The Journal is published in London, and contains
accounts of tlie proceedings, notes on new publica-

Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) → online text (page 21 of 138)