Foster Watson.

The encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) online

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this country, chiefly owing to its being considered
an arbitrary and impossible system.

Probably nothing has done more to break down
the barrier between the blind and the seeing than
the modern typewriting machine. Almost every
well-educated blind person nowadays is able to use
the ordinary standard machine, and many conduct
all their business or private correspondence by its
aid. Typewriting for the bUnd was introduced by
Mr. W. Hy. IlUngworth, headmaster of the Royal
Blind Asylum and School, Edinburgh, in 1885 ;
and two or three years later, by using an Edison-
Bell phonograph as a dictating medium, a bUnd
pupil of that institution was trained as a corre-
spondence clerk, being the first bUnd person to





obtain such a position in a mercantile of&ce- — a
position which she still holds with credit (1920).

For teaching Arithmetic, a sort of zinc " slate "
is used. This " slate," or tray, contains a large
number of star-shaped holes, arranged in lines ^ in.
apart in every direction. Each star has eight points
or angles, and the figures consist of little square
types about I in. long. On one end of each type
are two points, and on the other end a little bar ;
and, as each type may be placed in any hole in
eight different positions, it is evident that sixteen
characters may be obtained by using both ends of
the type, thus providing for the nine digits, the
cypher, and various other signs required. For
algebra, a slightly different t5rpe is used. The
apparatus is known as "Taylor's Octagonal

Geography is taught by the aid of embossed
maps and globes ; for juniors, the sand table is
most useful.

Technical Education. This generally commences
at 16, and includes basket, mat, and brush-maldng ;
pianoforte-tuning and repairing ; the profession of
music ; weaving ; hand and machine knitting ;
massage ; boot and shoe making and repairing ;
upholstery ; chair-seating ; netting ; crochet ; and
allied occupations. Market gardening and poultry-
farming are also sometimes taught.

Under the Education Act, 1902 (Part II), educa-
tion authorities are empowered to contribute to the
cost of such industrial training of blind persons
over 16 ; and many such authorities now make full
use of this provision, so saving the blind student
from the necessity of appealing to the guardians.
A further step in this direction was attained in
1906, when the Board of Education expressed
their willingness to recognize certain institutions
as technological schools, under condition that they
complied with the requirements of the Department
as set forth in the " Regulations for Day Technical
Classes." A substantial capitation grant is paid
on the satisfactory report of H.M. Inspector,
and this greatly assists in providing efficient

The National Institute for the Blind, Great Port-
land Street, London, opened by Their Majesties
the King and Queen in 1914, was until then known
as the British and Foreign BHnd Association.
This Association was founded, in 1888, by the
late Dr. T. R. Armitage, who by its aid hoped
to bring order out of chaos as to methods of educa-
tion amongst the blind in England, and especially
in the vital matter of the types then in use for
reacUng and writing. Dr. Armitage gave the
Association, rent free, of&ces in his town house ;
paid the clerical staff ; and, with large annual
gifts, balanced the excess of expenditure over
income. Some years later, the offices were trans-
ferred to Great Portland Street. The chief work
of the Association was the printing and distributing
of Braille literature, and the manufacture of all
kinds of apparatus used in the education of the
blind. In the new premises, erected at great
cost chiefly through the munificence and instru-
mentality of Sir Arthur Pearson, Bart., this work
is now being conducted on a much more compre-
hensive scale, under the title of the National
Institute for the Blind.

Gardner's Trust for the Blind. (Offices : 53 Vic-
toria Street, Westminster.) This Trust was created
by the will of the late Mr. Henry Gardner, who, at
his death in 1879, left the sum of ^300,000 (free of

legacy duty) for the benefit of bUnd persons residing
in England and Wales. Grants are made by way
of pensions, without restriction of age ; whilst
other grants as free gifts are made in certain cases.
Scholarships are also provided to enable blind
students to enter certain schools and colleges.

Conferences. The Conference of Friends and
Instructors of the Blind, held under the aegis of
Gardner's Trust in 1890, firmly estabUshed the
Braille system as the chief medium of education
in this country ; whilst a further Conference under
similar patronage, in 1902, appointed a Committee
to revise the system of contractions. This Com-
mittee, under the title of the British Braille Com-
mittee, sat for three years, and produced what is
now recognized as " Authorised Braille."

"American Braille" and "New York Point"
are adaptations of Braille's system.

Conclusion. The general education of the blind
should have, as its guiding principle, " the develop-
ment of the remaining faculties to compensate for
the loss of sight." The old-fashioned, yet still
prevalent, idea that loss of sight brings with it
compensations in other directions is a fallacy.
The one essential to success is a judicious com-
bination of physical exercises and mental training,
in the curriculum of every institution for the
education of the blind. W. H. I.

References —

Literature on the Blind :

Anderson. T. Observations on the Employment, Educa-
tion, and Habits of the Blind. (York, 1837.)

Armitage. T. R. The Education and Employment of the
BUnd. (B.F.B.A.)

Illingworth, W. H. History of the Education of the
Magazines for the Blind :

Hora Jucunda. Revised Braille type (interpointed).
Published monthly at the Royal Blind Asylum and
School, West Craigmillar, Edinburgh.

Progress. Revised Braille type (interpointed). Pub-
lished monthly at 206 Great Portland Street, London.

The Blind. Ordinary type. Published quarterly by
the Secretary of Gardner's Trust for the Blind,
53 Victoria Street, Westminster, Special articles on
questions concerning the blind, and all the latest


— This was founded in 1868; and, in its own words,
the objects are briefly summarized as follows:
" To print and distribute books for the Blind, and
to supply all kinds of apparatus for their use.
To investigate any questions with reference to fhe
education, employment, and well-being of the
Blind. To give advice and assistance of every kind
to the Blind, and to those concerned with their
well-being. To- promote the higher education,
employment, and well-being of the Blind in every
possible way."

Originally known as " The British and Foreign
Blind Association," this institution had a first
executive council composed of five members totally
blind and the sixth partially so. All were able to
read by touch, and, after exhaustive inquiries, they
decided that the best system for teaching the blind
was the dotted system invented by M. Braille {q.v.),
a professor of the Institution Nationale des jeunes
Aveugles, Paris. Dr. Armitage, of the British and
Foreign Blind Association, was largely instrumental
in securing the adoption of this system in England.
The Association took up in a practical manner the
preparation of books, magazines, and music in





Braille type, including a Braille magazine, a Braille
musical magazine, a Braille literary journal.

In 1913, Mr. (now Sir) C. Arthur| Pcrason, well
known in the publishing world, whose own sight had
become greatly impaired, joined the council of the
Association and, in 1914, becamehonorary treasurer.
He at once took up the task of collecting money
to complete and to equip the new building then in
course of construction. His efforts were successful;
and in March, 1914, the new building was opened
by the King, and the Association took its new
name, "The National Institute for the Blind."
The new building is equipped with improved
machinery, and the output of literature for the
blind is much greater than before.

The Institute carries on the work of the College
of Teachers of the Blind, which was opened in 1907
to promote and encourage the training of teachers
of the blind, and to grant certificates which will
give such teachers a recognized position as specialists
in their work.

Candidates desirous of obtaining the college
certificate must hold a school teacher's certificate,
or be otherwise recognized as teachers by the Board
of Education. Candidates must pass in five com-
pulsory subjects: Theoretical knowledge of Braille;
practical knowledge of Braille; practical knowledge
of arithmetic for the blind; practice of teaching;
theory and history of education as applied to the
blind; and in one optional subject selected from
twelve subjects chiefly devoted to handwork for
the blind.

Copies of the examination papers in Braille or
in letterpress can be obtained at the Institute,
Great Portland Street, London, W.I.


— (See Blind, Education of the.)

BLIND SPOT. — The base of the optic nerve is
situated on the retina of the eye, upon which
images of objects are focused. When the image
of an object falls on the base of the optic nerve,
no impression is produced, the spot being quite
insensible to the action of light and being, there-
fore, known as the blind spot. " This blind spot is
so large, that it might prevent our seeing eleven
moons if placed side by side, or a man's face at a
distance of only 6 or 7 feet " (Helmholtz). Illustra-
tion: Shut the right eye, look steadily at A, place
the paper at about 10 in. from the eye, and the
black dots will disappear.

WORK, The Teaching of.)

BLOCK SCHOOLS.— (See Poor Law Schools.)


— The function of the cultured (coteries of the
eighteenth century, known as " Blue-stocking
Clubs," was educative rather than educational.

Learned English Ladies. The term " Blue-
stockings " (has bleus) has been applied to learned
women generally; but at first it belonged speci-
fically to a small group of Englishwomen who aimed
at improving social life by substituting intellec-
tual conversation for the prevalent card-playing.

gambling, and scandal. This group included Mrs.
Elizabeth Montagu (1720-1800), who in Paris had
seen something of the French salons and had pre-
sided over a salon of her own; Mrs. Elizabeth Carter
(1717-1806), the one real scholar of the group,
friend of Archbishop Seeker and Dr. Johnson, and
translator of the Greek Epictetus; Mrs. Hester
Chapone (1727-1801), friend of Samuel Richardson
and author of Letters on the Improvement of the
Mind, 1773 (Miss Carter, her friend Miss Talbot,
and Mrs. Chapone contributed to Johnson's paper,
The Rambler) : Mrs. Elizabeth Vcsey, social rather
than inteUectual; Mrs. Hester Thrale (1741-1821),
intimate friend of Johnson, who advised her in the
management of her social gatherings; and " Mrs."
Hannah More (1745-1833), the most forceful of the
group, intimate with Garrick, Johnson, Horace
Walpole, and Wilberforce, schoolmistress, vifriter,
educationist, and publicist.

The title " Blue-stockings " is explained by
BosweU and Mme. d'Arblay as originating in the
blue stockings of Benjamin Stillingfleet, one of the
most indispensable habitues of these inteUectual

Outside the actual Blue-stocking clubs, which
sprang from the English middle-class, were certain
ladies of the aristocracy who, without any kind of
pose, pursued learning as a hobby, notably Lady
Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762) and Lady
Mary Hervey (1700-1768). The former taught her-
self Latin and translated the Enchiridion of
Epictetus from a Latin version. On her return
from Constantinople, where her husband had been
ambassador, she introduced into England inocula-
tion against smallpox. Lady Mary Hervey, as Lord
Chesterfield acknowledged, understood Latin per-
fectly, studied Rousseau's £mile, corresponded
with the Scottish philosopher Hume, and received
the French philosopher Helvetius. Neither woman
claimed higher education for women on grounds of
equality with men. Lady Mary Montagu apologized
to Lord Bute for recommending a higher education
for his daughters as giving resources in sohtude and
contentment with a simple life.

Beside these two humanist ladies might be placed
the French woman-geometrician, translator into
French of Newton's Principia — Mme. du Chatelet
(1706-1749), the friend of Voltaire. Though not
propagandists, these women-scholars demonstrated
in themselves feminine capacity lor intellectual

The Salons. Of outstanding importance in the
history of the inteUectual forces leading to the
French Revolution were the French bureaux
d'Esprits, in which women of marked social gifts
gathered round them the cream of intellectual
society. At a time of severe political repression and
a gagged Press, the only safe places in France for
free discussion were the privileged drawing-rooms
of women. The salons stood for the mental freedom
afforded in England by the clubs and cofiee-houses.
So great was the influence of the fine ladies inFrance,
that Rousseau admitted that nothing could be done
in Paris without the aid of women. In the salons
developed the critical, inquiring spirit which ulti-
mately expressed itself in the great philosophical
and scientific achievement of the French Encyclo-
p^die, so destructive to ecclesiasticism and the
autocracy of the old regime, and on the constructive
side AV'orking for a reformed national system of
education. The chief salonnieres were Mme. du
Deffand (1697-1780), friend of Voltaire and Horace





Walpole; Mile, de Lespinasse (1732-1776), a great
intellectual rallying-point for the Encyclopaedists;
and Mme. Geofirin (1699-1777), benevolent and
wealthy, who (though she could not spell) was of
great social and financial assistance to the less
atheistical of the philosophers.

Feminine culture in France, however, reached its
greatest height at the end of the century in Mme.
de Stael (1766-1817), a towering intellect as well
as a social force, of whom Byron said: " She is a
woman by herself, and has done more than all the
rest of them together intellectually."

Two of the French " blue-stockings " directly
interested themselves in education: Mme. d'Epinay
(1726-1783), who protected J.-J. Rousseau at the
time when his great and provocative work on
education, i,mile, was shaping itself; and Mme. de
GenUs (1746-1830), attached to the house of
Orleans, herself a fine educator of princes, only
surpassed by the great Fenelon, " making them
not princes but men," and author of educational
works, AdHe et Theodore and the Theatre de
I' Education, affected to some extent by the influence
of Hannah More.

k Contrast. But, while the intellectual atmosphere
of the salons was sceptical and revolutionary, that
of the Enghsh Blue-stocking Clubs was essentially
conservative and marked by middle-class caution.
Continuing the social crusade initiated by Addison
in The Spectator, Hannah More attacked Rousseau-
ism, the French Revolution, Frenchwomen's en-
couragement of scepticism, and, above all, the one
English woman-revolutionary, Mary WoUstonecraft
(1759-1797), author of The Rights of Women.

Both Mrs. Chapone and Hannah More wrote on
education and made a great impression on the public,
the more because they were not too advanced for
their time. A second edition of Mrs. Chapone's
cautious Letters was demanded within the first six
months. She pointed out the danger of learned
women exciting male jealousy and female envy;
did not recommend the study of " learned languages'
(she herself had studied Latin), unless impelled by
a " particular genius," still less of " abstruse
sciences." History she recommended, and wi'ote
suggestively on its study. Hannah More's Strictures
roused some opposition on account of supposed
Methodistical tendencies, but eventually gained
great hold. The Queen consulted her about the
education of Princess Charlotte; and, in 1805, Miss
More published Hints towards forming the Character
of a young Princess.

Her Strictures went deeper than Mrs. Chapone's
Letters. Disclaiming the production of a systematic
constructive work on education, she nevertheless
advanced vital principles, showing the relation of
a disciplined intellect to disciplined character,
urging women to cultivate the reasoning powers by
solid reading — such as Locke's Essay on The
Understanding and Butler's Analogy, and by a
study of Arithmetic. .

In her anti-slavery protests and, educationally,
in her enthusiastic co-operation in the institution
of Sunday schools, her friendship for Mrs. Trimmer
(the champion of the Charity Schools), and her
education of the proletariat by cheap didactic
literature, Hannah More made an invaluable con-
tribution to the social and humanitarian movement
of the period. A. Watson.

mortalized by Blackmore in Lorna Doone, this

school was founded and endowed by Peter Blundell,
clothier {i.e., cloth manufacturer), of Tiverton, in
1604. Blundell also established scholarships at
Balliol and Sidney Sussex Colleges, where many
Old BlundelUans continue their education. New
buildings in the Tudor style, comprising a chapel,
accommodation for 300 boys, laboratories and
lecture-rooms, a museum, workshops and engineer-
ing rooms, a sanatorium, a gymnasium, a swimming-
bath, fives courts, and a pavilion, were erected
outside the town, in 1882, at a cost of ;£20,000.
The Modern Side has five divisions: Army, Navy,
Professional, Scientific and Engineering, and Com-
mercial; there is, of course, also a large Classical
and Literary Side. The school endowment allows
over ;f600 a year to be allotted to leaving scholar-
ships and exhibitions. In 1908 the school won the
Public Schools Shield for Gymnastics. The O.T.C.
is large and efficient, and the shooting accommoda-
tion comprises an 800-yards' range with four
targets, a miniature range fitted with Solano battle-
practice targets, and a sub-target shooting machine.
Among former scholars were Archbishop Temple,
Bishop Conybeare, the novelist Blackmore, and
his hero Jan Ridd.

BOARD OF EDUCATION (Whitehall, London).—
In April, 1839, an Order in Council was issued
directing the formation of a Committee in Council
to administer the education grant which had
amounted, in 1833, to ;£20,000, for the assistance of
the National Society and the British and Foreign
School Society in building schools, and ;£10,000, in
1835, for the erection of training schools. In 1839
the grant was raised to ;£30,000, and the Committee
proposed to administer the grant itself instead of
handing it over to the two societies. It also ordered
that no grants would in future be made for the
establishment of schools, unless the right of inspec-
tion was retained by the Committee. A proposal
was also put forward to establish a Government
training school, but both Churchmen and Non-
conformists loudly opposed the scheme, and it was
abandoned until 1846. In 1850, Kneller Hall was
opened for the training of teachers, but a few years
later was closed as a failure. The Committee of
Council on Education did little at first to assist
schools, for in the first seven years of its existence
it expended only ;£305,000 out of national funds.
There was a widespread distrust of the Committee,
and most school managers and proprietors refused
both inspection and grant. In 1840 it was agreed
that the National Society's approval should be
necessary to the appointment of inspectors for its
schools; and until the appointment of Matthew
Arnold, all inspectors of Church schools were

Codes. Until 1860, the regulations of the Com-
mittee were issued in Minutes, but in that year
Mr. Lowe had all the Minutes collected into what
was termed a Code. Mr. Lowe, as Vice-President
of the Education Department, was a rigid economist,
and determined to diminish the amount paid to
schools by making payment depend on results.
Mr. Lowe's Revised Code did much to retard pro-
gress in elementary education by reducing school
building and expenditure on existing schools, and
grants fell from £174,100 in 1862 to ;£635,000 in
1865. These conditions led to the Act of 1870,
which established Board Schools, and from that
time expenditure continually grew. The Educa-
tion Acts of 1902 and 1918 (qq.v.) led in turn to













modifications of the Code, but in neither case was
a radical alteration necessary.

A Distinct Organized Department. In 1899, an
Act of Parliament established the Board of Educa-
tion as a distinct Government Department, con-
sisting of a President and a number of Cabinet
Ministers. It has a Parliamentary Secretary, a
Permanent Secretary, and an Accountant-General.
There is also a Permanent Secretary for Wales.
The educational branches are Elementary, Second-
ary, Technological, and Universities. The Board
also administers the Victoria and Albert Museum,
and the Science Museum at South Kensington; the
Geological Survey and Museum of Geology in
Jermyn Street, S.W. 1 ; and the Solar Physics Obser-
vatory and Royal College of Art, South Kensington.
There is a large staff of inspectors and sub-inspectors
for elementary schools; inspectors of secondary
schools, technical institutes, and training colleges,
and also women inspectors and junior inspectors.

Functions. By means of grants from the Board
of Education, public money is expended by Local
Education Authorities on elementary education,
continuation education, secondary education, the
training of teachers, and higher instruction in
science and art. The Board exercises much control
over the local authorities in all matters connected
with school building, school attendance, and
school accommodation. Among eminent men who
have been associated with the Education Depart-
ment and the Board of Education may be men-
tioned Dr. Kay, the first Secretary in 1839, after-
wards known as Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth;
Mr. W. E. Forster, the Vice-President in 1870 and
Sir Joshua Fitch [qq.v).

Education (often known as the Education Depart-
ment) was constituted in 1899 by Act of Parliament
for the superintendence of matters relating to
Education in England and Wales. By this Statute
it is provided that " the Board shall consist of a
President, and of the Lord President of the Council
(unless he is appointed President of the Board),
Her Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, the
First Commissioner of Her Majesty's Treasury,
and the Chancellor of Her Majesty's Exchequer."
It is, however, provided that the Board shall be
deemed to be established on the appointment
of the President thereof. Office as President of the
Board does not disqualify the holder for a seat
in Parliament, and one of the Secretaries of the
Board may also be elected to, and vote in, the
House of Commons. Indeed the Board is usually
represented in Parliament by its" President and
Parliamentary Secretary.

The chief official of the Board is the Permanent
Secretary, who is the head of a large staff depart-
mentalized as follows : Accounts, Architect, Legal,
Medical, Public Elementary Schools, Secondary
Schools, Continuation Schools, Technological
Schools, Universities, Teachers' Training, Teachers'
Pensions, Special Enquiries and Reports, together
with a general staff. There is also a Welsh Depart-
ment of the Board mth a Permanent Secretary,
who is independent of the Secretary of the Board,
but subject to the direction of the President.

The Board of Education is not a new creation,
but the development of an earlier organization.
In 1839, an Order in Council appointed a Com-
mittee of Council to superintend the application
of any sums voted by Parliament for the promotion

13— (969)

of Public Education. This Committee of Council
established a system of inspection of schools as a
condition of public aid. Later it disbursed grants
toward the erection of Training Colleges and for
the provision of teachers' houses, of school
furniture and apparatus. In 1846 it made grants

Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) → online text (page 52 of 138)