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The encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) online

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Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) → online text (page 66 of 138)
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education. In his sixteenth year he became a
soldier in the Parliamentary Armj^ (1644-1647).
As Cervantes, also a soldier, was permeated with
the old chivalric tradition and literature, Bunyan
" lived " in the Puritan atmosphere and in the
Bible, and wrote his Pilgrim's Progress (1678-1679)
in Bible English. This work belongs to the class
which represents life as a journey, and thus gives
occasion for the introduction of real personages,
however abstract their designation may be. The
book was called by Hallam " the most perfect and
complex of fairy tales," a description suggestive
of the fact that the Pilgrim's Progress is a book
for children as well as for grown-ups, and in almost
every country, for it is stated that it has been
translated into 108 different languages and dialects.
Bunyan's sympathy with children — ^the sympathy
which wishes to " improve the occasion " in all the
direct experiences of hfe — was as didactic as that

of Isaac Watts (q-v.) in his Divine and Moral Songs.
This was especially shown in Bunyan's Book for
Boys and Girls ; or, Country Rhymes for Children,
1686. This little-known book is addressed " to boys
and girls of all sorts and degrees: from those of Age
to Children on the Knees." It begins with the
alphabet and simple spelling, then contains a list
of Christian names of boys and of girls, then are
given figures and numeral letters; the Ten Com-
mandments and the Lord's Prayer and the Apostles'
Creed are given in verse. But the main motif of the
book is the emblematic nature of objects of sense-
perception, such as an egg, the swallow, the bee,
the candle, the cuckoo, the lark, bells, a frog, a
penny loaf, a snail, a' pair of spectacles. The follow-
ing is a specimen of the treatment of " The boy
dull at his book " —

" Some Boys have wit enough to shout
and play.
Who at their Books are Block-heads

day by day;
Some men are arch enough at any Vice,
But dunces in the way to Paradise."

F. W.
EeSerence —
Bunyan, John. A Book for Boys and Girls ; or, Country
Rhymes for Children. Facsimile Reprint, with an
Introduction by Rev. John Brown, D.D. (London,

A department established, in 1867, under a Com-
mission of Education, for the purpose of collecting
and publishing educational information. It issues
annual reports, and sends out circulars of informa-
tion devoted to education in the United States and
in foreign countries. Bulletins have also been
issued since 1906, containing useful matter on
current topics.

BURGHERSCHULE.— Schools maintained by
German municipal authorities to provide elementary
education for the lower middle classes. They receive
no State-aid, and the curriculum is adapted to local

BURGH SCHOOLS of Scotland are so called from
having been originally managed by municipalities.
The origin of the oldest was ecclesiastical, and can
no longer be distinctly traced, but they continued
to be founded, as occasion required, down to the
nineteenth century. Schools of this character cer-
tainly existed by 1260. The transference from
church to burgh control took place before the Re-
formation : it often involved a serious struggle,
and it was effected through the readiness of the
burgh to undertake the financial responsibilities
involved. The management was transferred in
1872 from the burghs to the newly created school
boards : the latter were in 1918 replaced by educa-
tion authorities. The policy of the burghs had been
so generous, that for twenty years the schools
greatly regretted the change ; more recently, they
have recovered their position. At a time when
the rural areas were starved and backward, the
burgh schools were the main educational agency
of the country, and rendered inestimable service.
By stimulating the desire for higher studies, they
contributed largely toward the foundation of
native universities in the fifteenth century. They
probably numbered eighty, but only eleven were
in the Act of 1872 scheduled as purely secondary
(" higher class ") . The routine of a pre- Reformation





school is reprinted in the Spalding Club
Miscellany, V. 399. J. Clarke.

References —

Clarke, J. " Short Studies on Education in Scotland."

Report of Argyll Commission, Vol. III.
Grant, J. Burgh Schools in Scotland.

BURKE, EDMUND (1729-1797).— Was born at
Dublin, and educated for the law, but devoted his
life, from 1756, to literature and politics. For some
years he was secretary to Parliamentary leaders,
and in 1766 entered the Commons as Member for
Wendover. He was a personal friend of Dr. Johnson,
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Garrick; and, in Parha-
ment, a supporter of Fox till the French Revolution.
From 1788 to 1795 he was the chief speaker in the
impeachment of Warren Hastings. Burke's chief
writings are Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin
of Our Ideas on the Sublime and the Beautiful (1756),
Thoughts on the Present Discontents (1770), Reflec-
tions on the French Revolution (1789), Letters on a
Regicide Peace (1796).

BURNET, GILBERT (1643-1715).— Bishop of
Salisbury; was born in Aberdeenshire; and educated
at Marischal College, Aberdeen. He was minister of
Saltoun (East Lothian), where, in 1668, he com-
posed a short treatise. Thoughts on Education,
addressed to a nobleman (" My Lord ") con-
jectured to have been the Earl of Kincardine, and
published posthumously in 1761. The principles
are largely drawn from classical sources, especially
Plutarch. The treatment of the pupil falls into four
periods — childhood, boyhood, youth, early man-
hood — with a postscript upon travel. Throughout
life, Burnet was actively interested in education.
While at Saltoun he acted as tutor to Sir Robert
Fletcher's sons; subsequently he was Professor of
Divinity at Glasgow University. As bishop, he
established a college for clergy at Salisbury; in 1698
he was selected as tutor to the Duke of Gloucester,
heir presumptive to the throne. His educational
views and methods are still of value for their robust
sense combined with high moral force.

J. Clarke.

References —
Clarke, J. Burnet as Educationist. (University Studies,

No. 67, Aberdeen.)
Clarke, F. E. S., and Foxcroft, H. C. Life of Gilbert

BURSAR. — A bursar is the member of a College
or other institution who conducts its financial
affairs, holding, as he does, its purse or burse.
The other meaning of the word is the holder of a
bursary (vid. Bursary (2) ). There are varieties
of bursaries. Thus, at the University of Man-
chester, there are certain industrial bursaries aiding
students of Science for a period of three years to
take up practical engineering, chemistry or other
industrial work. Candidates must not be above
the age of 25 years. The value of such a bursary
may equal but not exceed £150 a year. Much more
commonly a bursar is a boy or girl between the ages
of 16 and 18 years who has made a declaration of
his (her) bona fide intention to become a teacher
in a public elementary school, and who is actually
a pupil at a recognized secondary school, but needs
financial assistance in order to be able to complete
the secondary school course. It is usually required
that a candidate for recognition as a bursar shall
have been receiving continuous instruction in an
ef&cient secondary school for the three years

immediately before the period of recognition,
which period is strictly limited to one year. The
financial assistance usually takes two forms, viz.,
the remission of the secondary school fees, and the
payment of a maintenance grant.

During the year of bursarship, the holder is re-
quired to pass an examination quaUfying for
entrance into a training college, or at least to pass
in all but one or two of the necessary subjects.
Should a bursar not satisfy this condition, he (she)
would cease to be recognized as a member of the
teaching profession ; but on passing such an
examination later, he (she) would be able to continue
with the ordinary course of training as from the
end of the bursar stage.

At the end of the bursar year, it is usual, and,
for those who intend to spend only two years in a
training college, it is considered highly advisable,
to spend a year as a student teacher before entering

One year's training at least, either as a student
teacher, or as a training college student, is usualljr
necessary before an ex-bursar can be recognized
as an uncertificated teacher.

BURSARY. — (1) In one sense the word denotes
the office in which a bursar (q.v.) conducts his
business. (2) In another sense it means a scholar-
ship or exhibition, usually not large. The term
is derived from the exchequer or purse (bursa)
from which grants were early made to poor scholars
in Scotland. The system has been largely ex-
tended. Hundreds are attached to the Scottish
universities, thousands to the schools. The
amounts vary from £2 up to £i5 or £40, tenable
for one or more years. The accepted mode of
award is competitive, but many are bestowed by
patronage — an undesirable method.

BURSCHENSCHAFT.— An organization in Ger-
man universities established to promote Christian
life and national patriotism among the students.
The first was formed in 1815 at Jena, and the
movement spread rapidly. The Burschenschaften
put an end to much loose and luxurious life among
university students, and to their practice of duelhng.

BURTON, ROBERT (1577-1639).— Student oi
Christ Church, Oxford (1599), where he lived for
forty years, and made a valuable collection of
books, which he left to the Bodleian Library.
Among many works, his best known is his Anatomy
of Melancholy (1631), elaborated, analysed, and
tabulated, of which he says: " I Avrit of melancholy,
by being busie to avoid melancholy, to comfort one
sorrow with another."

BURT'S TESTS.— (See Tests.)

BUSBY, RICHARD.— Was born at Lutton, in
Lincolnshire, in 1606. His parents, of whom little
is known, were probably poor, as it is recorded that
he owed his education to the kindness of wealthy
patrons, and to donations from the churchwardens
of St. Margaret's, Westminster. His parents came
to reside in Westminster soon after his birth, and
he became a scholar at Westminster School, where
he was elected to a studentship at Christ Church,
Oxford (1624). After a successful career at the
University, he became a tutor at Christ Church, and
was notable for his Latin and Greek, and more
especially for orator^'. He entered the Church in
1638, and was provisionally appointed head master
of Westminster School (q.v.). In 1639 he was





stripped of his spiritual dignities for calling Laud
■" the little Urchin," and was compelled to undergo
the pillory in Dean's Yard before his own school.
In 1640 he was definitely appointed head master
of the school, Avith a yearly salary of £2Q and the
■sum of 20 marks in lieu of diet.

The Westminster Charter. The House of Commons
•during the years 1642-1649 made many enactments
relating to the government of the school, appointing
3, committee of management in 1645, and passing
an Act in 1649 for the continuance and maintenance
of the school under a charter of incorporation.
Busby was deprived of his ecclesiastical preferments,
but allowed to remain head master, owing probably
to his reputation as a schoolmaster. He probably
took the Covenant when the order to do so was
issued in 1644 to all persons connected with the
" CoUegiate Church at Westminster." But he and
ihis school remained loyal to Church and King, who
was publicly prayed for in the school on the day
■of his execution. He succeeded in retaining his post
until the Restoration, when his ser-vices to the
Royalist cause were promptly recognized, and he
was made Prebendary of Westminster and Wells,
and Treasurer of Westminster Abbey and Wells
Cathedral. Oxford conferred on him the degree of
D.D., and at the coronation of Charles II he
carried the ampulla of the new regalia.

In 1672, Busby was appointed Archdeacon of
Westminster, and in 1685 he took part in the
coronation of James II. Although in his later years
he suffered much from illness, and although he
built a house to which he intended to retire in his
old age, he remained master of Westminster till
his death in 1695, at the age of nearly eighty-nine.
He was buried in the Abbey, under the black-and-
white marble pavement of the choir.

Scholastic " Successes." Busby was one of the
greatest of English schoolmasters, and to him was
■due the extraordinary success of the school during
four reigns and the Commonwealth. No master had
so many successful scholars, and it was boasted at
one time that sixteen of the bench of bishops had
been educated by him, including Atterbury (1713)
and Trela-wney (1685). His pupils included John
Dryden, John Locke, Christopher Wren, Matthew
Prior, Charles Montagu, Lord Chancellor Jeffreys,
Earl of Sunderland, Earl of Halifax, and Robert

Busby's severity was displayed in the excessive
■use of the birch; and Sir Roger de Coverley, before
his monument in the Abbey, exclaimed: " Dr.
Busby, a great man ! he whipped my grandfather;
a very great man ! " But many of his pupils always
«poke of him -with great respect and admiration.
Atterbury describes him as " a man to be reverenced
very highly "; and one of his pupils -wrote that he
was conscientiously attentive to their religious
training, teaching them not only by precept but
by example.

His Generosity. Busby offered to found two
Catechistical lectures — one in each university — -with
an endowment of £\00 per annum, for instructing
the undergraduates in the rudiments of the Christian
religion; but as he -wished to make the Bachelor's
degree depend on the Catechist's examination, his
■offer was refused. He was liberal in his benefactions
to university colleges and to Wells Cathedral, and
made many gifts to poor parishes for education and
the founding of libraries. He also repaired his school
at his ovm expense, and built and fitted up its
.library. Busby left large legacies to be used for

educational purposes; and the Busby Trustees —
tliirteen in number and always " Old Westminsters "
— now carry out their duties under the " Busby
Trust " approved by the Charity Commissioners
in 1887.

ING OF. — The writing of business letters is merely
an application of the art of composition, and, in
the elementary stages at least, it should be part of
a course in " English."

Most of what the teacher of English says about
sentence formation, sequence of tenses, concord,
vocabulary, punctuation, etc., applies to the
-writing of business letters ; but in this work a
special atmosphere has to be created. Reference
must be made to great commercial operations.
Business bargains, involving immense sums of
money must be spoken of ; and the fact that
many of these are made in -writing, and that
most of those made verbally on 'Change or else-
where are confirmed in -writing, must be effectively
stated. Reference to the Sale of Goods Act must
be made, because an important alternative in the
important Section 4 states that a contract is not
enforceable by action " unless some note or memo-
randum in -writing of the contract be made and
signed by the party to be charged or his agent in
that behalf."

Business bargains are made, confirmed, and
e-videnced in business letters. In commerce, time
is very precious ; therefore, whatever instruction
has been given about style, there must now be
special insistence upon the points that business
letters should be correct in statement, clear in
meaning, concise in form, and courteous in expres-
sion. The teacher may venture a few illustrations
of -violations of these fundamentals, such being
taken from the students' work.

The form of letters and the consistency of the
complimentary terms should be dealt -with early,
paragraphing and punctuation recei-ving special
notice. A simple transaction of a typical local
industry should be taken, the correspondence
starting -with a request for particulars of specified
goods or a price list, and the above formal points
be taught by means of it. A real price list, or real
particulars of goods, should be obtained by the
teacher, who should put the first letter on the
blackboard. Students should afterwards -write
similar letters. Various styles of reply may then
be discussed — ^from the formal letter having the
cHchi " Trusting to be favoured," etc., to the smart
letter calling attention to some special commodity,
offering special inducements, etc. Students should
now attempt suitable replies to the original request,
and continue the correspondence until the trans-
action is completed. Other transactions should
introduce bargaining, complaints, debit and credit
notes, bills of exchange, etc., short lectures on
the various forms being given and due regard
being paid to progression. The teacher should
always carry his main transactions through from
beginning to end. He should give illustrations of
flexibility in phrasing, and encourage his pupils to
get away from the stereotyped, especially in letters
soliciting business, where there is ample scope for
effective appeal.

Small classes may be divided into two sections,
which conduct operations as two firms, enclosing
letters in envelopes and despatching them by special
" postmen." V. E. C.





References —

KiRTON, C. H. The Principles and Practice of Con-
tinuation Teaching.
Shawceoss, W. How to Teach Commercial English.

BUSINESS TRAINING.— In deaUng with this
subject, the first consideration is the purpose for
wliich classes in Business Training are held. This
purpose is the imparting of such knowledge as will
enable the pupils (1) to perform their present
duties satisfactorily; (2) to qualify for more
responsible positions; (3) to take an intelUgent
interest in commercial matters. The subject is
practical rather than theoretical, and in its various
stages necessitates a consideration of the multi-
tudinous matters which are incidental to the con-
ducting of every business.

It is suggested that any one who undertakes
Business Training should have gained his experi-
ence in the business world. This remark applies
more particularly to the advanced sections, though
in the elementary stage, also, the teacher with
practical experience (other things being equal) will
achieve better results than one whose knowledge
is theoretical only.

The Pupils. These may be classified into three
grades, but the classification might be consider-
ably extended. First come those whose experience
of business is either very short or has not com-
menced. In Grade 2 may be placed those whose
business experience extends over a few years, and
who are desirovis of qualifjdng for higher posts.
It may be assumed that such pupils have some
knowledge of the more elementary business prac-
tices. Grade 3 consists of those who require
information in the higher branches of commerce.

The Subject. The next point to consider is what
ought to be taught in the various stages. Unfortu-
nately, the teacher has not always freedom of
choice of what he shall teach, his activities being
circumscribed by the requirements of the examina-
tions for which he has to prepare his pupils. The
following courses are suggested — •

Elementary Class. Indexing, the cross-refer-
ence, the vowel index, the card index, etc.; various
methods of filing; the keeping of a Postage Book;
the copying of letters, and the various processes
of duplicating ; addressing envelopes of different
sizes and the proper way to fold letters; general
postal matters; the filUng up of bank paying-in
slips, debit and credit notes, and similar docu-
ments; easy invoicing; writing simple letters; very
elementary banking matters; short methods of
calculation, particularly with reference to discounts
and the working of practice sums; and common
commercial terms.

Intermediate Class. Invoicing, both home and
foreign trade; writing business letters from notes,
and dealing generally with correspondence; making
out and explaining account sales, accounts current,
statements, contracts, etc., telegraphic work, and
the use of codes; elementary banking; general
knowledge of carriage and shipping routine; trade
routes; up-to-date office appliances, interest calcula-
tions, etc. ;■■■{
Advanced Class. Advanced correspondence,
drawing up reports, secretarial work; banking,
including the use of bills of exchange, drawing of
bills against shipments, discounting of bills, the
hypothecation of shipping documents and financing
generally; telegraphic codes and their compilation;
consular invoices; Customs declarations; insurance

(fire and marine); up-to-date office appliances;
bankruptcy; graphic statistics, etc. This course
could be extended to any length.

The Lesson. In dealing with the elementary class,,
the limited experience of the pupils must ever be-
kept in mind; consequently, technical language
must be used sparingly, each point being explained
in the simplest language possible. One of the first
difficulties experienced will probably be the lack
of apparatus. It is much easier to show how a.
thing is done than to tell how it is done, and pupils
understand much more readily if demonstrations
are given. In many cases, however, no apparatus
is provided; and we venture to suggest that educa-
tion committees might, without being guilty of
undue extravagance, provide commercial schools,
with some of the necessary appliances for demon-
stration. In the absence of such equipment, the-
teacher is left to his own resources and, if he is;
enthusiastic, the deficiency can generally be made-
up. As regards postal matters, it seems to be a.
waste of time to insist on the pupils learning by
rote the rates of postage, minimum and maximum
lengths allowed for parcels, and such like matters.
A better plan is to ask each member of the class;
to purchase the postal guide issued by the postal
authorities. The teacher can then show the pupils;
how to make use of this book; i.e., show them
where to find the information on difi'erent topics,
explain anything that is obscure, and test their
ability by asking questions on the matters con-
tained therein. By using the book in the manner
indicated, they are famiUarizing themselves with
a book which is used in every commercial office,,
they acquire -without effort a knowledge of the
more common facts, and they know where to look
for the information which is less frequently

In teaching the correct way to address envelopes,
to fill in paying-in slips, to make out debit and
credit notes, etc., the teacher should provide the
pupils with the actual forms and allow them to
fill in these forms foUomng the specimen shown
on the blackboard. If this is impracticable, the
teacher ought to be provided with a few specimens
of each form, correctly filled in, and these should
be handed round for inspection. In supervising
the work of the class, the teacher should notice the
spelling and punctuation, and should lose na
opportunity of giving the class a little drill in
speUing. Where it can be arranged, some time
should be devoted to short methods of calculation.
The remarks about specimen documents apply with
greater force to the intermediate and advanced
classes. It is a mistake for the teacher to define
the use of a document without first explaining the
circumstances which necessitate its use, and.
showing at least one copy.

In the intermediate stage, the course can be
arranged in an interesting manner on the following
lines; as soon as convenient after the beginning ■
of the session (during which time revision of work
previously done can be proceeded with) the teacher
introduces a few typical orders, presumably received
from customers at home and abroad. Using these
as a basis, he can go through all the procedure
necessary to the time the goods are paid for. This,
will include the recording of the particulars of the
orders, the sending of purchase and sale notes to
suppliers and customers respectively, the corre-
spondence relating to the goods, as well as the
correct methods of keeping the correspondence^





Then would follow matters relating to the receiving
of the goods and payment for them; the despatcliing
of the packages by rail and by steamer, with the

Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) → online text (page 66 of 138)