Foster Watson.

The encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) online

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has been more than doubled, the new ones being
for the most part established either under episcopal
control, or by the various Teaching Orders ; and,
at least one of them — the Oratory, Edgbaston —
calls for special mention, as having been founded
under the direction of Cardinal Newman, with a
system differing somewhat from the more tradi-
tional one among Catholics. In recent j'ears, a few
private preparatory schools of note have been



283



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THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA AND



[GAT



established ; but, except for these, private schools
are rare among the Enghsh Catholic body, and all
the chief schools are under ecclesiastical control.

Government. The history and mode of govern-
ment of Catholic schools have produced some
notable differences between them and the other
schools of the nation. In the first place, there are
no regularly constituted governing bodies. The
government depends either on the bishops or the
heads of the religious orders. Then there are no
endowments, and yet the fees are far lower than
those payable at an ordinary English school of the
same standing. This is only rendered possible by
the bulk of the masters being priests or members
of an Order, and receiving either a very low salary
or none at all beyond their keep. All the masters
and boys live in the same building, and the boarding-
house system is unknown. Until recently, there
were no scholarships of any kind, either on entrance
or when leaving ; and as, until recent years, Oxford
and Cambridge were prohibited to Catholic boys,
there was little stimulus for the more gifted ones
to aim at a really high standard of education.
The examinations of the London University, which
for many years were frequented — though they gave
access to a degree — were in other respects an
inadequate substitute for a regular university
course. On the other hand, those acquainted with
Catholic schools will bear witness to the general
conscientious and industrious teaching given by
the masters ; and the chief training Orders — the
Jesuits, Benedictines, and others — have definite
traditions, born of long experience both in England
and on the Continent, for stimulating emulation
among their pupils ; so that it is probable that the
average boy would receive at a Catholic college as
good an education as elsewhere — probably a better
one, as he would receive rather more attention.
It should be added that, since 1895, Oxford and
Cambridge have been officially open to Catholics,
and considerable changes have followed in their
schools. The certificate examinations of the Joint
Universities' Board has displaced the London
Matriculation as a leaving examination ; entrance
scholarships have been founded ; open scholarships
at the universities have been competed for with
success ; and, in general, more effort has been
made to enable a clever boy to do justice to him-
self. But a change of tliis kind necessarily takes
time, and the results up to the present have hardly
reached the standard which is hoped of them for
the future.

Characteristics. In their general life. Catholic
schools show considerable differences from non-
Catholic. The importance of religious influences,
both in and out of school, is viewed more strictly,
and the daily attendance at Mass and other religious
exercises forms an important part of the day.
The supervision out of school is on a stricter model.
The rules of " bounds " are essentially different,
the boys being usually limited to a playground.
It is probable that some of these rules are, in part,
due to the foreign history of the schools, and the
fact that they were carried on in towns according
to the usual practice on the Continent ; for,
although the spirit of the colleges, even when
abroad, was thoroughly English, perhaps even the
more so owing to their foreign surroundings, part
of the system and even of the terminology are
unmistakably of foreign origin, and have survived
in England owing to the comparative isolation of
Catholic hfe during the first half of the nineteenth



century. Thus masters are styled " professors " ;
boys are called " students " ; and, perhaps most
quaint of all, the names of the forms, " Rhetoric,"
" Poetry," " Syntax," " Grammar," etc., still
survive in some schools, though they have long
ceased to have any relation to the work studied
by the various forms.

Secondary Day Schools. In the matter of day
schools, the Catholic body is less well provided.
This is partly due to tfie fact that their middle
class is comparatively small, but, at least, partly
to the stringent regulations passed by the Govern-
ment when they systematized the secondary educa-
tion of the country in 1906, by which the founding
of new grant-earning Catholic schools became
impossible. To the existing schools a waiver of the
anti-denominational clauses was granted ; but in
new areas, however much the number of Catholics
may justify a Catholic secondary school, such a
school cannot earn any grant, and consequently
practically cannot be established. This is a grievance
of which they loudly complain. For such schools
have to be staffed chiefly by laymen, who must be
paid ' salaries on the standard scale, and conse-
quently, in order to compete with County Council
or other schools, a public grant is a necessity.
The schools which obtained a waiver have con-
tinued to flourish. The masters are Catholics, and
the proportion of non-Catholic pupils is always
small, so that it is found possible to create a
Catholic atmosphere and bring up the pupils under
full religious influences. In other respects, the day
schools do not differ much from non-Catholic ones,
for they belong to an epoch when the isolation of
the Catholic body has been to a great extent
broken down. Some reach a high degree of efficiency,
and most, if not all, reach a fair or good standard
of work.

The Secondary Education of Women. — A few
words must be added about the secondary education
of women. This is nearly all in the hands of nuns.
The history of Convent schools is somewhat
analogous to that of boys' schools. During the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there were
a number of English convent schools on the Con-
tinent, and most of these, being dispersed during
the French Revolution, were re-founded in England.
The majority of them still exist, and continue to
do good work, though on a somewhat small scale.
About the middle of the nineteenth century began
that influx of the modern Teaching Congregations
of Nuns which has now covered the country with
convent schools, great and small. The two chief
ones were the nuns of the Sacre Coeur and those
of Notre Dame, but there are many others of all
kinds ; and convent schools, for both boarders and
day-pupils, are to be found in every place of note.
Some of them are large and exceedingly efficient- —
inferior to none in the country — others small and
inefficient ; and between these two extremes is to
be found almost every possible standard. But even
in the least efficient convent school, the nuns exert
a powerful and refining influence over their pupils,
and their own self-denial and hard work command
the respect of those who come in contact with them,
so that their pupils commonly number many who
are not of their faith. B. Ward.

EeJerences —

GuiLDAY. P. English Catholic Refugees on the Continent.

(1914.)
Knox. T. F. Historical Introduction to Douay Diaries.
(1878.)



284



CAT]



DICTIONARY OF EDUCATION



[CEN



Petre Hon. E. English Colleges and Convents on the
Continent. (Norwich, 1849.)

Ward, B. Dawn of the Catholic Revival. (1909.)

" Annual Reports of the Conference of Catholic Colleges,
1897-1914."

Histories of the following Colleges : Stonyhurst ; Down-
side ; Ampleforth ; Ushaw ; St. Edmund's, Ware ;
the English College at Lisbon.

CATHOLIC (ROMAN) TRAINING COLLEGES.—

(See Catholic (Roman) Schools.)

CATHOLIC UNIVERSITV OF AJIERICA.— A

pontifical institution at Washington comprising
schools of the Sacred Sciences, Philosophy, Law,
Letters, and Science. It was founded in 1884, and
the School of the Sacred Sciences was opened in
1889, followed by the School of Philosophy in 1895.
The University has since become the centre of
learning for the Catholic laity, the diocesan clergy,
and the religious orders. Many seminaries, colleges,
and other Catholic educational institutions are
affiliated to the University, and a high standard of
scholarship is maintained. The students number
upwards of 200. There is a library of over 100,000
volumes.

CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND.— (See

Ireland, The National University of.)

CATO MAJOR. — Marcus Porcius Cato, also
known as Cato the Censor (234-149 B.C.), was a
distinguished Roman soldier and politician. In
civic affairs he opposed the Roman nobles in their
attempts to introduce Greek luxury into Rome.
The chief objects of his attack were the Scipio
family, but his efforts were unavailing. In later
years, he studied Greek literature. He was a strong
advocate of war with Carthage to secure the safety
of Rome, and his speeches in the Senate always
contained the words " Delenda est Carthago "
(Carthage must be destroyed).

CAUCHY. — The founder of the great French
analytical school of mathematicians of the nine-
teenth century was Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-
1857). He taught at irregular intervals and in
various places, owing to political circumstances;
and his great influence was thus exerted chiefly
through his many excellent text-books on higher
mathematics. In the Cours d'analyse : analyse
algebrique of 1821, Cauchy gave a thoroughly
rigorous and modern form of Euler's {q.v.) Intro-
ductio. The strict treatment in it of infinite series
has become classical. The breach with Lagrange's
(q.v.) ideas, caused by the rigid foundation of the
infinitesimal calculus on the not new, but thoroughly
reformed, doctrine of limits, first appeared in the
Resumi des leQons . . . sur le calcul infinitesimal
of 1823. Other books on the calculus and its
applications to geometry were afterwards published.
Cauchy's Exercices de jnaihematiqiies are collections
of memoirs, in which there is some repetition of
original parts of his text -books. His work is rather
drily expressed, and he does not always seem con-
scious of the exact bearing of the important results
he discovered — particularly in the theory of func-
tions based on the idea of complex integration.
His influence combined with that of Euler to shape
the very important work of Niels Henrik Abel
(1802-1829), and mth that of Gauss (q.v.) in the
work of Dirichlet and Riemann. The work of
Cauchy's School proper was carried on by Joseph



Liouville (1809-1882); Briot; Bouquet; Charles
Hermite (1822-1901); and, in a less original way,
by the Abbe Moigno (1804-1884). P. E. B. J.

CAUTION MONEY.—" Caution " is a legal term
denoting an obligation by which a person binds
himself to perform an obligation undertaken by
another if that other fails. " Caution " money is a
deposit made by a student on entering college as a
security for the performance of his obligations.

CENTRAL HALL.— (See Buildings, School.)

CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS, SCOTLAND.— (See
Scotland, Central Institutions of.)

CENTRAL LABOUR COLLEGE, THE.— (See
Labour College, The.)

CENTRAL SCHOOLS, THE CURRICULUM AND
ORGANIZATION OF.— With the development of
elementary education there arose a special necessity
for dealing with the children who reached the highest
class in their schools at an early age. Frequently
there were children in three different standards .
all in charge of one teacher, who, instead of being
able to concentrate on the children who were about
to leave, had to divide his attention among children
on different levels of attainment. To remedy this
weakness the School Board for London and other
education authorities marked certain schools as
Higher Elementary, or Higher Standard, Schools,
and endeavoured to transfer to these the children
who had reached the higher standards in the
neighbouring schools. Although a step in the
right direction, these schools were still under
considerable disadvantages, for while the children
transferred from the other schools were to a certain
extent selected, the weaklings who entered the
Higher Elementary School at an eaily age passed
automatically into the higher classes and formed
a drag on the others and again the organization of
the School had to make provision for too wide a
range of pupils.

In 1910, the London County Council decided
to remedy this by the establishment of a new
type of school which should provide for the wants
of children qualified to be presented for the Junior
County Scholarship Examination and who showed
a certain degree of proficiency in that test.

To be eligible for this examination a child must
be 1 1 years old and must have reached Standard V
of the Code or its equivalent. The successful
candidates are arranged in order of merit, and
those with the highest marks are admitted to the
Secondary Schools, where they may receive main-
tenance grants as well as free education. Those
next in order are eligible for admission to Central
Schools as far as the accommodation will allow.
The parents are required to sign a declaration
that it is their intention to keep the children at
the School for the full course of four years, that
is to the end of the school year in which they
reach the age of 15. There is no penalty attached
to the breach of this understanding and there is
considerable difference in the loyalty with which
it is observed in different schools. As the most
important part of the work is taken towards the
end of the course, the teachers naturally do their
best to retain the children till the end of their
fourth year. In London it is the practice to admit
to a Senior Evening Institute a child who has



285



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THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA AND



[GEN



completed his four years, or who has come within
three months of its completion. It is the usual
custom to refuse open testimonials to those who
leave earlier, although inquiries from prospective
employers are always answered.

Curriculum. With regard to curriculum the
Central Schools of London are of two types. In
both the aim is to give the child a good general
education, and in the one type the instruction
has a commercial bias, while in the other the
bias is industrial.

In the case of a Central School with a com-
mercial bias the course aims at cultivating the
general intelligence of the pupils and teaching the
fundamental principles of subjects that will enable
them to enter a large business house, a bank, or
insurance office, and the heads of such establish-
ments who have tried the ex-pupils of such schools
speak of their work in terms of high praise and
seek to obtain others as vacancies occur. In the
case of one with an industrial bias more attention
is paid to mathematics, science and manual training
in wood and metal. The aim, however, is not to
prepare for any specific trade, but to train the
pupil's mind and hand so that when he enters
on any industrial occupation he may bring to
bear on his work greater mental alertness and
manual skill.

At first the Central Schools were somewhat
hampered by rigid rules respecting the allotment
of time to the different subjects. These have been
relaxed, and the head masters and mistresses are
allowed more latitude, although they are expected
to approximate to the original limits. The follow-
ing table shows the time devoted to each subject
in a tj'pical Central School with a commercial
bias —



Scripture

Recreation

Physical Exercises

Manual Training

Drawing .

Practical Science

French

Shorthand

Book-keeping .

Music

Business Methods

EngUsh .

Arithmetic

Algebra .

Geonaetry

History .

Geography

Composition

It will be seen that manual training is taken in
the first two years, where it is of great educational
value, but is omitted in the third and fourth years
on account of the introduction of book-keeping
and shorthand into the syllabus.

Every pupil spends two hours a week in drawing,
and the course provides for sketching common
objects in pencil, crayon and water colour. Con-
siderable attention is also paid to the elements
of design and to lettering, and many ex-pupils
find this very valuable in the situations they
take up, one youth being set at once to design a
cover and draw illustrations for the catalogue of a
large firm of merchants whose service he entered.

A lesson in French is given every day and many
of the ex-scholars put their knowledge of the
language to great use in the businesses they enter,
while the great majority benefit greatly by the



TEs PER Week given


ro EACH Subject.


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150


150


150


150


ISO


150


ISO


. 100


100


100


100


100


100


100


100


. 60


60


60


60


60


60


60


60


_


_








140


140


140


140


120


120


120


120


120


120


120


120


120


120


120


120


120


120


120


120


240


240


240


240


240


240


240


240


120


120


120


120


-


-





-


120


120


120


120





_


_


-








40


40


40


40


40


40


. 40


40


_


_


_


_


-


_


. 100


100


140


120


150


160


160


150


. 110


100


80


100


110


100


100


100


. 100


100


120


100


100


90


100


100


. 60


60


60


60


60


60


60


60


. 70


80


70


80


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80


. 80


80


80


80


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culture arising from the study of a language in
addition to their own.

Shorthand is a very popular subject and many
of the boys attain great proficiency before they
leave. Indeed it is the common thing for boys to
take down in shorthand the speeches made at the
Prize Distribution, and to reproduce their notes
with the help of the typewriter, instruction on
which is given out of school hours.

Vocal music is included on account of its refining
influence, but unfortunately it has to be dropped
by all the boys in the fourth year (and by many
in the third) on account of their voices breaking.

The history syllabus comprises the outlines of
British history in the first two years, while the
study of the colonial development and expansion
of the Empire in the third year is co-ordinated
with the study of the geography of the colonies
which is taken in the same year. In the fourth
year the pupils are introduced to some of the
great movements, such as the French Revolution,
which have left their mark on the history of the
world.

In the Central Schools with an industrial bias
from ten to twelve hours per week are devoted
throughout the whole four j'ears to practical work.
In the case of boys this consists of practical measure-
ments of all kinds and work in elementary chemistry
and physics, drawing, modelling in clay and in
wood and metal work. Girls spend a corresponding
amount of time in domestic subjects, drawing,
including design (which is carried out in needle-
work), dressmaking, millinery and in scientific
study similar to that of the boys.

There are certain schools having both sides,
commercial and industrial. G. Collar.

CENTRAL SCHOOL OF ARTS AND CRAFTS,
THE. — (See London County Council, Educa-
tional Work of the.)

CENTRALIZATION.— This is a special case of
localization, in which the locus is the centre. The
term is most often used in reference to adminis-
tration, and connotes a scheme of control — includ-
ing officers and an office — working from within out-
wards: a central and higher command, authorita-
tive in inception of policy and plan — except as
dependent upon a legislature — and in direction of
procedure. All authority is in a manner centralized:
the distinction between authority and authority is
a question of complexity and degree of centraliza-
tion — which itself is not merely necessary, but
inherent.

A scheme of government is involved; and it is
in questions of government ^of its theory and prac-
tice — that centralization is philosophically con-
sidered. The autocratic form is most centralized —
the democratic least: and the development of the
freest democracy with the most liberal institutions
will, on the whole, pass furthest from a centralized
establishment. But this is not a necessary feature
of the power of the people or a condition of its
growth: the process is typical of the social and
political genius of a race or nation rather than of a
particular form of government. A passion for per-
sonal freedom, combined with exceptional self-
reliance and capacity in poUtical initiative, will
resolutely avoid an exclusive centralization. But,
when individual independence is less characteristic
than a general uniformity of sentiment; or where
personal opportunity falls short in variety of Ufe



286



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DICTIONARY OF EDUCATION



[GER



and occupation, or in manifold occasion of accept-
ance of responsibility — the reference to a chief or
a system or an environment becoming customary
and habitual; then the political tendency is towards
centralization. The individual may be content with
a bureaucratic scheme and organization provided
that he retains something of ultimate selection and
choice in a satisfactory franchise. We may illus-
trate. I'rance and England are thoroughly demo-
cratic in their form of government, but the system
of France in practice is much more regularly
centralized than is that of England. And this per-
haps might not be expected in a republic as com-
pared with a nronarchy, however limited. It is
clearly a case of character rather than of govern-
ment, and is internal rather than external. The
Englishman wrU compromise and love variation;
the Frenchman wiU be logical and love uniformity.
It was a French Minister of Education who was
proud to be assured that at any hour in the school
day he knew what every boy in a French public
school was learning or doing. And he would
impose time-tables and prescribe text-books ac-
cordingly. Administration such as this is highly
centraliz3d.

Reform In England is usually Cenlralization
followed by Dcccniralization. The tendency with
us is towards what we conceive as a freer sj'stem.
Powers of government are distributed and delegated.
Heavy strides in this direction have been taken
during the last century. Municipal corporations and
county councils have come into existence, and have
had greater and ever greater powers entrusted to
them. Local authorities thus constituted have
grown busier and busier. Questions of public health;
the care, lighting, and protection of our streets;
communication; sewage; education in ever broaden-
ing definition — all have been taken up locally, and
all apart from a central control except as condi-
tioned by legislation and the approval of specific
measures by an imperial department of government.
We will illustrate this decentralizing tendency and
process — after precedent centralization — from our
public educational system In the earlier years of
the last century there was not much primary
schooling in England It seems to have grown out
of religious and philanthropic zeal, and to have
been at first individual and sporadic. Churchmen
by way of the National Society, and others by way
of the British Schools Society, then built and main-
tained schools, and in due time an Education
Department of government took charge of what
was individualist and partially chaotic: here is
necessary progress towards centralization. Quickly
comes decentralization. The Elementary Education
Act of 1870 gives birth to school boards and entrusts
them with large powers: local authorities with
specific duties. In the meantime, the organization
of schools generally is defective; Avithin the system
are board and voluntary schools, but no place is
found for schools affording a more advanced course
of instruction. By the Education Act of 1902,
further steps are taken, vnth a more extensive
organization — this again being a process of central-
ization, so far as outside and individual schools are
collected and incorporated, and exposed to the
direction and control of a central Board of Educa-
tion; but forthwith we find a typical decentraliza-
tion. Local education authorities have powers of
management and control in large measure; and
even when the single school keeps its independence



Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 1) → online text (page 77 of 138)