Foster Watson.

The encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 4) online

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Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 4) → online text (page 27 of 83)
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supplementary teacher is good, we have secured a
bargain; if she is not good, the expenditure on her
salary is small. In any case, therefore, the
appointment of a supplementary teacher is
advisable." The truth is that the expenditure
to be considered is not the salary of the teacher,
but the energy of the child, which must not be

How completely untrained a supplementary
teacher might be is revealed by a regulation in the
code which distinguished as a special group those
who had been under efficient instruction for some
period after attaining their fourteenth year. In
fact the " special approval of the teacher for her
capacity in teaching " provided only a theoretical

safeguard against the introduction of incompetent

Under the present regulations, the local
education authority is bound to provide suitable
instruction for supplementary teachers, to enable
them to qualify as uncertificated teachers, and
the teachers must take advantage of it.

For a short time men were recognized as sup-
plementary teachers, provided that they declared
their intention of qualifying as uncertificated
teachers -within two years of the date of their
recognition. The experiment was not successful
and is not likely to be repeated.

The salary of supplementary teachers ranges
from ;^50 to ;£120 a year. A. C. C.

TEACHER, SUPPLY.— A supply teacher is
distinguished from a permanent teacher by the
conditions of appointment.

It frequently happens that a temporary gap
in a school staff occurs on account of the illness
of one of the permanent teachers. If the gap is
likely to last so long that it cannot be filled by
extra effort on the part of the other members of
the staff without unreasonable strain, a temporary
teacher must be obtained. In almost every
district there are ex-teachers, frequently married
women who have left the profession on marr^dng,
who are willing to teach for a short time, and are
glad to have the feeling of freedom which the
conditions of appointment of a supply teacher
affords, these conditions being that the appoint-
ment lapses either without notice, or at a day's
or a week's notice. These teachers inform the
local education authority of their \villingness to
act as supply teachers, and are called upon as

From the nature of the case, a supply teacher
receives no salary, but is paid at a certain rate per
day or per week. Even when the pay is stated
as a weekly rate, it is in practice a dailj^ or even
a half-daily, rate. The sum varies in different
areas, but it is generally such that if a supply
teacher were continuously engaged throughout
the year, he (she) would receive an amount equal
to the minimum salary for permanent teachers
of the same professional status. A. C. C.

teacher is a salaried supply teacher, engaged in
regard to salary and tenure of appointment on the
same footing as a permanent teacher; but, not
being assigned to any particular school, he (she)
is liable to be sent to anj^ school in the area where
his (her) ser\dces are required. There is a certain
gambling element about this sort of appointment.
Against the possibility of being sent to a distant
school and spending much time in travelling, the
teacher sets the possibility of having a few daj's
at home on full pay between leaving one school
and starting at another. There are roving spirits
who like serving on the staffs of different schools
and seeing different children, but from the
point of view of the professional idealist, who
values the personal link between teacher and
taught, the work of an unattached teacher is
unsatisfactory. A. C. C.

tificated teacher must have passed the preliminary
examination for the elementary school teachers'
certificate, or some equivalent examination, or





have qualifications that, in the opinion of the
Board of Education, are substantially equivalent for
purposes of teaching.

Although it is possible to be an uncertificated
teacher without having had previous experience
in teaching, a bursar (q-v.) cannot become an
uncertificated teacher without having had a year's
training either as a student teacher or in a training
college, so that it is rare for an uncertificated
teacher to be quite inexperienced in teaching.

A candidate for recognition as an uncertificated
teacher must be over 18 years of age, and must
produce a satisfactory medical certificate.

The security of tenure which uncertificated
teachers enjoy is, in actual practice, little less
than that of certificated teachers. All uncertificated
teachers are paid according to the same scale of
salaries by any given local education authority.
Uncertificated teachers are eligible for pension
when the time for retirement comes, calculated
on the same basis as their certificated colleagues.

An uncertificated teacher may become certificated
by passing the certificate examination and the more
severe medical examination. Most local educa-
tion authorities provide the necessary classes for
their uncertificated teachers, and the large majority
of the younger teachers profit by the opportunities
afforded. A. C. C.

TEACHERS' AGREEMENTS.— It is of the first
importance that the terms of contracts of service
between teachers and their employers should be
reduced to writing and embodied in a duly executed
memorandum of agreement.

In schools controlled by the Board of Education
and known as Public Elementary Schools, it has
been made a condition of receiving a Government
grant, that " teachers must be employed under
written agreements, provided that in the case of
a school provided by a Local Education Authority,
a teacher may be employed under a minute of the
Authority" [Code of Regulations, 1919, Article 15].
The schools " provided " by an Authority are those
for which the Authority are entirely responsible,
and the teachers in such schools are " officers " of
the Authority. A formal agreement is not usually
made in respect to municipal and other ofiScers.
They are appointed by minute, and a copy of the
minute (with a notification of the appointment) is
forwarded to the officer concerned.

Teachers in schools not " provided " by an
Authority, but " maintained " by an Authority,
must be employed under a proper, written agree-
ment. Such schools are known as non-provided
schools, and are usually the property of trustees.
The schools are governed by managers ; but, with
exceptions, the whole cost is borne by the Authority
in whose area the school is situated. The parties to
the contract of service in these schools are the
managers, the Local Education Authority [for the
purpose of giving consent to the appointment under
Sect. 7, Sub-sect. 1 (c) of the Education Act, 1902],
and the teacher. In some cases, the Local Educa-
tion Authority decline all responsibility for such
agreements, and the contract is then validly made
between the managers and the teacher. The whole
body of managers, including foundation and repre-
sentative managers, must execute the contract
either individually or by resolution certified by the
official correspondent or chairman.

Board of Education Requirement. Whether the
appointment of teacher is made by minute or

written agreement, the Board of Education require
the inclusion, either expressly or by reference, of
one of the following clauses —

1. The teacher shall not be required to perform
any duties except such as are connected with the
work of a Public Elementary School, or to abstain
outside the school hours from any occupations
which do not interfere with the due performance of
his duties as teacher of a Public Elementary School.

2. The teacher shall not be required to perform
any duties except such as are connected with the
work of a Public Elementary School, and with the
instruction of pupil-teachers, or to abstain outside
the school hours from any occupations which do
not interfere with the due performance of his duties
as a teacher of a Public Elementary School or with
the instruction of pupil-teachers.

The second clause must be included only if the
teacher is required to instruct pupil-teachers who
are not receiving instruction in a recognized centre.
In all other cases, the first clause must be used.

The remuneration to be paid should be exphcitly
set out. Commonly, this is regulated by a scale of
salaries, and in such cases the scale should be
incorporated in terms or by reference.

A provision giving the teacher the right of
inspection of trust deeds, charters, orders, and
other relevant documents is sometimes inserted.

The minimum hohdays of the school are usually
indicated ; and specific duties of the teacher,
particularly -with regard to religious instruction,
are commonly outUned.

Terminating Agreements. The clause defining the
method of terminating the agreement requires
careful drafting, as the powers of managers are
hmited by statute in this respect. Where the con-
tract is terminated on " grounds connected with
the giving of reUgious instruction in the school,"
the managers may determine the matter without
the consent of the Local Education Authority, the
question whether the contract is terminated on
such grounds being one for the courts to decide ;
but, where the contract is to be terminated on
other grounds, the consent of the Local Education
Authority is required.

The following clause is comprehensive, and may
serve as a guide —

This Agreement may he terminated after

calendar months' previous notice in writing to that
effect has been given by either the managers or the
teacher to the other, and, if such notice be given by
the managers, it shall be given in accordance with the
decision of a meeting convened by notice sent to every
manager four days at least before the meeting, stating
that the termination of the teacher's agreement will
form part of the business of such meeting ; but this
Agreement shall not be terminated by the Managers
unless there is a reasonable cause for so doing, such
cause being stated to the teacher in writing. Pro-
vided always that such notice, except when given on
grounds connected with the giving of religious instruction
in the school, shall not be valid unless the consent of the
Local Education Authority has been obtained thereto.

The usual period of notice is, in the case of head
teachers, three months and, in the case of assistant
teachers, one month. The signatures of the parties
should be witnessed, and adhesive stamps may
be used.

Provided Dwelling-house. Formerly, it was 90m-
mon for managers and School Boards to pro\'ide
a dwelHng-house for the teacher. If this is still
provided as part of the emoluments of the office.

103— (969)





appropriate clauses should be incorporated in the
memorandum, and particular care should be given
to the question of liability for rates, taxes, repairs,
and other outgoings.

It is, however, now more usual for the dwelling-
house to be the subject of a separate agreement.
This should deal with the questions of rent, rates,
taxes, repairs, water supply, and all outgoings.
Care should be taken to ensure that the period of
notice should coincide with the period required
under the main agreement. The memorandum must
be duly signed, witnessed, and stamped.

Home Office Schools. In Home Office Schools,
the Secretary of State requires that there should be
a \vritten agreement with the teachers employed ;
or, where the appointment is made by a Local
Authority, such appointment must be by minute
of the Authority. The Home Secretary has further
indicated that, in the case of the dismissal of a
teacher for misconduct, managers are required to
give due notice of the charge against him, and to
afford an opportunity of the teacher being heard
in his own defence. Provision for these requirements
should, therefore, be made in such agreements.

Poor Law Schools. In Poor Law Schools, the
consent of the Local Government Board is required
to the dismissal of a teacher of more than one year's
service, and a provision for this must be made in
the agreements with teachers in such schools.

Endowed Schools. In Endowed Schools, agree-
ments with teachers are frequently governed by
the schemes made for the government of the
school. Usually, in school deeds, orders and
schemes, elaborate provisions are made for a
judicial deahng with the dismissal of the head
master by the governors. Assistant teachers were
formerly generally subject to appointment and dis-
missal by the head master ; but the Endowed
Schools (Masters) Act, 1908, has effected an
important change in this respect. The Act pro-
\'ides that any master, by whomsoever appointed,
is deemed to be in the employment of the governing
body of the school. Subject to any special pro-
vision in any scheme relating to the school, the
dismissal of a master can take effect only at the
end of a school term and after at least two months'
notice. In any agreement made mth such masters,
these statutory provisions must be observed, and
the proper parties to the agreement are the
governors and the master to be appointed. It is
to be noted that the schools mentioned in the
Pubhc Schools Act of 1868 are exempted from the
provisions set out above.

Schools under the Charitable Trusts Act are
required to conform to the provisions of the statute,
and one of the conditions of the dismissal of a
teacher is that he should have an opportunity of
being heard in his own defence before dismissal
takes effect.

Secondary Schools and Colleges. In Municipal
Secondary Schools and other higher schools and
colleges provided by Local Education Authorities,
agreements are either made between governors and
teachers, or the teacher is appointed by a minute
of the Authority. Many Authorities provide for the
hearing of the teacher in his own defence before
dismissal, and permit him to be attended by
" a friend," and to submit evidence when the dis-
missal is in consequence of a charge of misconduct ;
and a similar procedure is observed in the case of
teachers in Pubhc Elementary Schools under such
Authorities. A. A. T.

VERSITY.—" University Teachers " differ from
other persons engaged in teaching in the university
only in being appointed by Syndicates and Boards.
The conditions of appointment vary. For
example, at Cambridge, the Teachers' Training
Syndicate state no period during which their
university teacher shall hold his of&ce; nor does
the Indian Civil Service Board; nor the Board
of Military Studies. The Forestry Committee,
however, limits the appointment to five years,
and the number of appointments appears in this
case to be unlimited.

University Demonstrators are appointed by
professors, with the consent of the vice-chancellor,
for periods not exceeding five years. There are
in some cases senior as well as junior demonstrators.
Salaries vary from ;^200 to about ;^500. The duties
will best be understood from the two following
statements —

Demonstrator in A natomy : to assist the professor
in giving practical instruction and in superintending
the work of students in the dissecting room.

Demonstrator in Chemistry: to assist the professor
in giving catechetical instruction, in teaching
the use of apparatus, and in superintending the
work of students in the laboratory. A. C. C.


BETWEEN.— (See Parents, The Relations
BETWEEN Teachers and.)


The definition of elementary school given in the
article Head Teacher {q.v.) applies not only to
the public elementary school, with the various
manual training, cookery, laundry, and house-
wifery centres which supplement its work, but also
to kindergartens and preparatory departments of
secondary schools.

It will be convenient to treat under this section
teachers in schools for the blind, deaf, physically
defective, and mentally defective, teachers in
reformatories and industrial schools, army school-
masters and naval schoolmasters, even though
many of these are engaged in giving a course of
instruction which carries the pupil on to his
sixteenth birthday. The reason for including
these teachers is that, on account of the peculiar
circumstances obtaining in the schools, the work
proceeds less rapidly and continuously than in an
ordinary secondary school, and must be compared
rather with that of an elementary school. The
preliminary training, too, is in the great majority
of instances more closely allied with that of a
teacher in an elementary school than that of a
teacher in a secondary school.

In England, a fully qualified teacher in an
elementary school is one who possesses the certifi-
cate of the Board of Education. Such a teacher
must, usually, have passed through various
stages, selected from the following: monitor, pupil-
teacher, ex-pupil-teacher, bursar, student-teacher,
uncertificated teacher, training college students(^^.t;.) .

A. C. C.


schools intermediate between elementary schools
and tertiary schools or universities deal with pupils
whose ages range from 6 to 19 years. In respect
of the age of the pupils, then, these secondary
or intermediate schools overlap elementary schools





at the lower end and tertiary schools [e.g. school
of art, technical college, training college for
teachers) at the upper end. This statement is
only true of secondary schools taken as a whole.
In many cases the preparatory department of a
secondary school {i.e. the department dealing
with pupils under 10 years of age), is a separate
institution in most ways. In a still larger number
of cases, the pupils leave the school in their 17th
year, before reaching the age of entrance into
tertiary schools or universities.

Members of each type of secondary school teacher
can be found in most secondary schools.

The functions of the secondary school vary for
different pupils, as well as between school and
school. The main functions are capable of being
expressed in two formulae: (1) To give a general
education to their pupils. (2) To discover the
special aptitude of each pupil, and to assist the
development of that aptitude until the pupil is
ready to leave school and proceed either to a place
of tertiary education, or to a definite position in a
profession or trade. Our English secondary schools
are not yet sufficiently differentiated to cover the
whole ground available for specialization, but they
do realize the need for specialization, and in a
more or less comprehensive way they realize the
need for further avenues of specialization.

Secondary schools are not, on the whole, so
rigidly governed in their detailed working as
elementary schools by regulations of the Board of
Education. Thus, though there are, in secondary
schools, teachers of varying grades of qualification
there are no such differences of status as are
constituted in elementary schools by the regulations
of the Board. The teacher who possesses a
diploma in teaching is not necessarily of a higher
grade than a teacher who does not possess one.
Knowledge of the subject taught is usually the
great desideratum. We shall, therefore, proceed
to discuss the various types of teacher, differentiat-
ing the types according to their function in the
school. (See Infants, The Teacher of ; Teach-
ers, Peripatetic ; and Teachers, Supply.)

Head Master. The head master of a secondary
school is directly responsible to the governing
body of the school for the efficiency of the organiza-
tion and teaching. He usually takes some share
in the teaching, and delegates to one of his staff
certain of the duties of supervision which, in an
elementary school, are generally retained by the
head teacher.

The functions of the head master in relation to
the management of the school, the parents of the
pupils, the examination of the pupils' work, and
the general progress and behaviour of the pupils
differ from those of a head teacher in an elementary
school in three ways —

1. The detailed examination of the pupils' work
must be entrusted to the specialist teachers. The
head master can, of course, use his own judgment
as to the comparative values of the work in different
subjects, and as to the value of each specialist's
estimate of pupils' abilities.

2. The head master has, in many cases, power
to recommend appointments and dismissals of
his staff. The amount of this power varies, but
it perhaps tends to decrease as the schools come
more under the control of public authorities.

3. The head master has, in many cases, the power
to expel a boy for misconduct. This power is also

The head master, then, may have any degree
of power, from that complete autocracy which
enabled Dr. Busby to justify himself in keeping
his head covered in the presence of his Sovereign,
" lest the boys should be misled into thinking any
one, even the King, more powerful than the head
master," to the limited authority of a head master
in a municipal secondary school.

The salary of a head master is calculated in
different ways. Sometimes a fixed amount is
offered. The lowest limit is probably about ;£400,
the highest amount is about ;^2,500, in the greatest
public schools. Sometimes there is a scale of
salaries, ranging from a minimum of ;^300 to £400
up to a maximum of ;£500 to ;^800. In other
cases a certain fixed salary is offered, say ;£50 or
;^100 or ;^150, and a capitation fee oi £1, or ;^1 10s.
for each pupil in the school is added. Or there may
be a larger fixed amount, and the capitation fee is
paid for each pupil after the first fifty or hundred.
The capitation fee system has the inherent defect,
that, until the school is absolutely trusted by the
parents of the pupils, the head master cannot
afford to reject unsuitable applicants for admission
lest suitable applicants be deterred, nor can he
exercise his right of expulsion without injuring his
income. With the steady growth of public control
of secondary schools, which has become increasingly
evident in the last few years, the defects of
" farmed " schools will gradually disappear. It
will be regrettable if head masters cease to have
the virtues of the autocrat.

Head Mistress. Many of the statements about
head masters apply to head mistresses. It is
approximately true to say in regard to salaries that,
in municipal secondary schools, head mistresses
are paid about 75 per cent, of the corresponding
salaries of head masters. Figures are not available
for schools not under public control. The Burnham
Report offered no scale for head teachers but
recommended as minima: ;£600 (men), ;^500 (women).

Senior Mistress. A mixed school is usually
under a head master. In this case the senior
mistress acts towards the girls as a head mistress
in matters of discipline. A senior mistress in such
a case is sometimes admitted as an associate of
the Head Mistresses' Association. She does not
usually receive a salary much above that of an
assistant mistress, if indeed it is at all above that
of a senior assistant mistress in a girls' school.

Form Master. It is the English tradition to
group pupils together in thirties, each treated as
a distinct whole. If a pupil is in a given thirty
on his total work, he is in that thirty for each

Each group is, in English secondary schools, called
a Form. For purposes of registration of attendance,
recording of marks for work and conduct, issuing of
reports on pupils, each Form is under the charge
of a Form master. In the lower Forms always,
and in the upper Forms often, the Form master
takes a large share in the teaching of his Form.
It does occasionally happen that a Form master
never teaches his Form, but such a situation is rare.

The amount of teaching which a Form receives
from its own master depends upon the capabilities
of the master, as well as upon the needs of the Form.
If the master is a specialist, he may be required
elsewhere for a large proportion of his time^ Or
if the Form needs specialist teachers, it must be
taken by a large number of masters, of whom the
Form master is only one.





Generally speaking, the lower Forms, containing
pupils below 13 years of age, do not need to be
taught by specialists only, and the frequent personal
contact with a teacher responsible for their morals
is of great value to the pupils.

Online LibraryFoster WatsonThe encyclopaedia and dictionary of education; a comprehensive, practical and authoritative guide on all matters connected with education, including educational principles and practice, various types of teaching institutions, and educational systems throughout the world (Volume v. 4) → online text (page 27 of 83)