Frances Jenkins.

Reading in the primary grades online

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Online LibraryFrances JenkinsReading in the primary grades → online text (page 3 of 7)
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ever, many ways may be used to help him im-
prove. Questionsjregarding the thought, recall of
the actions and emotions underlying the condi-
tions, and remembrance of the success with which
he has represented other characters, will all help.
Repetition with some definite gain in interpreta-
tion is time well spent. When he improves on his
first rendering, praise should be givenM

Repetition takes place naturally in a sequence
of lessons which culminates in oral reading. The
story as a whole will have been read by the class
as a silent reading or study lesson; or the poem
may have been read to them by the teacher.
Suggestions as to especial parts to be watched
in the oral reading may be given in the first dis-
cussion. The parts to be discussed may already
have been selected by the pupils in the course of
previous study. Necessarily much repetition will
occur in the discussion. \Key sentences, sentences
which show action and sound, musical wording,
elements of surprise, delight, sorrow, — all these
are opportunities for charming work, wherein
repetition intensifies the pleasure of reading.
Unconscious repetition of the good work of others "
will be common.



JjChildren need to hear much good oral reading.
The teacher should learn to read well so that she
may set standards for them J Good readers from
other classes may perform a similar service. A
sixth-grade class were to read a fable written in
the wording and structure appropriate to their
grade. The same fable appeared in simpler form
in a first-grade reader, but the emotions and
conversation were the same in both. Several of
the younger children came to read the story to
the older pupils, and their earnest work, given
without self-consciousness, stimulated the older
pupils to a high degree of effort.

[The imitation of sounds heard in natural sur-
roundings is always a delight to children. The
range of tone and control of breath gained in
such mimicry will do much toward developing
flexible, well-modulated voices. The cluck of the
hen, the whirr of the automobile, the clang of the
fire-alarm bell, the steady tread oi passing foot-
steps, — all lend themselves for this purpose.
The pupil will often need to be told to listen
again to the sound in real life and to give the class
the benefit of the better imitation.

There will be times when both repetition and
imitation need to be used so that the pupil is
conscious that he is repeating and imitating for



the sake of better form in his own reading. The
use of these factors in less conscious ways may,
however, have higher values.

Results to be attained
A flexible voice, trained until habits of modu-
lation have become automatic in ordinary read-
ing, should be the aim. When the thought is
understood and the form mastered, the voice
naturally falls into a rhythm and melody of ex-
pression, largely due to the rhythmic movement
of the eyes and the rhythm of breathing. The
more essential parts are emphasized according
to the ability of the reader, and the result gives

% Ready recognition of the more important
parts and the ability to render them skillfully
will come only after much careful teaching has
brought these parts into consciousness and given
opportunity for their use. To dwell upon the
loud and the soft, the swift and the slow, the joy-
ous and the sad, as expressed in specific sentences,
brings these elements into the focus of conscious-
ness and assures steady advance in artistic expres-



^The Influence of Thought
Some lessons from experimental psychology

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Online LibraryFrances JenkinsReading in the primary grades → online text (page 3 of 7)