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Frances Jenkins.

Reading in the primary grades online

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Online LibraryFrances JenkinsReading in the primary grades → online text (page 7 of 7)
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A first-grade child should have a reasonable stock
of sight words which he is able to read in simple
thought relations. He should also have made a
beginning in using phonics in getting new words.
Without these he is not ready for the second
grade. Upon leaving the second grade a child
should be quite self-helpful in getting new words
both by phonics and by the help of the context.
He should be able to read a little in connection
with the other school subjects, enough, at least,
so that he can follow simple directions. Upon
leaving the third grade pupils should be fluent
readers of simple reading material. They ought
to be able to discuss the main thought, the larger
parts, and the chief characters. By the time they
leave the fourth grade good study habits should
be well under way, and these should be well estab-
lished before the end of the fifth grade.

The pupil who does not learn to read

Even with good teaching an occasional child

will not learn to read, while the shifting of our

population brings to every schoolroom some child

116



ATTITUDE TOWARD RESULTS

far behind children of his age. Give all such pupils
individual assignments of one or two sentences.
Let them have as much help as they need in prep-
aration, but hold them for results of some kind.
Call on them to contribute to the thought side of
the recitation; their experiences may make them
valuable helpers here. Let them make lists of the
words and word-groups which they know. Oc-
casionally such pupils may go to lower grades
for word drills, but their social relation to the
younger group may not be an incentive to good
reading there.

The final test
The great test of reading is the use to which
pupils put it in the course of their life activities.
Are they turning to good literature for compan-
ionship? Have they begun to have favorite
authors? Do they visit the library or read for
pleasure in their own homes? To what extent are
they hunting for information in books and maga-
zines of worth ? Are they judging its worth, tak-
ing the best which is offered? Only as their read-
ing serves some vital purpose, helps in making
them intelligent and serviceable members of
social groups, is the work in reading a success.



OUTLINE

I. READING AS A THOUGHT PROCESS

i Teaching a beginner to read i

The pupil's motive in reading 3

a. Reading as a basis for activity .... 4

b. Reading as a recall of experience and as bring-
ing the experience of others 4

c. Reading as a means of enjoyment ... 5

d. Reading as sharing with others .... 6 /

e. Reading as mastery 6

Choice and amount of reading material ... 7

c. The teacher's responsibility 7

b. Standards of choice 7

c. Present interests 8

d. Opportunities for increasing amount ... 8

e. Reading lessons developed as language lessons 9

(1) A lesson on Sunday 9

(2) A lesson based on a walk 10

(3) The crow and the pitcher or the wise bird 10
Finding the heart of the story 12

a. The significant title 12

b. The blind title 13

Separating a selection into its main sections . 14

c. Training to find large sections . . . . 15

b. Printing which indicates main sections . . 15

c. The child's grasp 15

d. A method of indicating large units . . . 16

119



OUTLINE

e. The uses of large sections 17

6. Stage setting of the story 18

a. Influence on the atmosphere 18

b. The time element 18

c. The place element 18

d. The character element 19

e. The action element 19

7. Parts which grip the reader's attention ... 21

a. The element of suspense 21

b. The element of climax 21

c. The key sentence 21

d. The topic sentence 21

8. Some details that count 22

a. Word pictures 22

b. Allusions 23

c. Shades of meaning 24

fa. Making sure that ideas are understood ... 24

a. Challenging power of the idea .... 24

b. The idea which needs elaborating . . .25

c. The idea which may be taken for granted . 25

d. The varying force of ideas 26

10. How the child makes the story his own . . .27

a. The adult's further use of material ... 27

b. The child's further use of material ... 27

II. PROBLEMS IN EXPRESSION

1. Oral reading as an art 30

2. Helping the child to interpret the spirit . . 31

3. Why be certain the child understands? . . .32
a. Interpretation precedes expression . . .32

120



OUTLINE

b. Preparation for oral reading 32

c. Fluency versus understanding ... 33

d. The child who stumbles 34

e. Expressive reading of facts 34

4. Making the pupil's experiences set standards for

him ............ 35

a. Influence on selection of material . . .35

b. Influence of the child's participation in the
experience of others 35

c. Influence of his own life struggles ... 36

d. The influence of finish on each attempt . . 37

5. The need for imitation and repetition . . .37

a. The personal equation in interpretation . . 37

b. Special parts needing emphasis .... 38

c. The influence of reading by others . . .38

d. Imitation of natural sounds 39

e. Conscious attempts to improve form . . 39

6. Results to be attained 40

a. Natural rhythm and melody 40

b. Means for advance 40

III. PROBLEMS IN FORM MASTERY

1. The influence of thought 41

a. Some lessons from experimental psychology 41

(1) Control by the central process ... 41

(2) Influence on amount seen 4r

(3) Influence of context on perception of indi-
vidual words 42

b. The sentence as the unit of thought ... 43
(1) Why chosen as the unit 43

121



OUTLINE

(2) Influence on seeing larger units of form . 43

(3) Expectancy as a factor 44

c. Elements in thought as a basis for form train-
ing 45

(1) Time — indefinite and definite ... 46

(2) Place 47

(3) Action 47

(4) Question and answer 47

(5) Key sentences 47

(6) Sentences which refer backward and for-
ward 48

(7) Suspense 48

(8) Climax 48

(9) Emotion and character portrayal . . 48

(10) Humor 49

(n) The proportionate use of these elements 49

2. Attention to form itself 49

a. Some lessons from experimental psychology 49

(1) Reflex recognition the aim .... 50

(2) Variation in word length a help ... 50

(3) Dominating parts of words and sentences 50

(4) Need for analysis 51

(5) Danger of specific methods .... 52

Word and phrase drills 52

(i^Drill the last step in the mastery of new

words '53

(2) The basis for selection of drill words . 53

(3) Different ways of perceiving words - . . 53

(4) Ear drills for upper primary .... 54

(5) Methods of drill . 54

(6) Types of word and phrase drills ... 55
122



4



>■



OUTLINE

*c. Speed drills 58

(1) Rate in reading a modern problem . . 58

(2) Material for drills 59

(3) Types of speed drills 59

d. The hygiene of type and page .... 60

(1) The teacher's problem 60

(2) Standards for size of type and width of
leading 61

(3) Printing and paper 61

(4) Division of sentences on primer page . 62

(5) Influence of extraneous matter and poor
placing of pictures 62

IV. SOME SPECIAL METHODS IN THE TEACHING
OF READING

1. The basic text and its use 63

2. Four problems in beginning reading .... 64

a. Learning the printed words . . . . .65

b. Control of eye movements . ./ . . .66

c. Analyzing words .... ji ... 66

d. Responding to thought 69

3. Description of an early book-lesson .... 70

a. Complexity of process 70

b. Progress of class assumed . . . . - . . 71

c. Lesson procedure 72

d. Relation of procedure to four problems of be-
ginning reading 74

4. Classification of lesson types 75

Types based on character of material . . .77

a. The poem of nature 77

123



OUTLINE

b. The poem of child life . . . . . ... 78

c. The poem of fun 78

d. The short story 79

e. The informational selection 79

/. The drama 80

g. The long story 80

6. Types based upon character of work . . .81

a. The study recitation 81

b. The silent reading lesson 82

c. The appreciation lesson 83

d. The dramatic reading 83

e. The dramatization 84

/. The drill, including the sight-reading lesson . 84
g. The presentation of individual and group

readings 85

7. Planning a series of lessons 86

8. Suggestive lesson plans 88-

a. 'An informational selection to be given as a

study recitation — The Crow .... 88

b. A short story to be given as a silent reading
lesson — The Buried Treasure . ... 93

c. A long story to be given as a dramatic reading

— The Little Steam Engine .... 96

d. A poem of child life to be given as an appreci-
ation lesson — Where Go the Boats? . . ior

V. THE RECITATION PERIOD AND THE STUDY
PERIOD

1. Variety during the reading period . . . .103

a. Cooperation affords variety 103

b. Variations in assignment 104

124



OUTLINE

2. The teacher's place 104

3. What not to do 105

4. Linking the recitation to the assignment . . 106

5. The study period 107

a. General study conditions 107

b. Knowledge of method of study .... 107

c. Growth in method 108

6. Seat work related to reading 108 V

a. Seat work dangers 108

b. Checks upon work done 109

c. Suggestive lines of seat work 109 -^

7. Help from the home in

a. Companionship in reading in

b. Supplying reading material 111

c. Supplementing school training . . . .112

d. The physical basis 112

VI. THE TEACHER'S ATTITUDE TOWARD
RESULTS

1. The need for standard tests in reading . . .114

2. The problem of the new class 115

3; Reading in relation to promotion . . . .115

4. The pupil who does not learn to read . . .116

5. The final test 117



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Online LibraryFrances JenkinsReading in the primary grades → online text (page 7 of 7)