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Frances Lowe Smith.

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Recipes and Menus for Fifty

as used in

The School of Domestic Science

of

The Boston Young Women's
Christian Association



Prepared by
FRANCES LOWE SMITH




WHITCOMB & BARROWS

BOSTON 1920



Main

\GRIC. DEPT.

3)^^ O^^f . S , F,

Copyright 1913
By WHITCOMB & BARROWS

Reprinted September, 1915
August, 1917
March, 1919
January, 1920



PREFACE

THE object in publishing this collection of recipes and
menus is twofold to put them in a convenient and
accessible form for our own graduates, who find them
invaluable in their various fields of work, and for others
who need tried and definite recipes for use in small
Institutions.

This is not a complete cook book, although it furnishes
material for a sufficiently varied menu. The recipes are
those used by students in the preparation of meals in the
school-home kitchen, as distinct from the laboratory;
and have been collected and adapted, during a period of
eleven years, from various sources from personal experi-
ments, from the school laboratory recipes, from student-
matrons, and from numerous cook books.

The recipes are given just as used in the kitchen of the
School of Domestic Science, but a word of explanation
is necessary. Our students are women, living an indoor,
semi-sedentary life, and are comparatively light eaters.
The conditions also are such that it is possible to plan more
closely as to quantities than is usually practicable else-
where. For these reasons, the quantities given will some-
times be insufficient for families of the same size; and
again will be just right for smaller numbers as, for
instance, summer camps, boys' schools, or college halls.

It is a pleasure to me to express my thanks for the hearty
cooperation of principal and students in this undertaking,
and for the invaluable help, inspiration, and encourage-

iii

i

417273



IV PREFACE

ment of those whose teachings and writings have made
the work possible to Miss Harriet Folger, my instructor
in the School of Domestic Science; to Miss Mary Mac-
Dermaid, the present instructor in cookery; and to Miss
Anna Barrows and Miss Fannie Merritt Farmer, authors
and lecture-demonstrators. r. L. s.



FOREWORD

As I begin to write this brief foreword, several memory
pictures come before me.

I see the bending shoulders and anxious forehead of a
student, who, having a few spare minutes, grudgingly
spends them in the drudgery of copying recipes. But the
recipes may be her future stock in trade, so there is no
alternative.

I am showing a visitor through the school. She is the
able manager of a large restaurant and practiced efficiency
engineering long before the term became common. We
pass through the home kitchen and instantly her keen eye
and quick hand are upon the open recipe box being used
by some student. "Oh, splendid!" she exclaims; "how I
wish these specific and complete directions could be in the
hands of the many who need them !"

I am sitting in my office. A recent graduate has come
back to the school and is telling me of her first experi-
ences. Engaged to teach in the high school of a small city,
what was her surprise to be told upon arrival that she
was also to superintend and to be responsible for the mid-
day meal in the outdoor school of fifty anaemic children.
"But I was equal to the situation, Miss Forehand," she
said; "I had copied the home recipes."

So the book is published, that tired students may
escape copying, that those who can use the recipes and
menus may find them accessible, and that the tool wielded
so many years by Miss Smith for the school's success may
be put in permanent form.

A. JOSEPHINE FOREHAND, Principal.



CONTENTS

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ix

FRUITS i

BREAD n

QUICK DOUGHS 22

CEREALS 38

BEVERAGES . . . ... . . 49

EGGS 53

SOUPS 59

FISH .71

MEATS 81

SAUCES FOR MEATS AND FISH . . . .127

VEGETABLES 133

CHEESE DISHES .156

SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS .... 158

PASTRY 168

HOT DESSERTS 172

PUDDING SAUCES 184

COLD DESSERTS ....... 189

FROZEN DESSERTS 19?

CAKE AND COOKIES 202

CAKE FILLINGS AND FROSTINGS .... 212

MENUS 215

BIBLIOGRAPHY 237

INDEX 239



vti



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

CORRECT measurements are absolutely essential to suc-
cessful cookery, and these are possible to inexperienced
cooks only by following certain definite rules.

All measures in this book are level. Half-pint measur-
ing cups, pint and quart measures, and teaspoons and
tablespoons of regulation size are used.

Flour is sifted before measuring, then sifted again with
other dry ingredients except sugar. To measure dry in-
gredients, fill measure rounding full with a spoon or scoop,
without shaking, and level with a knife. To measure butter
and similar ingredients, pack spoon, cup, or other measure
solidly, and level with a knife.

Weights are more accurate, and in some cases more
convenient, than measures, and there should be in every
kitchen a dial scale of several pounds capacity, and in
institutional kitchens a platform scale for meats and bulky
provisions.

TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

3 teaspoons = i tablespoon
16 tablespoons = i cup

4 cups = i quart
4 quarts i gallon
8 quarts = i peck
4 pecks = i bushel

16 ounces = I pound

ix



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES



2 tablespoons butter

2 cups butter or lard

2 tablespoons sugar

2 cups granulated sugar

2j cups powdered sugar

2 cups brown sugar

4 tablespoons flour

4 cups flour

5J cups coffee

2 quarts tea

8 egg whites
1 6 egg yolks
10 medium eggs without shell

2 cups chopped meat
4 cups cocoa

3 cups currants or raisins
60 pounds potatoes

52 pounds onions
24 pounds string beans
56 pounds tomatoes
55 pounds turnips
54 pounds sweet potatoes
45 pounds parsnips
50 pounds carrots
60 pounds beets
60 pounds beans
48 pounds apples
196 pounds



ounce
pound
ounce
pound
pound
= i pound
= i ounce
= i pound
= i pound
= i pound
= i cup
= i cup
pound
pound
pound
pound
bushel
bushel
bushel
bushel
bushel
bushel
bushel
bushel
bushel
bushel
bushel
barrel



= i



FRUITS

Baked Apples

50 medium sized apples i teaspoons cinnamon or

1 quarts sugar \ cup butter if desired

Wash and core apples, and, if skins are tough, pare
upper half. Place in agate dripping pans, skin down, and
fill cores with sugar. Cinnamon should be mixed with
sugar. If butter is used, put bits on top of sugar. Put
hot water in bottom of pans to depth of about one inch.
Bake in moderately hot oven until quite soft. It is better
that they should lose their shape than be underdone. The
length of time depends wholly upon kind of apple, but
allow an hour or more. Serve hot or cold, with or with-
out cream. If apples are very tart, or if they are to be
used for dessert, more sugar will be required.

Apple Sauce I

1 6 pounds (ij pecks) tart, 2 quarts water
juicy apples I teaspoon salt

2 quarts sugar Spice or lemon if desired

Wash, pare, and core apples ; add water and cook until
soft. Put through puree strainer, add salt and sugar, and
serve hot or cold.

Apple Sauce II

12 pounds tart, red, 2 quarts water
juicy apples i teaspoon salt

ij quarts sugar ij teaspoons cinnamon



FOR



Wash, quarter, and core apples; add water and cook
until soft. Put through puree strainer, add salt, sugar,
and cinnamon. Serve with pork.

Apple Compote

1 8 pounds tart apples i teaspoon cloves
3 quarts sugar I teaspoon salt

1 J quarts water I large lemon

Wash, pare, and core apples ; cut in halves or quarters.
Cut lemon in slices and each slice in quarters. Bring sugar
and water to boiling point, add lemon, salt, and cloves,
then turn in prepared apples. Bring to boiling point and
cook in fireless cooker six or eight hours. They should
be red and unbroken. Lift out carefully the pieces of
apple and pour over them the juice, which should jelly
slightly. If necessary, juice can be cooked down more
before pouring over apples. Serve very cold for dessert,
with or without cream.

Cider Apple Sauce

1 6 pounds tart apples I quart boiled cider

2 quarts sugar i quart water

Pare, quarter, and core apples; add cider, water, and
sugar. Cover and cook slowly four or five hours. As
amount of sugar varies with kind of apple used, it is well
not to put in all the sugar at first. The sauce should be
thick, mahogany red, and a little tart. Serve with meat.
Cinnamon is sometimes added.

Green Apple Sauce

1 6 pounds green apples 2 quarts water
2 quarts sugar 6 tablespoons butter

i teaspoon salt Almond extract



FRUITS 3

Wash, pare, quarter, and core green apples. Add water
and cook until soft, stirring often to prevent burning.
Add more water if needed, as amount required varies with
kind and age of apple. Rub through puree strainer, add
salt, butter, and sugar, using more sugar if desired. Flavor
sparingly with almond extract.

Spiced Apples

12 pounds tart apples 2j teaspoons cinnamon
I quart water i teaspoon ground cloves

5 cups sugar i teaspoon salt

3 tablespoons butter

Wash, halve, core, and quarter or cut crosswise in one-
fourth inch slices Baldwin or other tart red apples. Put
apples, and sugar mixed with seasonings, in fireless cooker
kettle in layers, dot with butter, pour over hot water, bring
to boiling point on range, and cook four or five hours in
cooker. Or put into stone jars or baking dishes, and cook
slowly three or four hours in oven. The apples should be
mahogany red in color. Serve with roast pork or mutton.

Glazed Apples

2 quarts sugar i peck Baldwin or other

2 quarts water tart red apples

Make syrup of sugar and water. Wash and core apples
and cut crosswise in one-half inch slices. Cook in syrup
until tender and transparent, but not broken. Do not put
in so many at a time as to break or crush them. Drain
and keep hot until ready to serve. More water and sugar
may be added to syrup at anytime if necessary. The syrup
that is left may be used in making apple sauce. Serve with
sausage, bacon, or pork.



4 RECIPES AND MENUS FOR FIFTY

Fried Apples

1 6 pounds tart apples i cups bacon, sausage, or
2 cups sugar pork fat, or butter

I tablespoon salt i teaspoon paprika

Wash, quarter, core, and slice apples. Melt butter or fat
in frying pans, put in apples, sprinkle with salt, sugar, and
papiika. Cover closely, and cook until apples are soft
and slightly browned, stirring occasionally. Serve with
bacon, sausage, or pork chops.

Dried Apple and Peach Sauce

Take equal quantities of dried apples and peaches.
Wash thoroughly, add water to barely cover, let soak over
night, bring to boiling point, and cook two hours, or until
soft, in fireless cooker or on back of range. Rub through
strainer, add sugar and cinnamon to taste. Serve cold.

Stewed Apricots
4 pounds dried apricots 3^ cups sugar

Wash apricots thoroughly. Cover with cold water, soak
over night, and cook slowly in same water, in double
boiler, until soft but not broken. When nearly done,
sprinkle sugar over top, but do not stir.

Baked Bananas

3 cups sugar 9 tablespoons cornstarch

ij teaspoons salt i quarts boiling water

} cup lemon juice 36 bananas

Mix dry ingredients, add water, and boil one minute,
stirring constantly, then add lemon juice. Butter baking



FRUITS 5

dishes. Remove skins from bananas, cut in halves length-
wise, then each half crosswise. Put in baking dishes a
layer of bananas, then a layer of sauce, until all are used.
Cover with buttered crumbs, using three cups soft, stale
crumbs, and three-fourths cup butter. Bake until crumbs
are brown.

Sliced Bananas

4 dozen large, firm, 2 cups powdered sugar

ripe bananas J cup lemon juice

Peel and slice bananas, arrange in serving dishes in
layers, alternating with sugar and lemon juice.

Cranberry Sauce

6 quarts cranberries 3 quarts sugar

ij quarts cold water

Pick over berries, wash in cold water, put into sauce-
pan, add sugar and water. Cover, heat slowly without
stirring. Boil slowly fifteen minutes, or until skins are
tender and juice jellies. Skim if necessary. Serve cold.

Cranberry Jelly

4 quarts cranberries 2 quarts sugar

i quart water

Pick over and wash berries, add boiling water, and boil
twenty minutes. Rub through puree strainer, add sugar,
boil five minutes. Turn into jelly glasses.

Dates

Wash and stone eight pounds dates, steam until tender,
chill, and serve with thin cream for dessert.



6 RECIPES AND MENUS FOR FIFTY

Stewed Figs

6 pounds pulled figs 2 lemons

1 quart sugar Water to cover figs

Wash figs thoroughly, cover with fresh water, and let
soak several hours. Sprinkle sugar over top and cook in
double boiler until figs are tender, adding lemon juice
when nearly done. Do not stir them at all, as that crushes
them, and they should be unbroken. Strain off the liquid
and boil until thick as syrup. Serve cold with whipped
cream for dessert.

Stewed Figs and Rhubarb

6 pounds rhubarb ij quarts sugar

2 pounds figs Water to cover figs

Wash figs thoroughly, add hot water to barely cover,
and soak until plump. Wash rhubarb and cut in inch
pieces without peeling. Put rhubarb, figs, and sugar into
double boiler or fireless cooker kettle in layers, pouring
over them the water in which figs were soaked. Bring to
boiling point and cook until fruit is tender. Serve cold
for breakfast or luncheon.



Stewed Gooseberries

6 quarts gooseberries 2 quarts sugar
2 quarts water

Remove tops and stems and wash berries. Dissolve
sugar in water, bring to boiling point, add berries, and
simmer gently until tender. More water may be added
if desired.



FRUITS 7

Baked Pears

ij pecks pears 2 quarts sugar

if quarts water f teaspoon cloves

Wash, halve, and core pears. Add sugar, water, and
cloves, cover closely, and bake slowly several hours, or
until tender.

Stewed Prunes

5 pounds prunes 5 cups sugar

Wash prunes thoroughly, cover with cold water, and
soak over night or longer. Cook in same water in double
boiler until prunes are soft, adding more water if neces-
sary. Sprinkle sugar over top, but do not stir. Serve
cold. Less sugar may be used if for breakfast.

Stewed Rhubarb

10 pounds rhubarb 3 cups water

2j quarts sugar

Wash rhubarb, cut off imperfect or tough skin, and cut
in one-inch pieces. Put in kettle with sugar and water,
bring to boiling point, and cook slowly on range or in
fireless cooker until tender. One hour or more will be
required in cooker.

Baked Rhubarb
10 pounds rhubarb 3 quarts sugar

Wash rhubarb and cut in inch pieces, removing tough
or imperfect skin. Put in kettle with sugar, let stand an
hour or so, then cook slowly in oven two or three hours.



8 RECIPES AND MENUS FOR FIFTY

Stewed Raisins

Wash six pounds raisins, cover with cold water, soak
several hours, or over night, and stew gently until plump
and tender. No sugar is needed.

Orange Marmalade
I dozen oranges 6 lemons

8 quarts water Sugar

Wash fruit and cut crosswise in very thin slices, remov-
ing seeds. Add water and let stand twenty-four hours.
1 Boil fifteen minutes and let stand another twenty-four
hours. To every quart of mixture add one quart gran-
ulated sugar, boil thirty minutes, or until juice jellies
slightly. Put in sterilized jars and seal, or cover with
paraffine.

Apple Marmalade
6 pounds finely-chopped i| ozs. preserved ginger

apple 6 pounds sugar

6 lemons rind and juice 3 cups water
Pare and core tart, juicy apples before weighing. Boil
sugar and water together three minutes, add grated rind
and juice of lemons, chopped ginger and apple, and cook
slowly two hours, or until fruit is clear. This may be
cooked in fireless cooker.

Spiced Grapes

8 pounds Concord grapes 4 teaspoons each cloves,
8 pounds sugar cinnamon, nutmeg,

ij quarts vinegar and allspice

Wash and stem grapes before weighing. Cook grapes

and vinegar together until skins are tender, strain, add

sugar and spices, and cook until thick.



FRUITS 9

Tomato Relish

1 peck ripe tomatoes 2 teaspoons ground mace

2 cups chopped celery 2 teaspoons cloves

2 cups chopped onions 2 teaspoons cinnamon

4 chopped red peppers 2 teaspoons black pepper

3 cups sugar J pound celery seed
i cup salt 3 pints vinegar

Chop tomatoes finely, drain, and throw away juice.
Mix ingredients well, and seal in sterilized jars. Keep in
cold place, and relish will keep for months without cooking.

Grape Catsup

6 quarts Concord grapes 4 tablespoons allspice

4 pounds brown sugar 4 tablespoons cinnamon
i quart vinegar 4 tablespoons salt

4 tablespoons cloves -J tablespoon cayenne

Wash grapes and pick from stems before measuring.
Cook until soft, rub through puree strainer, add other
ingredients, and boil until of consistency of tomato catsup.
Seal while hot.

Apple Catsup

10 pounds prepared apples 4 teaspoons mustard
3 quarts water 3 tablespoons cinnamon

ij quarts sugar 4 tablespoons salt

3 teaspoons paprika 2 small grated onions

4 teaspoons cloves 2 quarts cider vinegar
Wash, quarter, and core sour apples. Add water, cook

until soft and nearly dry, then rub through puree strainer.
Add other ingredients and cook very slowly for three or
four hours, or until mahogany red in color. Seal while
hot.



IO RECIPES AND MENUS FOR FIFTY

Spiced Crab Apple Jelly

I peck crab apples 3 quarts vinegar

3 tablespoons cloves i quart water

4 tablespoons stick Sugar

cinnamon

If vinegar is very strong, use two quarts vinegar and
two quarts water. Tie spices separately in strong bags.
Cook apples, vinegar, water, and spices together until soft,
strain. Add an equal amount of sugar, boil until it jellies.



BREAD

BREAD is a term applied to a great variety of batter and
dough mixtures, but wheat, in one form or another, is used
in them all. There are many varieties of wheat, of which
the housekeeper should be familiar with the two, winter
wheat and spring wheat. The former is sown in the fall,
remains in the ground all winter, and is harvested the fol-
lowing summer, producing a grain which is poor in gluten
and rich in starch. The latter, or spring wheat, is sown
in the spring and harvested at about the same time as the
former, but the grain is just the reverse of that of winter
wheat, being rich in gluten and poor in starch. Bread flour
is wholly or largely from spring wheats; pastry flour is
from winter wheat and is sometimes called St. Louis flour.

Bread flour is creamy in color and slightly granular in
texture, so that it does not pack when squeezed in the
hand, but falls apart readily when the pressure is removed.
Pastry flour is whiter in color, smoother to the touch, and
is easily pressed into shape in the hand by pressure. As
the amount of gluten in flour determines its price, bread
flour is more expensive than pastry, but it is cheaper in
the end, because a given weight of flour produces a greater
quantity of bread.

Bread flour is always used with yeast ; pastry flour for
all other batters and doughs, unless otherwise specified in
recipe. If, for any reason, it is necessary to use bread flour
instead of pastry, use two tablespoons less flour to each
cup, or two ounces less to each pound. In other words,
seven-eighths of a measure of bread flour is equivalent to
a whole measure of pastry.

ii



12 RECIPES AND MENUS FOR FIFTY

GENERAL DIRECTIONS

Sift all flour before measuring. For shortening use
vegetole, cottolene, cotosuet, or crisco, instead of butter
or lard, because they are cheaper. Both sugar and short-
ening may be omitted and still have a sweet, wholesome
bread, but sugar hastens fermentation and shortening
makes a more tender bread, which is desirable if it is to
be used for toast. At night, after the bread is kneaded,
brush with melted fat, to prevent crust from forming. In
the morning cut down the dough thoroughly with a knife,
or by turning the bread machine, then shape into loaves
without using any flour. If the dough is sticky, dip the
fingers in melted fat. It sometimes happens that rye or
other dark breads are too sticky to mold without flour.
In that case it is better to put the dough into pans with-
out molding or shaping at all. Brush with melted butter
when first put into the pans, to prevent formation of crust
while dough rises, and to give tenderness and flavor to
crust.

All yeast breads should double in bulk before baking.
The oven should be 360 F. when bread is put in the oven
and cooled to 300 after about twenty minutes. The oven
may be tested without a thermometer as follows: Put a
little flour on bottom of oven, close door, and if flour
browns slowly while counting forty, the oven is just right
for bread. Bake sixty minutes for pound loaves. The
loaves should be of a uniform golden brown all over when
done. Remove at once from pans and place on a wire
cooler or on a bread board, with one end of each loaf
raised so as to allow air to circulate around it. Keep in
tightly-closed tin receptacles,



BREAD 13

To MAKE BREAD WITH MIXER

Put into the bread mixer the sugar, salt, shortening,
etc., then add hot liquid. When cool add dissolved yeast
and the flour, which should be measured very accurately,
or weighed, using exactly six quarts or six pounds to two
quarts of liquid. Turn mixer for five minutes or longer.
In the morning, or when light, turn for five minutes.
Shape into loaves, brush with melted butter, let rise again,
bake sixty minutes or till done.

Liquid Yeast

4 medium-sized potatoes J cake dry yeast dissolved
2 tablespoons salt in

4 tablespoons sugar J cup lukewarm water

2 quarts water

Boil potatoes and mash fine ; add salt, sugar, and water
in which potatoes were cooked, adding more water, if
necessary, to make two quarts. When cool, add dissolved
yeast. Keep in warm place till light, then in a cold place,
if it is not to be used at once. Use this yeast in place of
other liquid, in making bread. Bread made in this way
rises quickly and is very tender and moist, although it
becomes moldy more quickly in hot weather than that
made with dry yeast.

White Bread

I quart milk 4 tablespoons sugar

I quart water 2 tablespoons salt

i yeast cake dissolved in CU P shortening
J cup lukewarm water 5^ to 6 quarts flour
Scald milk, add sugar, salt, shortening, and hot water,
cool till lukewarm. Add dissolved yeast and flour gradu-



14 RECIPES AND MENUS FOR FIFTY

ally, beating hard at first. When stiff enough, take out on
well-floured board and knead till smooth and springy. Put
back into well-greased mixing pan, brush with melted
shortening, let rise over night. In the morning shape into
loaves, but do not put any flour on board. Brush with
melted butter, let rise till double in bulk, bake sixty minutes
in moderately hot oven. This quantity makes six large
loaves.

Potato Bread

2 quarts boiling water I quart mashed potato
2 tablespoons salt I yeast cake dissolved in

4 tablespoons sugar J cup lukewarm water

4 tablespoons shortening 5^ to 6 quarts flour
Mash hot boiled potato, or use cold mashed potato, put-
ting it through the potato ricer if lumpy. Add boiling
water, salt, sugar, and shortening. When lukewarm, add
yeast and flour, beating well until stiff enough to knead.
Let rise over night, put into well-greased tins, brush with
melted butter, let rise till double in bulk, bake sixty minutes
in moderately hot oven.

Graham Bread

I quart hot milk I yeast cake dissolved in
f quart hot water J cup lukewarm water

i cup molasses 3 quarts flour

I 1 tablespoons salt Graham flour to knead

Sift Graham flour, but mix bran with it again before
measuring. Put molasses and salt into mixing pan, add
liquid. When cool add dissolved yeast and flour to knead.
Let rise over night, shape into loaves, brush generously
with melted butter. When risen to double its bulk, bake
about sixty minutes in moderate oven.



BREAD 15

Entire Wheat Bread

I quart scalded milk f cup sugar

1 quart hot water i yeast cake dissolved in

2 tablespoons salt J cup lukewarm water
J cup shortening i quart white flour

5 quarts entire wheat flour

Put sugar, salt, and shortening into mixing pan, add
hot liquid and cool. Add yeast, white flour, and entire
wheat flour. When smooth and elastic to touch, put into
greased mixing pan, let rise over night. In morning shape
into loaves, brush with melted butter, let rise to double its
bulk, bake from fifty to sixty minutes in moderately hot
oven. If dough is too soft to handle in morning, cut down
well with knife and turn into bread tins without taking
on to the bread board.

Rye Bread

I quart hot milk 4 tablespoons shortening

1 quart hot water i yeast cake

2 tablespoons salt 3 quarts white flour
i-J cups brown sugar 3 quarts rye flour


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Online LibraryFrances Lowe SmithRecipes and menus for fifty → online text (page 1 of 13)