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land.

At one hearing, it was ordered: Itt is ordered tiialt brotiier Vllwatti
I note spelling) and Htibt Hill shall be exempted fro watch in their own
persons. b\ reason of their bod\iy iiifirinitNes. \ett so as to fiiule each of
the-fii a man to watch their roume."

hi I(kI(). Thomas Kugill. first secretary of tlie Colony, was disinissed
from his office and excommunicated from the New Haven CIiiik li. for
*faU\f\ing of ortlers and records' and thcreb\ securing 52 acres dl land to
which he was not entitled.

In the list of estate (p. 93 I with the names uf "I'lanters," we find the
following listings:

*■ 'persons - acres - Ist.div. - neck - meadow - 2nd-yearely rate.
•Josuah Attwater' 2 .S(U) 20 f K. 61 01-11-06

•l)a\id Altwater" 1 500 2414 141 1-11-14'

During one of these sessions, the Courte sentenced 'Richard lido. Iialli
bine a false \nfaitliful servant to his Master' and alst) 'Thomas Meekes lor
stealing, receiving >tidlen goods, and intertaining \ iiniting mens scr\aiits
. . . to drink >trong waiter' and 'conceule it. etc.

'rherf<»re the sentenc of ye Court is that Thomas Meekes |>a\i' twcniv
{Miunds as a fine for these misdemenours and miscariages. and when lido
and SlojMT i- whipped, he and his wife are to come to ve whi|)ping post, and
••tan«l ther. pulling each of them one hand inlo \e hole t)f tlu- post wliill \c
other are whipped: thai lhr\ mas haue part of \e shame \m li their simi
deserxeth: and to gi\e security U>v the fine, or pa\e it prescntK. and to pay

the due charges of the prison."

• • « • *

On the '.inih uf the (>' M..11: 1611" a! a Ccnrll Court hearing: "Mr.
(.foudu'are propounded hi> purchase n| Mi. I ainl- I, land In lln |(j\uii'. Imll
itt was notl acce|ited. "

*"'N«<w calli-<l .*^heller Uland. Mr. (»(MMl\iarc . . . [uik lia-cd \la\ 1 <">.
I6II. and Mdd it Juik* *). I6.SI. to Thomas Middleton. 1 liomn'- llonx'. Con-
-t - '\f»ter and Nathaniel S\l\esler. for !(»(»() Ih^ of good, hick lianlaMc

Mii«' •^^ .ido Sugar."

First li<pior license i>>-iii(l.
".Alt a Gen Court held alt Newha\<n. the U>tli of Iniic. 161-5.

"lit Han or«lerrd that if any person or persons, whether directly or
indirrrtlv. in this lowne shall m-II wine bv rcta\le of <|iiarls or pinles or the
like, after 11 «ia\es ne\t cnsticitig be expired. wllnMit license, he or they
^hall 1m> puninhed att the discretio (d the court.

"Will \n«lrew!« Iicens4*d to draw wine and to '-ell |i\ ntavle."

"It ij» ordered that whos<»e\er findelh aii\ thing lost w( li is of \allew &



ATWATER GENEALOGY 15

fit to be restored to the owner, shall williin three days deliver it to the
niarshall who shall safly keepe the ihiiiji ... 6. shall cry it twice oiiii tin;
lecture dayes foUowinge ... a third lime on a laire dav . . . and the niarshall
shall have & receive fnun llic owner, a peini) a day for soe crying it."

"A Generall ("ourl llie 2()th of \o\ciiil)er. 161.!!. The Governor a((|iiaiiil('(l
the court wlh & read a letter wch he had received from \c ( oininittee of Ixith
houses of parlimciit.'"

"*This letter referred to in "New Ha\en case stated." and was "fnr
freeing the se\eral distinct colonies of New Kngland from molestation l)\ the
appealing of trouhle-sonie spirits unto llngland. whereby the\ declared that
they had dismissed all causes depending before them from New England, and
that the) advised all iidiabitanls to submit to their respective go\ rriiiiicnis
there established, and to aciiuiescc when their causes shall be there heard and
determined.' The letter was signed b\ l*end)roke. W. Say and Seale. Man-
chester. Fr. Dacre. & Warwick, Denbigh."

In m\ two okl \olumes of New Ha\en Coloii\ llecords ib'M'> to 1662 —
we find numerous references concerning Joshua and David. Except for her
listing in the seating arrangements, there is no reference to Ami in the
above records, or for that matter in any (d tlie other histories about the
Colony.

Joshua, of course, was the most outstanding of the brothers, engaging
in many activities. Our efficient compilers of the |)ast have reached the
conclusion that his progeny finally died-out without issue. This confirms the
well-established theory that we all stem from David. With tine last item
about Joshua, we will proceed to chronicle a few David stories from the
records.

In the "List of Officials. Civil. Military, and Ecclesiastical of . . . New
Haven Colony" compiled in 19.'^5. for the Tercentenarx . we find the b)llowing:

"'ATWATER. Joshua (D. 16761 Clerk New Haven Train Band. Aug.
1642 (resigned July 16441. Treasurer. New Haven Colonv."

JUDGE (New Haven I. June 1652. Mav 1653. May 1654. (Removed to
Boston)."

It is claimeti that ""Daxitl was the first intli\itlual to take the Freemans
Oath. We believe this refers to Newhauen. However, we do know that twenty
plantors lioni our <dl<in\ wen! to Hartford, in Mav of 1665. Imt "were sent
home as re|)udiated. after they had suffered the difficulties and hazards of
an uncomfortable and unsafe journe\ in that wet season."

In the following year — May 8. 1666 — "Mr. Jones acquainted ilic iown
that Mr. Sherman was now in town ... in pursuance of the General Assend)l\s"
order of last, to tender the freemans oath to our present freemen, and to
as many others of the town as should orderb present themselves & be found
fit. But there were only Mr. Henrv Rutherford. llenr\ Glover. Mr. Thomas
Yale, John Winston. Mr. James Russell. Ralph Fines. Francis Brown, Jeremiah
Osborne and Henry Bristow took the oath, and that according to the terms
of our submission."



16 ATWATER GENEALOGY

It was (luring this period that New Haven Plantation united willi
Connecticut t Hartford > Plantation, with the tiefinite agreement ihat cm\\
town should remain a capital.

Training in the Market-Place and keeping watili were two duties of all
Church-Court mend»ers. unless exempt. "John Beiduim informed the courte
that he was fined hy the courte for neglecting to warn Dauid Attwater to
watch. It was l»\ the secrelarie that then was. entred 5s. hut it was hut 2s:6d.
and seing diners dt>e rememher it wa- hut 2s:(»tl. the courte agreeil tluil he
should pave no mure."

■"Dauid Attwater entred an action against .Mathias llitchcocke. for 10
pounds well the said Malliias llitchcocke re;ea\ed of Dauiil Atwatter. for
tlie service of Thomas W liiteliead for four vi'ars and eiglite nioneths. wch
Mathias llitchcocke could uol performe. he not haueiiig a full right to dispose
of the saide Thomas . . . hut now the said Thomas declareth himeselfe w iiling
to ahide w'.h his master Daxiil Atwatter. till he ma\e heare from his \nkeil.
so he ma\e haue just satisfaction for the time ti» come, so Kuige as he sla\eth
will hime. Th.ey hothe agreed hefore the courte. that he should haue 3 pounds
a yeare. nieate. drinke and clothes."

"David Atwaler. Richard Mansfield, is to finde each of tiicni a iium to
watch at the towne in regarile of ther house lots heare.

W h\ the 'Courte' reijuired owners of vacant house lots, to suppK a man
for watch is l>evond our comprehension. This original precaution \\a> insti-
gated to he read\ for ari\ emergenc \ . Ilii\s(\ri. (Hii Colonists were more
fearful of the Dutch than the Indians or other ( ala^lropin .

There was a fight with the I)ut( h over Stamford. ' Tlic l)nt( li authorities
at New Amsterdam reported to their superiors in Holland lliat "KodtMdterg'
or New Ha\en. contained, elexen vears after it was louiulcd. aliont I..'>1()
families. But. though affirmed of New Haven town, it nuist lune hcen . . .
their informant's estimate of the population of the Coloiu."

He died in 1692. He had out-lived most of the original planters who
arrived on the Hector in 1637. David's farm — known as Attwater East Farms
- was on the west side of Ouimiipiac or New lla\en.



The Collet^iate School

Later to III' know n
as

Yale Collei^e

On (ihristnuis Dav. in l<ill. al Town Meeting, a |iio|i(.>.al was made lo
e^lahlish 'wIuioIh for all. wliere lh«' rudimi-nt^ of kn<iw ledge might he gained.
mIhmiI.h where learned languages might he taught: a pnlili< lilnaix: and to
crown all. a college in vshich \oiing miglil In- filled joi |iuMi( -.er\ iie in
f'hur«-h and Stale.'

lAwniuiTv stale!* in his 'Uepuhlic of \iu llavcn": 'School-. |iiiMic and
private, whifh were alwav^ maintained in Nm Ihnm. |iio|i,il>l\ IoiukI iIk ir
prololvjM*** and mo«|e|'. in the collegia \\lii< li cxi-tcd oi IimI rxi'-icd. m ihc
mother town** of \shford. (loventrv and Londmi.



ATWATER GENEALOGY 17

As Joshua Attwater had been a successful mercer of Ashford and
prominent in its affairs, it was natural for him to be the first one to propose:
'An offering of a peck of wheat or the \ahic of same, from everyone whose
heart is willing' toward assistance U)r 'poor scholars at Har\ard College."

Some New England historians claimed that this contribulion was proposed
by Joshua for 'a school lor higher learning' at New Haven. In aii\ c\ciil.
we know thai when he became Treasurer of the Hcpnlilic Joshua had a
standing order passed at Town Meeting, requiring that such contributions
be in the form of a tax.

The first school master, is said to have been Ezekill Cheever, a Latin
scholar, author oi 'Shoil Introduction To The T.atin Tongue.' He resided
with "young Joshua Attwater, late of Kent, and now Treasurer of the Colony,
who looked down on the Square "from his great mansion, where Osborn Hall
now stands." Under a court ruling Joshua was to be paid five schillings per
week for housing the teacher.

Joshua's plea for a school of higlicr learning for ihe Coloii\ Imall) took
root. In 1647. other powerful members of the 'church-state' hierarchy joined
him in the movement. It was decided the time had come for a college of
their own. Later, the Colony granted eight acres of Joseph Peck's land in
New Haven, to the Collegiate School provided 'if settled here and so long
as it shall remain here.'

But this was the year in which a number of the more ])rosperous planters
— including some of the Attwaters — lost a sizable stake, for that age. in the
strange disappearance of one of their trading ships. 'The Phantom Ship' by
Longfellow, immortalizes this episode in New Haven shipping history. (See
under French Spoliation Claims.)

So it was not until 1660 that the college project received a new lease
of lile. This happened thru the generous action of Governor Hopkins of
Coimecticut. In his will, the Governor put aside a sizable amount for the
establishment of a college. John Davenport was named as one of the trustees.
When the union between New Haven and Connecticut became a certainty.
Davenporl nioxed. about 1670. to Boston, dissatisfied with ihe union and
new teri(leii(ies in the Co|on\.

A large portion ol ihe funds collected by Joshua Attwater and others
went toward the support of the 'Collegiate School" in Branford and The
Hopkins Graimnar S( hool" in \ew Haven.

It was not until 1701. when the Colonial AssembK. meeting in New
Ha\en. passed an act. dated October 9th. establishing a college, diat ihe
'Collegiate School' was ollicially recognized. This came about thru the
indefatigable efforts of the Rev. James Pierpont. Pastor ai the First Church
of New Ha\en. Nine other ministers, as listed herein, joined him in the
petition to the Colonial Assendih . He has. at times, been called the Pounder
of Yale.



18 ATWATER GENEALOGY

The others were: *Rev. Samuel Andrew of Milfonl. \\\u> for several
years Has a resident Fellow and Tut«ir at Harvard, where lu- gained great
reputation as a scholar and as an instrutti>r. ami later became the second
Keetor of Yale.

Ke\ . Thomas Buckingham, of Sayhrook. a nali\e of Milford. educated at
Hopkins School in New Ha\en ami long recognized as one of the most able
men in the Colony.

Kev. Irrail Chauncey. of Stratford, stm of the second presi.li iil ul Harvard
and at <tne time teacher in the Hopkins School of New llaviii. \ iiuiti of
\aried gifts, who beside his standing as a clergyman, had a high reputation
for medical skill as well as general scholarship.

Ke\ . Sanmel Mather, of \\ indsor. closely connected with the < clchratcd
Mather family of Boston and exceptionally successful as a pastor.

Ke\ . James Noyes, of Stonington. the leading minister of (he CoIoiin. and

the one usualK in\ ited to preside as Moderator at councils and < it her jneetings

of the I lerg\ .

Kev. \braliam I'ierson. of Kciiilworth. >oii ut the |iiiii(i|)al Idiiiidfr ^>i

Newark. N. J., who on coming to Connecticut, look a jUdiiiiiRiil place at

once anu>ng the ministers of the Colon) and was known as an able scholar

and later became the first Rector td ^ ale.

Hex. Noadiah Russell, of Middletowii. a native of New llaveii. where his

parents had been among the original settlers.

Re\. Joseph Webb, of Fairfield, where he had settled hut a few vears prior

to 1700.

Rev. Timothy W oodbridge. ol llailtoKh than whom no niini-tiT in the

(.olonv had a higli«-r n'|iutalion hir leaniinji. |oi wi^chmi in ( oun.-< I. and

for public >pirit. and lia<l gained more completelv the puhlit ( iinfidiMu c.

At this time. New Haven was part of Connecticut. Seven (d the niiinsters
came from sections that had formed the oiijiinal New lla\en IIe|iiiMii .' Il
was natural. lhereb»re. with the Kev. James I'ieipoiit a> leader, that \ew
Haven was <-hoosen. a> the >ile for the college. b\ the niajorilv. \> reniarkid
by one member of ihc Assemblv : "We on purpose gave vour ai adeniv as
low a name as we c«iuld. that it ndglil lietler ^land in wind and wealhi'r."

I lie 'I rustees met at Savbrook and organi/ed on \o\cinher II. I7(M.
Jacob Heminway was the first student. The lir>l graduate was Nathaniel
(Jiaunce> of ."^Iratford. F.iglit >-tuderil>- re<ji-lered under one tutor in Septeni-
Ut of 1702.

During the next fourteen vears niueli di-eord aro^-c llmi the Ink id
pro|M-r meeting arrangemenl<-. In the begimdng. sludenl- weic loricd to
travel to Milford to Piernon's hom<'. Ami in llie second ncior's perioil. the

home of Sanujel .'\n«lrew lia<l to be visiird [or l<i Inn - . \\ \\\r la-l ( nienee-

ment hr|«| in ."^avbrook iJTUm ihe orilv tutor resigned. Mudeiiis were
diotributrd throughout the entire Ctdonv.



ATWATER GENEALOGY 19

With Hartford using every means — including Legislaluc inlliicnce — to
secure the college, the Trustees acted promjilK. I liey ordered the erection,
in New Haven, of a College Hall and Hector's house: ordcicd all >lii(lciils
to report at New Haven and elected two tutors.

The first 'College' huilding — at the corner of Chapel and College Sts.,
was 170 feet long. 22 feet wide and M) feet high. 1 luce stories high, with a
steep-roofed attic, it was huill entirclv of wood. Il ( oiilained a "lihrary. with
large Chapel which was also used as a (lining iiall. kitchen and 20 suites of
rooms for students.'

Leaders in Wethersfield, Saybrook and Branfoid rebelled against '('onrt
Acts' and also against the action of the trustees in ordering the building
buih in New Ha\en. Main of the hundreds of library books, of the Collegiate
School, were distributed in homes in the above mentioned towns. The follow-
ing is a report of the episodes inxolving the return of the library to New
Haven :

"HIS HONr the GOVr hearing of the refusal of th.' Libiar\ calls
together the Council to Saybrook, where they ordered Mr. Buckingham in
whose house they were to deliver . . . but he refused, then after pains taken
with him by perswasion to no pirpose, they bound him o\er to answer to
the next Genl Court in 100 pound bond, and innnediately ordered the
Sheriff to SIEZ the BOOKS, who went according but met with such opposition
that he returned again and took new' orders with him to break doors and
call assistance, which he did and broke the door of Mr. Buckinghams house
and entered and seizd the Librar) and it was guarded all niglit and |n(i\ision
was made next day for the Transporting of it by Carts, but in the night the
Carts were broken and confounded and oxen turn<'d away; nevertheless they
made new provision and the next day under ye Major of Ye County's
Conduct, they were transported out of the Town, and some of the opposers
that talked sausily were bound o\er to the tiext County Court.

"The books tho' they met with opposition b\ the wa\ in tiiat some of
the bridges were broken up, yet in three days they arrived at ye Colledg at
New Haven, about ye beginning of Decendir. but we found about 260
wanting: however ail we had being above a 1000 VOLLUMS of choice books
we fixed up in order in ve Library."

Middletown had also tnade a strong bid to secure the school. But Gov.
Saltonstall. a firm friend of iIh' college idea. iikUk rd the General Assembly
to pass the following resolution:

'That under the present circumstances of the affairs of die Collegiate
School, the reverend trustees be advised to proceed in thai affair: and to
finish the house they have built in New Haven, for the entertainment of die
scholars belonging to the Collegiate School.'

As early as 1701 — Novendier II th — a nundxT of books were Inongbl
by each trustee to the meeting and presenting them to the grouj) wtjuld su) :
'I give these books for the founding of a college in Connecticut.'



ll
as



20 ATWATER GENEALOGY

In inv Yale Genealug). piildished in I'Mi;'.. under a picture of Eliliii
Vale, is the caption— ( FOl.NDEK OF ^ ALF LiMYKKSlTYi. Nuu I, i us
rexievs the facts to ascertain the truth tir altsurilit\ of this claim.

The Collegiate School had been in exislejice for many years l)efore Elihu
\aie made aii\ response to tiie numerous recjuests that had been made* for
his assistance. As an Atwater descendant. \ ou s!u;i II know llial Klilui was
the third child of l)a\ id \ ale, one of the original planters of the New
Ha\en Ct»li»n> .

ApparentK. Daxid Yale must have considered the "Church-State hierarchy"
in New Haven not to his liking, as we lincl liini cslaMl-lnd in Boston as
earl\ IWl. And there is no doubt about his ci\ il and religious difliculties
in the home of the "bean and the cod." Not being in sympatin willi loi
laws, nor religious dogma of the colonists. I)a\icl look personal action, a
a n»eml>er of the established Church of England. Inducing six others to join
him. a reMilutionar\ petition was presented to the (iiMieral ('ourt of Massa-
chux'tts Ha\. The appellants oltjected to the ■non-admission to llic churches.
id thoM' who acknowledged the established religion of England, and at the
non-participation of the inhabitants, who were not members of the colony
I hurch. in the management of ci\il alfairs. as voters and oiiicc holders.'

'The authorities of Massachusetts* were not icaiU tor >uch a rc\ohi-
tionar\ change. The petitions most offensive clause was a threat ol apjjcal
til the parliamentar\ gc(\ernment in England. Vnd they were nol satisfied
with a carefulb drawn argument but included a hue of 8600. wli'h li David
^ ale had to pa\. He returned to England in K).S1. His second >uii. l.liliu.
Imrn in Boston on April 5. 1019. returned willi lii> mother and Jirollier
l)a\id. to England in 16.52.

As a vcjung gentleman. Elihn lived llnii one ut the iiio-t liii luiii'iil [iciiods
of England's checkered lii>tor\. There was the rise and tall ot ()li\cr.
Cromwell's regime: the IJestoration : the phiiiue and the (ireal lire, ll was
al.«»<» the heyday of Milton. |)r\den. .|eiiin\ Ta\lor. llirliard Baxter. George
Fox and \\ ni I'eiin.

I In- East Indian (]ompan\ racket, whieh li.id Imiii e-lalili-lieil li\ a

I from that notorious Elizabelh. the l-ii-l. now attra( led llie iiileresl td
i.unu ^ ale. I he interesting stor\ ol his reign, as (.overnoi. Im li\e \ears.
ul Madras, accunuilating a birtune of ■.5(1(1.(1(10 pagoda-': lii- removal irom
•dlicc b\ the CumpatiN : and mimc-roiis liiaU. imhidimj one loi miiider :
dfn-* not picture *the founder id ^ ale" as a \ei\ uoiihs hein Im -m li an linnor.
Had one of hln groom- hung for riding a lavorile lioi-e ol lii> uilhoiil
|MTniiHsiiin. i

It wax thru the idfnrts of jeremiali hiinnnii. a^ent in London, for
l'ro% WHT «d M.t - ,ii huM-tt- Ba\ and the ( !olon\ o| ( ^onnei I i( nl. lli.il (>o\. ^ ale
iM'camr inlere-led in the Collegiate .School. During 1711. \li. Diinnnei wrote
the I{rv. Jumes i'ierpoiit. the actual founder of ^ ale- (College, .-nggesling the
pos-^ihility of iM-'curing funds from the 'former Governor of Fort St. (ieorge.'



ATWATER GENEALOGY 21

Despite the Reverend's schdlaiK and |)crsisteiit appeals, no progress was
made with this man. who was now trying to huild character, until Cotton
Mather's memorable letter ot the 14th of January. 1718:

'Sir.' said he. "though \ ou have felicities in vour fainih. which. 1 prav.
God continue and multiply, yet certainly, if what is forming at New Haven
might wear the name of YALE COLLEGE, it would he better than a name
of sons and daughters. And your munificence might easil\ obtain for \ ou a
commemoration and per])etuation of Nour valual)le name, uliicli would indrcd
be much better than an l'.g\ptian pyramid.'

Those capital letters nmst have caught the eye of this op|)ortunist. for
within six months 'three bales or trunks of valual)le goods' arrixed in Boston,
from Elihu \ ale. to be sold for the benefit of the School. There was also a
'fulldength })ortrait of King George L, by Kneller.' (said at present to be in
the College collection): 'an escutcheon representing the ro\al arms, which
was destroyed in the Revolution, and a large box of books.' In the invoice,
some of the materials were listed as follows: '25 pieces of garlix. 18 pieces
of calico. 17 pieces of worsted goods, 12 pieces of Spanish poplin. 5 pieces
of plain muslin. 3 pieces of camlet, and 2 of black and white silk crepe.'

While the Yale Genealogy puts a very high value on Elihu's sole contri-
bution to the School, most writers agree the goods sold for $560. after
having been inventoried at 200 pounds.

"We were favored and honored.'* writes Tutor Johnson, on that bright
September morning of 1718. "with the presence of his Honor Governor
Saltonstall and his lady, . . . Lieutenant Governor and the whole Superior
Court, a great number of reverend ministers and a great concourse of specta-
tors. The trustees, meeting in the new building first most solemnlv in the
sonorous Latin periods still spread upon their records, 'named our college
by the name of Yale College . . . upon which the Hon. Col. Tailer, who had
been sent over by Queen Anne as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts Bay,
and who in anticipation of these festivities had made the toilsome journey
from Boston, represented Governor ^ ale in a speech, expressing his great
satisfaction."

A ])rofuse and 'painful' ( ? I letter of thanks was of course forwarded lO
the donor. Duinmi r later reported 'liiat the old gentleman was more than a
little pleased — saving that lie expressed at first some kind of concern whether
it was well in him. being a churchman" (sic) 'to promote an Academy of
Dissenters.

Elihu now agreed, verballv of course, to give the College £200 sterling,
per annum, as long as he li\ed. This was to be continued after his death.
Within a month, according to Dunnner. he had broken his promise. How-
ever, in 1721, Elihu Yale claimed he had sent goods to the College, valued
at £100. There is no record of this shiiMnent — if it did arrive. He left an
unsigned will, containing a clause with a bequest of £500 to the College. Mr.



22 ATWATER GENEALOGY

Duminer. despite his- Ju^llllal•le pleas, failed to induce the heirs to reropnize
it as a valid le^ae\.

The ^ ale Genealogy refers, here anil there, to llie Governor's niarilal
status. While Klihu married Catharine Klford Hynmers at Madras, in lOoO.
the Genealogv 'admits — that he also was living* there, in iniinoial relations
nith a Mrs. Nieks and a Mrs. Pavia. tin- latter a Portuguese Jewess.' Mrs.
H\nnjers is described as *a eopper-colt>red native of India." But recent his-
torians have placed Mrs. Hynmers as Knglish. even tlutugh thev admit -he
might have Keen Portuguese and a Jewess!

i'here were manv men. during those earlv vears of the Collegiate School.
v%hu gave much time and suhstancc to the -iiccc^s of the College project:
Joshua Attwater. John Davenport, (/ovcnior li«i|ikin> aiitl niaiiv others. \ii(l
finallv. there was the Kev. James Pierpont. wlm inlluenced the AsseniliU.
managed the Trustees, with perseverance and diplonuuv. and tliialK hroughl



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