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about the action that culminated in the building in New Haven.

Kev. James Pierpont shoulil have been recognized as the founder of ^ ale.

The name *Vale College' was changed [o "^ ale I niversitv in UkI.. bv
authority of the General Assend)lv of the State of (Mmneclieiit.

The Charter Oak Incident

liitil about 16.5H New Haven liail a|i|)areiitl\ not liiveii imicli tlidiiiilit to
obtaining a charter from Kngland. liiil about that lime some tlioii<ilit \\a>-
given this matter, it did not seem Ion urgent and a- tlie -itiiatioii in iMiiilaiid
at that time was not favorable the niatler was (lro|i|ie(l.

-About U>f»n llie Comieclicnt <-o|on\. \\lii(li comprised ol llartlord.
Windsor, and W etlier-liehi. b-ll that it \\a- liighlv desirable that a ( liarter he
obtaincil. giving iheni title to the land tiicx had seltl<Ml. (^>nse(|iieiitl\ in JiiK.
l(>(d their Governor. John \\ inlhrop. Jr. was sent to Kngland to attiiii|il to
obtain a charter for (ionncelimt. ( )n lii>- wa\ he sto|i|ie(l at N(\\ llavcn to
discuss the matter with it^ leaders. There appear^ lo \<r no icidid ol am
un<lrrstanding having been n'ached. Imt there seem^ rea-oii lo Ik Tu \c lliat
New Haveir» G«ivernor. William l.ei-le. \Na- in la\oi ol having: llie (.liarter
include both colonies.

\\ inthrop was successful in ubiaining a favoiahli' i liailei tr<mi King
Chari<f> II in k/»2. Howev«'r. when the New ilaxeii (,o|on\ learned lint il
iMnbraied both the (loimecticut and New Haven i dlonies. much oppoi-itioii
Ha»» voice*! and an ap|)cal was niailc to the King. Mv late U»()l mm li oi the
o|j|>ot«ition hud been ipiieled and certain eonipromis<'s made li\ liotli ( nlonies
Ml that on l)rcend>er l.i. HiM New Haven held its last Court. loi iIm pinpose
of li-nninalinf{ the colonv. < )m januarv .S. 166.S Ni w Haven wioii ilie
Conncfiicut Ass4Mnb|y declaring subnnssion llirnln ami m iIm -|iiin^ o| jlial
ypar four magistrates were s<miI to the ( lonni-etieul Assenddv.


On December 20. 1686 Sir Edmond Andros arrived in Boston with a
commission from the King appointing him Coxcnior of all \cu England. In
order to extend his governing over Connecticut he wrote several letters to the
Governor of Connecticut requesting the surrender of the Connecticut Charter.
The request was l)rought before the Assembh and il stalled on direct
compliance. Einally on October 22, 1687 Andros announced that he would
send or come himself to pick up the Charter. On October 26 he left Boston
attended by eight members of his Council and guards and arrived in Hartford
late in the afternoon ot October .HI where they were met by Conned iciit
Governor Treat and his staff. Andros proposed that they dine first, after wlii( li
the) meet in the Council Chand>er. He graciously invited Governor Treat, the
Deputy Governor, and the Secretary of the Council to dine with him.

At the meeting after the dinner were the Connecticut Officials and twentv-
four of the thirty-four elected deputies, among whom were Moses Mansfield
and Abram Dickerman of New Haven. A member of Andros' partv read the
King's command to Andros to annex Connecticut to his government of Massa-
chusetts. The Charter was then brought forward and handed to Governor
Treat, who snipped the thong with which the Charter was tied, unrolled il.
and laid it on the table. Governor Treat then made a speech setting forth
what the Charter meant to Connecticut and expressed his con\i(tioti of the
illegality of these proceedings. John Wadsworth of Hartford llirti lollowcd
with a sjjeech backing up the remarks of the Governor. He was followed by
Andros who made some tactful remarks. It is then recorded that Andrew
Leete, son of William Leete. the former Governor of New Haven, got up and
was in the midst of a blistering attack on the King's actions with respect to
Connecticut when a sudden commotion occurred.

It is not entirely clear as to just what happened at this pdint. One
account has it that Andrew Leete was taken suddeidv ill and pitched forward
onid the table upsetting the candelabra and extinguishing the candles, while
another report has it that a sudden gust of wind coming in through the open
window extinguished the candles. During the momentary darkness until the
candles could be relighted the Charter disappeared from the table. One report
states that the Charter was snatched from the table and passed to .Tos(>ph
Wadsworth who was standing outside the open window, who took it to the
house of Samuel Wyllys. on whose j)roj)erty stood a large oak tree. Fhcre
was no one home but Mistress Wyllys. who suggested that the Charter be hid
in a hollow of their oak tree. The Charter reposed in ll:c lice until a safer
place was found and (lie tree was known lliiTcal'icr ;i> the ('JKirtcr Oak.

When the candles were relighted Andros saw thai the Charter had
disappeared and noting that no one had left tlic room lie realized he had
been tricked, but made the best of the situation and announced there seemed
to be no further occasion to conlirnie the nic(>ting. Thus. th<^ Connrcfirnt
Charter was saved.

— George Franklin Atwater (2066)



Rev. Edward E. Atwater of New Haven

No. 732

It is fitting that all thost- who hear the Atwater family name should
make the acquaintance of KdwanI K. i l!!16-l!>77 1 . f<»r each owes him a
debt whether he knows it or not.

K^iuard Klia!» Atwater was a native of Ncu ll;i\cii. (lomi.. uhcic he was
iMirii May 2U. \i'>\(>. the son of Klihu and Jiiha I.. Tliompsoii Alwa'.cr. He
attended ^ ah*, graduating in IJ5.U). and in lli<- follow in-: \car cnlercd ilic


Theological Departiiunt of Yale College. He was ordained a Congregational
minister in 1!)41. spending eight vears until 11! P) in Raxeiina. Oliin. 'I lie
following year he spent in foreign travel and. in io52. was installed [jaslor
of the Congregational Church in Salem Falls ( Rollingsford I. New Hampshire.
Five years lal(M- li(> returned to New Haven and Imilt u|) a new cliurcli in
the eastern pari ot llie cil\. This new congregation was (Hgani/cd in lo03
and he served as its pastor until 1870 for the remaining years of his active

We of the faniiU know liini lu'sl lor the cunlriliulinns he ni;;di' nj an
historical and genealogical nature, uk sll\ in llic liter years <d lii~ life.
Beginning in lo51 he published "A Genealogical Hegistcr ol llic I )(>c,i(lants
in the Male Line of David Atwater, One of the Original Planters of New
Haven. Conn., to the Fifth Generation." Copies of this first edition are
rare indeed. 1 he writer is most grateful to Charles Hol)art Attwater of
Santa Monica. California, for an opportunity to examine his copy, which
he naturalh \alues highly. A few quotations from the prefaced "Notice"
and "Introduction" will reflect the care and industi\ of our first family
genealogist who must have begun his labors more than 200 years after the
arrival of the first members of the family in America in 1637.

"The following Register has been prepared for llic gratification of
manv of the descendants of Da\ id Atwater, who have expressed a desire to
trace the line of their descent from him. Great care has been taken to make
it correct: some errors, however, may possibly be found, and unquestionably
there are many omissions . . .

"In regard to the orthography of the name, usage differs; some willing
Atwater. and others Attwater. The men who hrouglil llic name to this ccmntry
have, each with his own hand, written it upon llic l'ul>li( Records of llif
New Haven Colony — the one Uavid Atwater and the other Joshua Atwater —
in neither case using the letter "T" more than twice. Fugill. how(-\cr. the
first clerk of the Cojoiu. wherever he has the occasion to write the name.
uses "T" three times. If llic orthographical ([uestion is carried farther back
than the first introduction of the name into America, it will be found that
the name was originallv written Attewater. in which form it may be found
in Doomsdav Book, like its cognates Attewdl. \ttewood and some others
uliicli !ia\c now Icsl the prefix, as Attetow nscnd. \fterward lltf fir-l ""K"
was dropped, and the name was written \llwalcr. as is gcncralK il not
universallv w ritten in Flngland to this da\ .

"it has been found impossible to designate those branches of the family
who differ from the more commonlv recei\ed method of spelling, which
is Atwater . . ,

"Joshua Atwater and l)a\ id Atwater were among the first planters of
New Haven, as their autographs in the first volume of the Town Records
sufficiently prove.


"Tradition says that the family of Joshua, in the male line, sihui lui aine
extinct: and all researches yet made serve to confirm it. He was prohahly a
married man at the time of his emigration, as his family is mimhered as
iHo i^K-rsons in the list of planters. If this he so. he soon lost liis wife, for he
married Mar\ Blackman. the daughter of a clergyman in Stratford. May
6. Uol. h\ vshoni he had two sons and one or more daughters . . . l'rt'\i«>us
lo 1W»5. or earl\ in that \t*ar. he removed to Bost«>n. as in a lU'cA dalcd
in that \ear. I'\ wiiiih he conveyed to his hrother l)a\ id his house and
lands in New Haven, he descrihes himself as ■jn-lma \t\\atir dl Ho^tun.
New England."

"if it be true that the famiK of Joshua in the male line became extinct.
all in .America who bear the name of Atwater are descendants of Da\ id. None
ha\e \et been found ului rouM n<it trace their lineage. li\ means <il this
register, to him."*

This UiSl volume lists six males in tlic m'i mnl >:fn('ratiiin. >t\ i iilciii
in the third, thirty-four in the fourth, and fifty-four in llic filth generations.
In the loTl revision of this document the comitiler adds a few itnns of lainih
hi^tor^. but in a verv modest ua\.

The Hev. .Mr. Atwater visited England twice dnrin^ the lalci \ears of
bis life, once in 1875 and again in 1Im!7. uilli a iuii|i<)Sf ""lo asicrtain willi
as much exactness as possible what relation (d i onsanguiiniiity there was
iK'tuet'ii |{ob«'rt At\Nater of luivton Cliaiicl and the other Alwatci- in his
neighborhtuid. M\ first stuiiv was (d the diocesan register at (.anlerlmrv.
.\s m\ e\es ran o\er the list of baptism- in I.eidiam. tin attintioii was airested
b\ the name of .AtithouN rhom|)son ... 1 recognized the name as jieidii^ing
to one of m\ ancestors . . . Hut what was m\ surprise to iitid . . . lliat the
blood of the .Atwaters and the I lioinpsons. wliieh had jieediue (unnnin^led
in m\ own veins . . . had been (-onniiingled \\\i< (entiiries jieture in ilie \eins
»>i Antlion\ 'I hompson. whose mother was. 1 lieliese. the ;iianddanghtei id
Kobert Atwater id Ibiviun dhapel."

Edward E. began the compilation id the ni unl ui desi enl n\ the \lualers
in England in the expectation that he mi^jhl |iulili>-li hi- liiidinti-. Iml he died
licfore the task was well under wa\. It was advanced h\ llnhcil Henry
.Atwater of Washington. I). (!. and |»ulili-lied h\ liami- \l\\ati t n| \ew

Reverend Edward. Imwever. wrote se\eral \iihimes. inie at least on a
theological subject, and two valued siihime-. one on ihi- hi-lMi\ o| (he \cu
Haxen (lolons ( IJUJO) and the other on (he lli-lor\ o| ih,- (,i|\ o| \ew llaxen
i \lti't~ t . \\r must have had a prodi^doiiv niemorv ami he |Jiii\e(l a dcli^hifnl
companion a* he mafic conlae|>. with mendicrs of the t.imiK in hi- Iraxels.
iSet' Alwatcr llistor\. Vol. 1. I'g. \:V2]'M*. for II. \ \iii/i Atwaters account
of a trip in and near New Haven in lo.'iO \Mii> Kilwaid E.)


■ppWiWiiBiiii il.



DAflB ifWlTEE,

N E (' i *r II I:: II f Ci 1 N A L P I A N T E \i



TO rut

P I F T H <;J K M B K A T I O IS







This opportunity afforded to the writer to review the record of Rev.
Kduard E. Atwater has made him appreciate more than ever the dehl which
thosf who l»ear this name owe him as the first SNstematii- compiler ol the
famiK records. It luuk much time and faithful research to produce the \ulume
of lool. Toda> tliat \olume seems primitixe in contrast uith the latest \i>lumes
about the familv like this one and those puhlished li\ Francis Atwater. lUil
such a geneal»)gical record was not horn in a da\. ()iil\ patient ami per-
se\ering work produced the ver\ adequate record which we ami (Uii ( liildren
now enjo>. Kilward K. chose to hegin his studies at a time wlicn iniceless
records and memories were failing. Let us hope that in our general i. in tlicre
max he others with similar indii>tr\ to larry on the task.

— Kkginald M. \ r\s \ii i;. M.D.

Clara Barton
A Friend of the Family

I he present generation of Atwaters will lia\c lilllc accjuaiiilam c with
llu- oleem in which phrenologists were once held. In tlic period ut sa\
lJt,i(l to loOU tliex were pupulurlv l)elieved to possess scicntilii p()\\cr> and
lo he aide t«» prescrihe the hest line of endeavor for one to pursue. In an
impressixe maimer the phrenologist would "examine" the |)ersiin infore
him. amiounie his characteristics, and advise which had hoi l)c iIcvcIdijciI
and XX Inch corrected.

!^uili a one wa- 1.. W . lnwlii who. when on a \ isil Id llic linnic u|
Stephen and ."^arah Barton at Oxford. Massachuselt>. was asked what llirii
daughter (!lara. ought In <!«> in life, ansxvered.,

"The sensitixe mature xxill alwaxs remain.
She will nexer assert herself tm li(i>:ll:
she xxill suffer xxrong first. Mul lor others
she xxill he jterh'ctlx h-aric*>. I hr<i\\ n-spon-
>ihililx upon her. '
Fox\li-r's adxicr xxas that she should licintnc a >i IkkiI leaclitr.

I'l-rhaps other children of fifteen lia\c had expressrd llic nianiK r in
which their I'haracter could dexelop in future xears l>nl ihi- |iiii|ilii-\ was
to In* fulfilled ihniugh a lifct'inc <d serx i( c l<i <i|Ii(M> liial i^ iinl>landing.

Ih-re was a woman who was destined to Sland liclnic Kitifis' ami i<i cixc
ifie hoiiotH of many countries. .N<> \mcii(an Imm in llu- l'^2ir> ( un li\c
lo kni.w as maiix presidents as knew her and gaxe lui piaiv ■.

Horn on (]hri<>tmas Day in I!t2l she was in ini Odtli \iar wli(!i ihc
.American Hed C!r«»Ms was formed and \xa> Jl.'i when she idind. \ >niall. < rcc I
|KT»<»n. only fivr feet tall, slu* preserxcd a remarkajilx xmilliful manner
until well Iwxond the years xvhen manx would haxr hccn saving ihcir energy.

In Miss Hartons efforl- In a-!-! - ! familic- in tiaiing soldiers who had
l>cpn reported ndssing after hattles in the .'^oulh. -he was assisled |i\ hoicmc


Atwater of Terryville. Connectic ul. a brother of Francis Atwater, tlie compiler
of four \oluiiies of Atwater History.

Dorence had enUsted in the Connecticut Cavalr\ al the age of sixteen.
l)een captured and ?t'iit to Andersoiix illc I'risoii. In this prison 35.000 liiion
sokliers had been held and 13.000 had died. Working in the |iri>un Im-piial.
Dorence had preserved a complete roll of llic iiaincs and rank (d tlic-c men
and their places of burial. \\ hen Miss Barton was authorized by Congress to

locate and mark the gra\es of I'nion soldiers in the South, lliis roll was of
great value and Dorrnce was detailed to accompan\ her to XndiTsoin illc.

During this service Dorence was accused of ihclt <d his own records
from an officer, was court martialed and given a dislionorable discharge.
From that time Miss Barton was his close friend and militant supporter.
Through her efforts, and those of other friends, some enlisted by Miss
Barton, the sentence of the court martial of iJlOS was set aside more than
30 years later.

I had onl\ one brief oppurtunits to meet Clara Barton: that was at
the home of Francis Atwater in Meriden. She was then as close a friend
of her host as she had been of his brother. Francis had served as Treasurer
of the Red Cross during the Spanish- American War and had accompanied
her to Havana. As near as I can recall she was then 85 or 86 years of age,
in full possession of her faculties and interested in all that went on about her.

I I does not take nmch imagination to call up one of the earliest recorded
scenes in the life lime of public service of Clara Barton. It is the da\ after
the Sixth Massachusetts had been fired upon in lialtimore. Ellsworth had
been killed and the regiment with its wounded had arrived in Washington.

The wounded arc (|uartered in the old Senate Cluunber and those
attending them filled the seats whilst Miss Barton, from the vice-president's
chair, was reading the lidme town newspaper aloud.

Hubert F. Atwater
No. 242.3


Irom the earliest times, nations, tribes, chieftains and families have
adopted distinguishing symbols. The Greek and Roman heroes wore various
devices on their shields. In the East, the Chinese Empire was symbolized by
the five-clawed dragon: the Japanese empire bv the chrvsanthemum. In the
New World, the Aztecs carried shields and banners adorned witli symbolic
devices. Totemism was another forerunner of heraldr\.

It was not until the 12th centurv ihat iruc heraldry began in Western
Europe. Kings and princes were the first to make use of personal insignia.
Although earlier monarchs had adopted personal marks on seals, the first
English king to use his great seal as a coat of arms on his shield was Richard I
who ruled from 1189 to 1199. During the late 12th and throughout the entire


13lh centuries arms ap|>eared iiu-reasiiigh mi shields. \^ ithiii a >\uh[ iime
most of the great houses in Kiighiiid aiul upon tin* Continent were displa\ ing

\\ riters attribute the sudden einergeney of heraldr\ at this time to the
need of knights and lords for some mark of identifieation. When they were
in full armor, they were unreeognizal>le. Feu louUi read so instead of usnig
a nameplate eaeh man adopted a distinctive insignia, known as a "eoal of
arms." He displaced this on his siiield. hanner and horseclotii. as well as on
his eiiat, and wore it in ei\il life as well. The hereditary character of heraldry
owed its existence to the feudal soi-ial system in wlmli ^-mich on il^ -i( iilar
>ide was held tt»gether li\ personal allegiance of each man to lii^ Icml. The
coat of arms hecame not (iiil\ a svinixil i>l llic ouncrs iilcnlil\ Imt al-d his
status as well.

The great increase in the nundier of coats of arms e\entuall\ made
some kind of contr«)l necessarv . In tlic nid of the \M\\ centurv. aluiul 1.500
arms had been adopted in England. Evidence points out that in the I llli
centur\ ownershi|) of arms had acquired legal rect)gniti(>n. r?\ the l.llh
centurv. it became the dut\ «)f the '"King ot Heralds." later kiiuwn a^ llir
King of Arms and also the Garter. Id n-gistn tjic aiin> di noble gcntlfnicn
ant! still later to give patents of arm^ to apiiiii ant-. The king ol \rm> or
Garter v*as assisted by a nund»er <d heralds. Tlic oiit|iiit ol patiiit- steadilv
increaM'd fmm the reign of llcnrv \ I to ihal ol I .li/ajiclh. alter wh'h li there
l>egan some decline. Those to uliom pati-nl~ to ( oat> ol arm> were issued
were corpi»rate bodies, higher ecclesiastics and all classes ol new men. llow-
e\er, with the discontinuance of tournaments and the ( liange in the character
of war. empha>is in the use of heraldrv shifted Irom militarv to ( ivilian use.
I)uring the I udor jieriod. the svmbolic use ol arm- at liineral increaxd while
it> use in war dimini>hed. With the passing (d (he Tudors. hcraKlh art
{.•enerally declined.

I he Kngli»h and (!ontirirntaU diew ii|ion the entile animal kmgdoni and
garden for heraldii ili-viees. Some o| the more common weie the lion. leo|iar(l.
»tag. wolf, eagle. falc<in. the ro^e. li-h. //<•/// -(/e-/\. v. -wan ami the a— head.
Other Well-known dev iee- from oilier -olirec- llei|iientl\ ll-ed were the -nil.
crescent, mullet, escallup, shells anil -heath- id grass. In certain in-laincs
the wearer^ selected svndtols sugge>ting their name-. lAample- n\ the-e are
a*> follows:

I he jjoii-e of (»rilTon bore the grilliii
I he Ibiii-c oj hrake bore the (iri'-diake or dragon
The Cockfield- bore -iKi i three cocks gules
I be l'elham» bore a/iire three peli<-ans siKir
I be l.ucv- bnre gulei« three luces I or piko I -il\er
I be Herons bore azure three herons silver

I he three >wan>.. likr-wise. in the \lwater ( cd arms, together with die
wavy bars. .HUggeHt "water."


Certain customs dexelopcd in the use of the coat of arms. Those for
England and Scoth^nd differed on many ])oints. In thi> discussion, we will
otdy l)e concerned with the Englisli usage. These customs were generally
recognized by the King of Arms or Garter in tlie issiiim: <>i |i;Uents. Many
of them are still observed while others haxc laileii into disuse. Since no iuo
men might wear the same coat of arms simultani'ousl) . the sons were re(|uire(i
b) custom to ""dilference" their fathers coat by alterations. Frequentl\ ilie\
changed the colors, added new devices to the coat, perhaps a border, or both.
The first son wore a label, the second a crescent, the third a star, the iomth
a bird called the ''martlet." the fitlh a ring, the si\lli a jlciir-dc-lxs. the sexeiith
a rose, the eighth a certain kind oi cross called a "Cross moline." and the
ninth an eight-pelalled flower. I pon the death of the father, the first son
inherited the plain coat of arms from him and removed the label. The
younger sons, however, retained their indixidual marks, and in turn passed
them on to their descendants who also added further dilferences.

Women also possessed certain rights regarding their fathers" coals ol
arms. Daughters were allowed to use their father's coat which they de})icted
on a diamond-shaped "lozenge." When they married, they '"impaled" tlieir
own iamily coat beside their husband's on his shield. If their father had no
sons, they became heraldic heiresses and could place their own famiU shield
in the middle of tluMr husband's shield. This modified shield was called
"escutcheon ot pretense." Illegitimate sons were required to seek a new
grant of arms from the Crown either in the form of the original coat with a
special mark of difference or an entirej\ new coat.

Coats of arms were passed from one generation io anollu'r in ilie same
way as land. If a man had no sons, the land and arms passed to his
daughter and thence to her son. The son. Ii(iue\er. could not use the coal
inherited tludugh his mother without "quartering" it. This look place when
the shield was dixided into e(pial "(luai lers" in which were placed the
various coats of arms whi( h its owner had iidierited. 1 bus if a man had no
sons and several daughters, all of lii> grandchildren could (piarlci his arms
with their own father's coal. It nia\ be seen that after several generations
of marriages to heiresses, a laniiK might have a large mimber of (piarlerings.

I he gencial principles of (juarlering are slill ol)scr\ed. K\i-n when there
are more than four coals of arms used. the\ are still called quarterings.
Up Io lour (fuarters ma\ he placed in each quarter of a -liicld. Ihcn there
are more than this mimber. the lour (|uarters of the shield n)a\ liccome
"grand (luarters. one or nmrc ol llicm being >ub-di\i(lc(l inio lesser (piarters
to acconnnodate the extra coats. Since Tudor limes, any number of new coats
ma\ be added consecutively without sub-di\ision into fours. As a result, a
shield becomes "quarterly of six or "(piarlerlx ol ten. whatexer the nundier
of coats may be.

It does not follow that families having tlii' ^anle surnames are entitled
to wear the same coat of arms. If one can trace blood relationship to the


other, that fainilx i> eiititleci to a differeiu-ed version of the arms. I nrelaled
families, therefore, who ha\e the same surname are given a dissimihir phiin
coat of arms.

The Atuater loat of arms was worn on sexeral important State oirasions
in the histor\ of Englanii. It is first recorded us heing home l>\ ]o\\n W ater.
^ ork HeraUl at Arms, at the funeral of King Edward l\ in 1 U>i-}. His arms
were des4-ril»ed as "sahle. on a fe>M' wa\\ argent. IkIui-imi three swans of ihe
set-ond, two bars. \\a\\ azure, crest a (Itiiii-laliiot argent, in the inuutli an
arrow gule>."* These arms belonged to tin- " Vlualcrs of Kent, uilli \ariations

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