Francis Bacon.

The works of Francis Bacon, baron of Verulam, viscount St. Alban, and lord high chancellor of England (Volume 3) online

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mask himself, and to reap that in France, which he
had been long in sowing, in regard that, there being
like to be a divulsion in the league by the reconcilia-
tion of some of the heads to the king, the more pas-
sionate sort, being destituted by their associates, were
like to cast themselves wholly into the king of Spain's
arms, and to dismember some important piece of that
crown ; though now upon this fresh accident of re-
ceiving the king into Paris, it is to be thought that both
the worst affected of the league will submit themselves
upon any tolerable conditions to their natural king,
thus advanced in strength and reputation ; and the
king of Spain will take a second advice ere he embark
himself too far in any new attempt against France.
But taking the affairs as they then stood before, this
accident unexpected, especially of the council of Spain,
during this his supposed harvest in France, his council
had reason to wish that there were no disturbance
from hence, where they make account that if her ma-
jesty were removed, upon whose person God continue
his extraordinary watch and providence ! here would
be nothing but confusion, which they do not doubt
but with some no great treasure, and forces from with-
out, may be nourished till they can more fully intend
the ruin of this state, according to their ancient ma-

But howsoever that be, amongst the number of
these execrable undertakers, there was none so much
built and relied upon by the great ones of the other
side, as was this physician Lopez ; nor, indeed, none
so dangerous ; whether you consider the aptness of
the instrument, or the subtlety and secresy of those

Report of Lopez's Treason.

that practised with him, or the shift and evasion which
he had provided for a colour of his doings, if they
should happen to come into question. For first,
whereas others were to find and encounter infinite
difficulties, in the very obtaining of an opportunity to
execute this horrible act; and, besides, cannot but
see present and most assured death before their eyes,
and therefore must be, as it were, damnable votaries
if they undertake it : this man, in regard of his faculty,
and of his private access to her majesty, had both
means to perpetrate, and means to conceal, whereby
he might reap the fruit of his wicked treason without
evident peril. And for his complices that practised
with him, being Portuguese, and of the retinue of
king Antonio, the king of Spain's mortal enemy, they
were men thereby freed and discharged from suspi-
cion, and might send letters and receive letters out of
Spain without jealousy ; as those which were thought
to entertain intelligences there for the good of their
master. And for the evasion and mask that Lopez
had prepared for this treason, if it had not been
searched and sifted to the bottom, it was, that he did
intend but to cozen the king of Spain, without ill
meaning ; somewhat in the nature of that stratagem
which Parry, a most cunning and artificial traitor, had
provided for himself.

Nevertheless this matter, by the great goodness of
God, falling into good hands, of those honourable and
sufficient persons w r hich dealt therein, was by their
great and worthy industry so handled and followed, as
this Proteus of a disguised and transformed treason did
at last appear in his own likeness and colours, which
were as foul and monstrous as have been known in the
world. For some of her majesty's honourable council
long since entered into consideration, that the retinue
of king Antonio, I mean some of them, were not unlike
to hatch these kinds of treasons, in regard they were
needy strangers, entered into despair of their master's
fortune, and like enough to aspire to make their peace
at home, by some such wicked services as these -, and
therefore grew to have an extraordinary vigilant eye

Report of Lopez's Treason.

upon them : which prudent and discreet presumption,
or conjecture, joined with some advertisements of
espials abroad, and some other industry, was the first
cause, next under the great benediction of God,
which giverh unto princes zealous counsellors, and
giveth to counsellors policy, and discerning thoughts,
of the revealing and discovering of these treasons,
which \vere contrived in order and form, as hereafter
is set down.

This Lopez, of nation a Portuguese, and suspected
to be in sect secretly a Jew, though here he conformed
himself to the rites of the Christian religion, had for
a long time professed physic in this land, by occasion
whereof, being withal a man very observant and offi-
cious, and of a pleasing and appliable behaviour; in
that regard, rather than for any great learning in his
faculty, he grew known and favoured in court, and
was some years since sworn physician of her majesty's
household ; and by her majesty's bounty, of whom he
hath received divers gifts of good commodity, was
grown to good estate of wealth.

This man had insinuated himself greatly, in regard
he was of the same nation with the king Antonio,
whose causes he pretended to solicit at the court;
especially while he supposed there was any appear-
ance of his fortune ; of whom also he had obtained,
as one that referred all his doings to gain, an assigna-
tion of 50,000 crowns to be levied in Portugal. But
being a person wholly of a corrupt and mercenary na-
ture, and rinding his hopes cold from that part ; he
cast his eyes upon a more able paymaster, and se-
cretly made offer long since of his service to the king
of Spain: and accordingly gave sundry intelligences of
that which passed here, and imported most for the
king of Spain to know, having no small means, in re-
gard of his continual attendance at court, nearness,
and access, to learn many particulars of great weight :
which intelligences he entertained with Bernardine
Mendoza, Antonio Vega, Roderigo Marquez, and
divers others.

In the conveyance of which his intelligences, and

Report of Lopez's Treason. Ill

in the making known of his disposition to do the king
of Spain service, he did use, amongst others, one
Manuel Andrada a Portuguese, revolted from Don
Antonio to the king of Spain ; one that was discovered
to have practised the death of the said Don Antonio,
and to have betrayed him to Bernardine Mendoza.
This man coming hither, was, for the same, his prac-
tice appearing by letters intercepted, apprehended and
committed to prison. Before which time also, there
had been by good diligence intercepted other letters,
\vhereby the said Andrada advertised Mendoza, that
he had won Dr. Lopez to the king's service: but
Lopez having understanding thereof, and finding
means to have secret conference with Andrada before
his examination, persuaded with him to take the matter
upon himself, as if he had invented that advertisement
touching Lopez, only to procure himself credit with
Mendoza ; and to make him conceive well of his in-
dustry and service. And to move him hereunto,
Lopez set before Andrada, that if he did excuse him,
he should have credit to work his delivery; whereas,
if he did impeach him, he was not like to find any
other means of favour. By which subtle persuasion
Andrada, when he came to be examined, answered
according to the direction and lessoning which Lopez
had given him. And having thus acquitted himself of
this suspicion, became suitor for Andrada's delivery,
craftily suggesting, that he was to do some notable
service to Don Antonio ; in which his suit he accord-
ingly prevailed. When Lopez had thus got Andrada
out of prison, he was suffered to go out of the realm
into Spain -, in pretence, as was said, to do some ser-
vice to Don Antonio; but in truth, to continue Lopez's
negotiations and intelligences with the king of Spain ;
which he handled so well, as at his return hither, for
the comforting of the said Lopez, he brought to him
from the king, besides thanks and words of encou-
ragement, and an Abrazo, which is the complement
of favour, a very good jewel garnished with sundry
stones of good value. This jewel, when Lopez had
accepted, he cunningly cast with himself, that if he

112 Report of Lopez's Treason.

should offer it to her majesty first, he was assured she*
would not take it : next, that thereby he should lay
her asleep, and make her secure of him for greater
matters, according to the saying, Fraus sibi fdtm in
parvis pratstruit ut in magnis opprhnat , which ac-
cordingly he did, with protestations of his fidelity :
and her majesty, as a princess of magnanimity, not
apt to fear or suspicion, returned it to him with gra-
cious words.

After Lopez had thus abused her majesty, and had
these trials of the fidelity of Andrada, they fell in con-
ference, the matter being first moved by Andrada, as
he that came freshly out of Spain, touching the em-
poisoning of the queen : which Lopez, who saw that
matter of intelligence, without some such particular
service, would draw no great reward from the king of
Spain ; such as a man that was not needy, but wealthy
as he was, could find any taste in, assented unto. And
to that purpose procured again this Andrada to be sent
over, as well to advertise and assure this matter to the
king of Spain and his ministers, namely, to the count
de Fuentes, assistant to the general of the king of
Spain's forces in the Low Countries 3 as also to capitu-
late and contract with him about the certainty of his
reward. Andrada having received those instructions,
and being furnished with money, by Lopez's procure-
ment, from Don Antonio, about whose service his
employment was believed to be, went over to Calais,
where he remained to be near unto England and Flan-
ders, having a boy that ordinarily passed to and fro
between him and Lopez : by whom he did also, the
better to colour his employment, write to Lopez intel-
ligence, as it was agreed he should between him and
Lopez ; who bad him send such news as he should
take up in the streets. From Calais he writeth to
count de Fuentes of Lopez's promise and demands.
Upon the receipt of which letters, after some time
taken to advertise this proposition unto Spain, and to
receive direction thereupon, the count de Fuentes as-
sociated with Stephano Ibarra, secretary of the coun-
cil of the wars in the Low Countries, callcth to him

Report of Lopez 1 s Treason. 113

one Manuel Louis Tinoco, a Portuguese, who had also
followed king Antonio, and of whose good devotion
he had had experience, in that he had conveyed unto
him two several packets, wherewith he was trusted by
the king Antonio for France. Of this Louis they first
received a corporal oath, with solemn ceremony, taking
his hands between their hands, that he should keep
secret that which should be imparted to him, and never
reveal the same, though he should be apprehended and
questioned here. This done, they acquaint him with
the letters of Andrada, with whom they charge him
to confer at Calais in his way, and to pass to Lopez
into England, addressing him farther to Stephano
Ferrera de Gam a, and signifying unto the said Louis
withal, as from the king, that he gave no great cre-
dence to Andrada, as a person too slight to be used in
a cause of so great weight: and therefore marvelled
much that he heard nothing from Ferrera of this mat-
ter, from whom he had in former time been advertised
in generality of Lopez's good affection to do him ser-
vice. This Ferrera had been sometimes a man of
great livelihood and wealth in Portugal, which he did
forego in adhering to Don Antonio, and appeareth to
be a man of a capacity and practice; but hath some
years since been secretly won to the service of the king
of Spain, not travelling nevertheless to and fro, but
residing as his lieger in England.

Manuel Louis dispatched with these instructions, and
with all affectionate commendation from the comte to
Lopez, and with letters to Ferrera, took his journey
first to Calais, where he conferred with Andrada ; of
whom receiving more ample information, together
with a short ticket of credence to Lopez, that he was
a person whom he might trust without scruple, came
over into England, and first repaired to Ferrera, and
acquainted him with the state of the business, who had
before that time given some light unto Lopez, that he
was not a stranger unto the practice between him and
Andrada, wherewith, indeed, Andrada had in a sort
acquainted him. And now upon this new dispatch
and knowledge given to Lopez, of the choice of Fer-

VOL. Ill, I

114- Report of Lopez's Treason.

rera to continue that which Aridrada had begun : he,
to conform himself the better to the satisfaction of the
king of Spain, and his ministers abroad, was content
more fully to communicate with Ferrera, with whom,
from that time forward, he meant singly and apart to
/ deal; and therefore cunningly forbore to speak with
Manuel Louis himself; but concluded that Ferrera
fliould be his only trunk, and all his dealings should
pass through his hands, thinking thereby to have gone

Whereupon he cast with himself, that it was not so
safe to use the mediation of Manuel Louis, who had
been made privy to the matter, as some base carrier of
letters ; which letters also should be written in a cipher,
not of alphabet, but of words ; such as might, if they
were opened, import no vehement suspicion. And
therefore Manuel Louis was sent back with a short
answer, and Lopez purveyed himself of a base fellow,
a Portuguese called Gomez d'Avila, dwelling hard by
Lopez's house, to convey his letters. After this mes-
senger provided, it was agreed between Lopez and
Ferrera, that letters should be sent to the comte de
Fuentes, and secretary Juarra, written and signed by
Ferrera, for Lopez cautelously did forbear to write
himself, but directed, and indeed dictated word by
word by Lopez himself. The contents thereof were,
that Lopez was ready to execute that service to the
king, which before had been treated, but required for
his recompence the sum of 5000 crowns, and assurance
for the same.

These letters were written obscurely, as was touched,
in terms of merchandise; to which obscurity, when
Ferrera excepted, Lopez answered, they knew his
meaning by that which had passed before. Ferrera
wrote also to E. Manuel Louis, but charged this Gomez
to deliver the same letters unto him in the presence of
Juarra; as also the letter to Juarra in the presence of
Manuel Louis. And these letters were delivered to
Gomez d'Avila to be carried to Brussels, and a pass-
port procured, and his charges defrayed by Lopez.
And Ferrera, the more to approve his industry, writ

Report of Lopez's Treason.

letters two several times, the one conveyed by Emanuel
Fallacies, with the privity of Lopez, to Christophero
Moro, a principal counsellor of the king of Spain, in
Spain; signifying that Lopez was won to the king of
Spain, and that he was ready to receive his command-
ments; and received a letter from the same Christophero
Moro, in answer to one of these which he shewed unto
Lopez. In the mean time Lopez, though a man in
semblance of a heavy wit, yet indeed subtle of him-
self, as one trained in practice, and besides as wily as
fear and covetousness could make him, thought to
provide for himself, as was partly touched before, as
many starting holes and evasions as he could devise, if
any of these matters should come to light. And first
he took his time to cast forth some general words afar
off to her majesty, as asking her the question, Whether
a deceiver might not be deceived? Whereof her ma-
jesty, not imagining these words tended to such end,
as to warrant him colourably in this wretched conspi-
racy, but otherwise, of her own natural disposition to
integrity and sincerity, uttered dislike and disallowance.
Next, he thought he had wrought a great mystery in
demanding the precise sum of 50,000 crowns, agreeing
just with the sum of assignation or donation from Don
Antonio; idly, and in that grosly imagining, that, if
afterwards he should accept the same sum, he might
excuse it, as made good by the king of Spain, in re-
gard he had desisted to follow and favour Don Antonio ^
whereupon the king of Spain was in honour tied not
to see him a loser. Thirdly, in his conferences with
Ferrera, when he was apposed upon the particular
manner how he would poison her majesty, he purposely
named unto him a syrup, knowing that her majesty
never useth syrup; and therefore thinking that would
prove an high point for his justification, if things should
come in any question.

But all this while desirous after his prey, which he
had in hope devoured, he did instantly importune
Ferrera for the answering of his last dispatch, finding
the delay strange, and reiterating the protestations of

I 2

Report of Lopez's Treason.

his readiness to do the service, if he were assured of
his money.

Now before the return of Gomez d'Avila into Eng-
land, this Stephen Ferrera was discovered to have
intelligence with the enemy; but so, as the particular
of his traffic and overtures appeared not, only it seemed
there was great account made of that he managed :
and thereupon he was committed to prison. Soon
after arrived Gomez d'Avila, and brought letters only
from Manuel Louis, by the name of Francisco de
Thoresj because as it seemeth, the great persons on
the other side had a contrary discretion to Lopez, and
liked not to write by so base a messenger, but con-
tinued their course to trust and employ Manuel Louis
himself, who in likelihood was retained till they might
receive a full conclusion from Spain ; which was not
till about two months after. This Gomez was appre-
hended at his landing, and about him were found the
letters aforesaid, written in jargon, or verbal cipher,
but yet somewhat suspicious, in these words : " This
" bearer will tell you the price in which your pearls are
" esteemed, and in what resolution we rest about a
c< little musk and amber, which I am determined to
" buy." Which words the said Manuel Louis after-
wards voluntarily confessed to be deciphered in this
sort; that by the allowance of the pearls he meant,
that the comte de Fuentes, and the secretary, did gladly
accept the offer of Lopez to poison the queen, signified
by Ferrera's letter; and for the provision of amber and
musk, it was meant, that the comte looked shortly for
a resolution from the king of Spain concerning a matter
of importance, which was for burning of the queen's
ships ; and another point tending to the satisfaction of
their vindictive humour.

But while the sense of this former letter rested am-
biguous, and that no direct particular was confessed
by Ferrera, nor sufficient light given to ground any
rigorous examination of him, cometh over Manuel
Louis with the resolution from Spain ; who first under-
standing of Ferrera's restraint, and therefore doubting
how far things were discovered, to shadow the matter,

Report of Lopez's Treason.

like a cunning companion, gave advertisement of an
intent he had to do service, and hereupon obtained a
passport: but after his coming in, he made no haste to
reveal any thing, but thought to dally and abuse in
some other sort. And while the light was thus in the
clouds, there was also intercepted a little ticket which
Ferrera in prison had found means to write, in care to
conceal Lopez, and to keep him out of danger, to give
a caveat of staving all farther answers and advertise-
ments in these causes. Whereupon Lopez was first
called in question.

But in conclusion, this matter being with all assiduity
and policy more and more pierced and mined into, first,
there was won from Manuel Louis his letters from the
comte de Fuentes and secretary Juarra to Ferrera, in
both which, mention is made of the queen's death; in
that of the comte's, under the term of a commission;
and in that of the secretary's, under the term of the
great service, whereof should arise an universal benefit
to the whole world. Also the letters of credit written
by Gonsalo Gomez, one to Pedro de Carrera, and the
other to Juan Pallacio, to take up a sum of money by
E. Manuel Louis, by the foresaid false name of Fr. de
Thores; letters so large, and in a manner without
limitation, as any sum by virtue thereof might be
taken up : which letters were delivered to Loui? by
the comte de Fuentes's own hands, with directions to
shew them to Lopez for his assurance ; a matter of
God's secret working in staying the same, for thereupon
rested only the execution of the fact of Lopez. Upon
so narrow a point consisted the safety of her majesty's
life, already sold by avarice, to malice and ambition,
but extraordinarily preserved by that watchman which
never slumbereth. This same E. Manuel Louis, and
Stephen Ferrera also, whereof the one managed the
matter abroad, and the other resided here to give cor-
respondence, never meeting after Manuel had returned,
severally examined without torture or threatening, did
in the end voluntarily and clearly confess the matters
above-mentioned, and in their confessions fully consent
and concur, not only in substance, but in all points,

Reporl of Lopez's Treason.

particularities, and circumstances; which confessions
appear expressed in their own natural language, testi-
fied and subscribed with their own hands ; and in open
assembly, at the arraignment of Lopez in the Guild-
hall, were by them confirmed and avouched to Lopez
his face; and therewithal are extant, undefaced, the
original letters from comte deFuentes, secretary Juarra,
and the rest.

And Lopez himself, at his first apprehension and
examination, did indeed deny, and deny with deep
and terrible oaths and execrations, the very conferences
and treatures with Ferrera, or Andrada, about the
empoisonment. And being demanded, if they were
proved against him what he would say? he answered,
That he would yield himself guilty of the fact intended.
Nevertheless, being afterwards confronted by Ferrera,
who constantly maintained to him all that he had said,
reducing him to the times and places of his said con-
ferences, he confessed the matter, as by his confession
in writing, signed with his own hand, appeareth. But
then he fell to that slender evasion, as his last refuge,
that he meant only to cozen the king of Spain of the
money : and in that he continued at his arraignment,
when, notwithstanding, at the first he did retract his
own confession : and yet being asked, whether he was
drawn, either by means of torture, or promise of
life, to make the same confession ? he did openly
testify that no such means were used towards him.

But the falsehood of this excuse, being an allegation
that any traitor may use and provide for himself, is
convicted by three notable proofs. The first, that he
never opened this matter, neither unto her majesty,
unto whom he had ordinary access, nor to any coun-
sellor of state, to have permission to toll on, and in-
veigle these parties with whom he did treat, if it had
been thought so convenient; wherein, perhaps, he had
opportunity to have done some good service, for the
farther discovery of their secret machinations against
her majesty's life. The second, that he came too late
to this shift ; having first bewrayed his guilty con-
j in denying those treaties and conferences till

Report of Lopez's Treason. 1 19

they were evidently and manifestly proved to his face.
The third, that in conferring with Ferrera about the
manner of his assurance, he thought it better to have
the money in the hands of such merchants as he should
name in Antwerp, than to have it brought into Eng-
land ; declaring his purpose to be, after the fact done,
speedily to fly to Antwerp, and there to tarry some
time, and so to convey himself to Constantinople;
where it is affirmed, that Don Salomon, a Jew in good
credit, is Lopez his near kinsman, and that he is
greatly favoured by the said Don Salomon: whereby
it is evident that Lopez had cast his reckonings upon
the supposition of the fact done.

Thus may appear, both how justly this Lopez* is
condemned for the highest treason that can be ima-
gined; and how by God's marvellous goodness, her
majesty hath been preserved. And surely, if a man
do duly consider, it is hard to say, whether God hath
done greater things by her majesty or for her: if you
observe on the one side, how God hath ordained her
government to break and cross the unjust ambition^of
the two mighty potentates, the king of Spain and the
Bishop of Rome, never so straitly between themselves
combined: and on the other side, how mightily God
hath protected her, both against foreign invasion and
inw r ard troubles, and singularly against the many secret

Online LibraryFrancis BaconThe works of Francis Bacon, baron of Verulam, viscount St. Alban, and lord high chancellor of England (Volume 3) → online text (page 10 of 45)