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The Century

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, mcooranf to Act of ConereaL in tin

Entered, mcooranf to Act of CoAgre•[^ in tlw year t87s«b7


In die OiBoeol'tfae Ltbnurian of Congreis at Washinftoo, O. C

FiiAicas Hatt ft Co.
Pliniert and Stationers, la ft 14 College Placa


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AiTNE Maturin, The Story of JI/>t. OUphant 50

AsTOR Family in New- York, The An Old New- Yorker 879

Balzac, Honors. (Illustrated) Albert Rhodes 636

Beds and Tables, Stools and Candlesticks. (Illustrated) (Con-
tinued from June, 1875) Clarence Cook, 342, 488, 809

CAfe des Exiles George IV, Cable 727

Child-Garden, The. (Illustrated) Edward EggUston 615

Childhood's Fancies T. W. Higginson 357

Cuba without War 876

Cupid and Mars Horace E. Scudder , ...322

Dies iRiK. A Revised Translation by John A, Dix 797

Domestic Service, Our Francis A. Walker. . . 273

Dramatists, Foreign, under American Laws E. S, Drone 90

Duels, French •* Gamma** 546

Education, Elementary, in England and Wales ^Menry G. Taylor 397

Fernando Noronha ** Delta** 534

FORTUNATA*s PocKET Kate Putnam Osgood. . . 542

French and American CuRRENCiES Amasa Walker 227

French Renaissance, Pictures ov the. (Illustrated) Wendell Lamoroux 387

Gabriel Conroy. Chapters I— XXXII Bret Harte 16

240. 367» 552, 670, 840

Germania Orchestra, The Old J, Bunting 98

Glass Sponges. (Illustrated ) Sophie B, Herrick 42

Goethe House at Frankfort, The. (Illustrated) A. S. Gibbs 113

History of a Critic, The. (With Portrait of Jules Janin) « Gamma** 823

History, Secret, A Piece of. (With Portrait of Robert E. Lee) — Charles C, Jones, Jr 519

Hooks and Eyes Henry Eckford 363

Hotel of the Future, The Gail Hamilton 108

Homes, A Hundred Thousand. (With Plans) Charles Barnard 477

House-Building. (Illustrated) John Burroughs 333

'India and its Native Princes. (Illustrated). , 6$

Japan, Some Pictures from. (Illustrated) Noah Brooks 177

Lamb, Charles, Concerning — Joseph H Twiehell 720

Longevity, The Curiosities of. (Illustrated) Eugene Thomson 32

Michigan, The University of. (Illustrated) Moses Coit Tyler 523

Milton, The Holus Bust of. (Dlustrated) Clarence Cook 472

Mysterious Island, The. Part III. (Illustrated) Condensed itom., Jules Verne 703, 866

New York in the Revolution. (Illustnted) John F. Mines 305, 457

Nile, The Tour of the. (Illustrated) CharUs Stuart WelUs. . . 145

Norwegian Traits. (Illustrated) A. S. Packard, Jr 419

Old Folks' Party, The Edward Bellamy 660

Pbrky's Cross Henry King 836

Fhiup Nolan's Friends. (Illustrated) Chapters I— XI E, E, Hale 400

504, 648, 790

PoE, Irving, Hawthorne George P, Lathrop 799

Revolutionary Letters. (Illustrated) John Vance Cheney 424

570, 712, 862

Sevenoaks, The Story of. (Illustrated) Chapters XXVI— XXIX. . J. G. Holland 80, 159

Solomon's Temple, The Site of, Discovered. (With Plans) Palastina 257

Spanish Sketches. (Illustrated) 213

Springs j^hn Bunvughs 472

Subterranean Outlet to the Upper- Lake Region? Is there a.

(Illustrated) Martin A, HottfeU, Jr.. 784

Trinity College, Hartford. (Illustrated) W, C. BrockUsby. ... 601

Truro Parish. (Illustrated) W. P, McCarty 629

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TusAYAN, The Ancient Province of. (lUustratcd) /. W, Powell '^[93

Vagabond, A Scientific Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen 239

WiLUAM AND Mary College. (Illustrated) John Estat Cooke i

Wilson, the Ornithologist. (Illustrated) Dorsey Gardner 690

Yale College. (lUustnited) Henry A. Beers 761


-^T Best Jehn BoyU a RtiUy . , . . 839

Awake Hjalmar Hjorih Boyesen \\x

Beauty for Ashes ij^Use Chandler Moulton 15

B1FR6ST, The Rainbow Bridge Laura W, Johnson. . . . 629

Birthday, A Elitabeth Akers Allen 279

Christmas, The King's. (lUuitratcd) ConstanHna E. Brooks. , 385

Comfort— By a Coffin Mrs. S, M, B, Piatt. ... 366

E^os Joel Benton 522

Fame Edgar FameeU 541

Happy Lover, A R,R.Bowker 476

Hidden Brook, The ' John Trowbridge 256

Hilda's Little Hood. (lUustrated) Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen ^\j

Laus Mari^ Sidney Lanier 64

Legend of the Statue, Ti^e Anna C. Bra^kett 886

Lbvlathan Celia Thaxter 669

Marrlage Knot, The r. h. Stoddard 43a

Mocking-bird, The v Walter MiteheU 171

MORNA F. M, Creekhaum 107

My Friend. (After the German) IV, IV, ElUworth 628

Narwhals, The Last of the. (Ilhistrated) John Boyle aReilly. ... 157

Only the Sunny Hours E,C, Stedman 384

Parting JohnCSaxe 808

Poet's Constancy, A John G. Saxe 569

Portrait, A Mrs, R, S, Greenough . 239

Quatrains r, r, Bowker 278

Red Lilies CamUla K,von K..... 123

Self-Revealed . . .y. Soule Smith 226

Shadows AbboH Foster 835

Song Celia Thaxter 399

Touch of the Unseen, The Joseph Cook 720

Vino Santo » H,H 416

Topics of the Time.

The Magazine's New Year— The Political Outlook— Mr. Moody and his Work— American Honesty,
123; American Authorship— Winter Amusements — ^The Way we Waste, 280 ; The Centennial — ^The
Coming Man— The Prices of Books — ^A Cure for Gossip, 432; The School Question— The Philosophy
of Reform, 579; Literary Virility— The Common Schools— Public Halls, 737; Revivals and EvangdU
ists — Keeping at It — The Reconstruction of National Morality, 887.
The Old Cabinet.

Sentimentality, 127; Some of the Disillusions of Ag« — ** Bacon versus Shakespeare'' — ^The Sordid
View— An Unendurable Tyranny— " Mabel Martin '^— H. W. L's "Book of Sonnets," 283; Some-
thing in Favor of the Sentimentalist — Drawins the Line — Interpretation of the Masters— Criticism —
""Rose and Roof-Tree," 436 ; Concerning Fnendship, 582 ; Honest on the Sly — Baunscheidt versus
Buncombe— A Bit of Nature — Honesty Aeain— Origmality and Imitation — ^The Defects in Works of
Genius— Haydon— The Tendency of Academies, 740; George Washington — Bible- Reading— Poetic
Melody — Our Opinion of the Absent — ^The Superior Person, 890,
Home and Society.

The Boys' Room— Daily Charities— Don't Give up the Garden !— To Polish Wood— Magazbe Bum-
ing, 128; Christmas Gifts — Country Kitchens — PoUteness and Punctilio— Second-Hand Furniture,
280; On Founding a Home — Window Gardening— Children's Nerves — Visiting— The Fashion of
Fancy Prices, 438; Two Ways of Teaching at Home — Some Popular Mistakes — ^.Hints for Home
• Work — How to Entertain — Where Magazines can be Burned, 583 ; Rural Topics — ^A Family Journal
—Old Clothes and Cold Victuals — Blunders in the Sick- Room, 743; Centennial Cookery— Rural
Topics, 892.

Culture and Progress 132, 280, 442, 587, 747, 896

The World's Work 138, 298, 450, 59A, 755, 9QA

Buc-A-Brac. (Illustrated) 142, 302, 454, 598, 757, 908

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ScRiBNER's Monthly.

Vol. XI.


No. I.



"William and Mary," the oldest of
American colleges, with the single exception
of Harvard University, has so many histor-
ical associations connected with it, that a
full and minute history of it from its founda-
tion to the present time would be almost the
history of Virginia. It began its career soon
after the settlement of the country, and is,
consequently, now nearly two hundred years
old. During all this long period it played
an important part, first in the colony, and
then in the commonwealth. Founded in
the reign of William and Mary, it was a
flourishing institution when Marlborough
was fighting Louis XIV., and Addison was
writing the " Spectator." The royal govern-
ors, firom Spotswood to Dunmore, began
and ended their official careers, and the
country, from being a dependency of the
British crown, became a great confederated
republic, and the old college was still in the
full tide of its energy and usefulness. From
its situation at Williamsburg, the colonial
capital, it witnessed and was a part of all
Vol. XL— I.

that was eminent, brilliant, and attractive in
Virginia society. The sons of the planters
were uniformly sent to the college to be
educated, and the sons in turn sent their
own sons to the venerable institution. It
was always regarded as an important and
conspicuous feature of the " viceregal court"
imder the old royal rulers, and had in its
library rare volumes with the coats-of-arras
of kings and noblemen who had delighted
in connecting their names with its history.
Burned down more than once, the buildings
were always erected again, and the work of
education was steadily resumed. Almost
every Virginian of any eminence in the
eighteenth century had been trained for his
work in the world within its walls. It gave
twenty-seven of its students to the army in
the Revolution; two Attorney-Generals to
the United States ; it sent out nearly twenty
members of Congress, fifteen United States
Senators, seventeen Governors, thirty-seven
Judges, a Lieutenant-General and other
high officers to the army, two Commodores

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to the navy, twelve Professors, four signers
of the Declaration of Independence, seven
Cabinet officers, the chief draughtsman and
author of the Constitution, Edmund Ran-
dolph; the most eminent of the Chief-
Justices, John Marshall, and three Presi-
dents of the United States. And this list,
honorable as it is, by no means exhausts the
number of really eminent and influential men
who owed the formation and development
of their intellects and characters to " William
and Mary." In the long list of students,
preserved from the year 1720 to the present
time, will be found a great array of names
holding a very high rank in the common-
wealth of Virginia and the States of the
South and West — in the pulpit, at the bar,
and in the local legislatures. These, with-
out attaining the eminence of those first
mentioned, were the most prominent citizens
of the communities in which they lived, and
were chiefly instrumental in giving character
and direction to social and political affairs.
One and all, they received from their edu-
cation at the old ante-revolutionary college
the stamp and mold of character which made
them able and valuable citizens — leaders,
indeed, in opinion and action, whenever in-
tellect and virtue were needed for important
public afiairs.

The history of the origin and career of
such an institution ought to be worth con-
sidering; and the writer of this sketch
hopes, by selecting some incidents and par-
ticulars connected with the college, to make
his brief narrative as interesting as it is in-
structive. From the situation of the college
at WilUamsburg, he will be able, almost
without digressing from the main subject,
to notice sUso some of the historic localities
of the ancient capital — the Raleigh Tavern,
which played so important a part in the
social and political history of the eighteenth
century ; the Governor's Palace, where the
English Viceroys held audience beneath the
portraits of the King and Queen ; the Old
Capitol, where the Burgesses sat and were
dissolved time after time when the growing
spirit of resistance alarmed the Governors ;
the old magazine from which Dunmore re-
moved the powder, and other localities con-
nected with the history of Virginia. The
simple niention of these buildings, clustering
together in the contracted limits of the city
of Williamsburg, recalls a remarkable epoch
in the history of the country — the sudden
germination of republican ideas in the midst
of the old splendid society in ruffles, pow-
der, and silk stockings flashing to and fro

on the main thoroughfare, " Duke-of-Glou-
cester street;" the fiery protests of Henry
against fiirther submission to King and Par-
liament ; the meetings of Jefferson and his
associates at the Raleigh Tavern to inaugu-
rate revolution ; and the last scene, when,
Dunmore having disappeared, and the royal
authority with him, Patrick Henry, the
" Man of the People," took his seat as the
first republican Governor in the old Vice-
regal " Palace." William and Mary College
— its President, Professors, and students —
witnessed all these scenes, the prominent
actors in which had been students there in
their own youth, like their fathers and grand-
fathers, for this ancestral connection of fami-
lies with the college is a marked feature in
its history. An examination of the ancient
records, which have fortunately been pre-
served, will show the same names running
through the lists of students from the year
1720 to the year 1875.

William and Mary was formally chartered
in 1693. It is honorable both to England
and Virginia that the settiements on James
River had scarcely become firmly rooted
before a strong feeling was exhibited in
favor of establishing an institute of divinity
and learning — of " good arts and sciences,"
as the charter says — in the new country.
The original, and one of the chief motives,
seems to have been the civilization and con-
version to Christianity of the Indians, whose
heathen condition seemed to weigh heavily
on the minds and consciences of the good
people of that day. It was not found, when
the effort was duly made, that the aborigines,
in any number, either acquired education
or became Christians; but the impulse in
their favor had important results in other
directions. As early as 1619, about twelve
years after the landing of Smith and his
companions at Jamestown, Sir Edwm San-
dys, then President of the " London Com-
pany," together with some other good people
in England, raised a considerable sum of
money to establish a university at Henrico, on
James River. The result of the undertaking
was melancholy, and the Indians, who were
to be the main objects of this bounty, struck a
death-blow to the project. George Thorpe,
Esq., of his Majesty's Privy Council, was
sent over to Virginia to effect the object in
view, and everything seemed favorable to
its success, when, in March 1622, he was
attacked at Henrico by a force of Indians
and slain, with three hundred and forty
other persons. This incident, known as the
"massacre of 1622," abruptly checked the

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philanthropic exertions of the friends of the
Indians in England. Nothing was done
again in the matter for forty years, when the
Virginia Burgesses renewed the attempt to
establish a great school, which they described
as intended for " the advance of learning,


education of youth, supply of the ministry,
and promotion of piety " — the religious aspect
of the undertaking still occupying all minds,
a character it afterward assumed and re-
tained up to the Revolution, when Mr. Jeflfer-
son succeeded in modifying it Nothing
resulted, however, from this action; but the
Virginians still persisted, and at last the
project took a definite shape. In 1688-9
an additional sum of twenty-five himdred
pounds sterling was subscribed by a few
wealthy Virginians and Englishmen, and in
1693 the long-hoped-for success came. The
Colonial Assembly had conceived the fortu-
nate idea of sending as their representative
to England the able and energetic James
Blair, a clergjmaan of high standing, who is
styled by William and Mary in the charter
of the institution "our well-beloved in
Christ." Mr. Blair, full of zeal and ardor,
went over to London, and first unfolded his
scheme to Queen Mary, who warmly ap-
proved of it. King VVilliam was equally
favorable to the plan, and gave " out of the
quit-rents " two thousand pounds sterhng to
assist in the erection of the buildings. More
difficulty was foimd in making a friend of
Seymour, the Attorney- General. When the sent him an order to draw up the
charter, and see to the payment of the two
thousand pounds, the command seemed to

enrage him. The nation was engaged in an
expensive war, he told Mr. Blair — the money
was wanted for other and betten^ur^ses —
what occasion could there be for a college
in Virginia ? The reply of Blair was, that
the object was to prepare young men for
the ministiy — ^the people
of Virginia had " souls to
be saved as well as the
people of England," he
added. This idea seemed
to strike Seymour as ex-
quisitely absurd, and his
retort, which is historical,
indicates his character.
" Souls ! " he exclaimed —
^^damn yoiu" souls ! Make
tobacco ! " In spite, how-
ever, of the Attorney-
General, the King and
Queen adhered to their
resolution, and affixed
their signature to the
charter on the 19th of
February (N. S.), 1693.

Let us briefly recite the
main points and pro-
visions of this interesting
paper, through whose ancient verbiage, in-
volutions, and repetitions shines clearly the
honorable and worthy ambition of the King
and the Queen to spread education, good
morals, and Christian piety throughout the
growing colonies of the Western Continent.
The college was to be established, as will be
seen, on an enlarged and comprehensive
basis. The objects in view were, "that the
Church of Virginia may be furnished with a
Seminary of Ministers of the Gospel, and
that the youth may be piously educated in
good letters and manners, and that the
Christian faith may be propagated among
the Western Indians to the glory of Al-
mighty God ; to make, found, and establish
a certain place of universal study, or per-
petual college of divinity, philosophy, lan-
guages, and other good arts and sciences,"
— surely a broad and generous plan, doing
honor to the good sense and good character
of the Virginians and the royal pair alike.
The charter then proceeds to details and
special provisions. The officers were to
consist of a chancellor, eighteen visitors
or governors, a president or rector, and six
professors, who were to teach one hundred
students. As the Virginia Assembly had
recommended the Rev. James Blair for the
office, he was " created and established first
president of the said college, during his

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natural life." The chancellor was to be
elected by the rector and visitors; mean-
while, "our well-beloved and trusty, the
reverend father in God, Henry, by Divine
permission Bishop of London," was to be




the first chancellor, and to hold the office
for seven years. The rector was to be
elected yearly, " on the first Monday which
shall happen next after the Feast of the
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary,"
and to hold office for one year. And to
"perpetuate the succession of the said rector,
and of the said visitors and governors of the
said college," as often as any should die or
remove himself and family out of the colony,
the rector and a majority of the visitors
should "choose one or more of the prin-
cipal and better sort of the inhabitants of
our said colony of Virginia," in place of the
dead or absent. The visitors and govern-
ors, says the charter, "shall forever be
eighteen men, or any other number not ex-
ceeding the number of twenty : " and these
gentlemen were to have the general direction
and superintendence of the whole institution,
^e charter then proceeds to endow the
college, in the amplest manner. To erect the
buildings, the visitors were to have " the whole
and entire sum of one thousand nine hun-
dred and eighty-five pounds, fourteen shil-
lings and tenpence (;^i,985 14J. 10//.), of
good and lawful money of England, that
has been received and raised out of the quit-

rents of said colony," then in the hands of
William Byrd, Esq., Auditor; and this money-
was to be applied to " no other use, intent,
or purpose whatever" but building the col-
lege. The college was also to have one penny
per pound for all tobacco exported from
Virginia and Maryland ; the office of Sur-
veyor-General, with "all issues, fees, profits,
advantages, conveniences, liberties, places,
privileges, and pre-eminences whatsoever; "
ten thousand acres of land lying on the south
side of Blackwater Swamp, and ten thou-
sand additional acres in what was known
as "Pamunkey Neck," between the Pa-
munkey and Mattapony, here spoken of as
the "forks or branches of York River." An
important provision, in the last place, was
the right bestowed upon the college to have
its representative in the Burgesses. Author-
ity was granted to the president and profes-
sors to select from their own number, or
from the visitors, or from " the better sort
of inhabitants of our Colony of Virginia,
a discreet and able person to be present in
the House of Burgesses of the General As-
sembly of our Colony of Virginia," there
to represent the institution.

To this ample charter a condition was
added — slight and somewhat fantastic, as
was the fashion of such things at that time.
By way of full discharge, acquittance, and
satisfaction for the twenty thousand acres
of land, the college authorities were to pay
"to us, and our successors, two copies of
Latin verses yearly^ on every fifth day of
November, at the house of our Governor
or Lieutenant-Governor for the time being."
And in the " Virginia Gazette " for Novem-
ber 1 2th, 1736, nearly half a century after-

Online LibraryFrancis HallThe Century, Volume 11 → online text (page 1 of 163)