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the change to that colder climate worked disas-
trously to these boys and girls, accustomed as they
were to tropical conditions of life. Again and again,
in times of epidemic, or in instances of isolated sick-
ness, the Bishop watched, with un&iling faithful-
ness, the sick-bed of the sufferer, making himself
a hospital nurse, without the slightest sense of
condescension or unworthy shrinking from such
irksome drudgery. Indeed, it is by the hardest that,
in reading his letters, one gets a glimpse of the self-
sacrifice in little things to which the Bishop con-
stantly and uncomplainingly submitted. He would
not talk about such things if he could help it. And
he had small patience either with missionaries who
complained of hardship, or with those who boasted
in it.

Eight years of hard work in his chosen field had
made Patteson old before his time. They had been
successful years,— successful in the laying of foun-
dations, in the removing of obstacles, in the per-
fecting of preparations for future evangelization.
The first-fruits had been gathered. One at least
of the native youth had been ordained to the min-
istry. Had the Bishop*s life been spared, he would,
according to all human probability, have seen, be-
fore long^ great victories for the Master whom he
served so faithfully and followed so closely. The
shocking calamity of his death has given to his work
a temporary check. But even if it should lead to
an abandonment of the Mission for a season, such a
life as that of which Miss Ybnge has given us the
record would not have been lived in vain.

Miss Yonge has done her work as biographer
with skill and good taste. A tone of "churchliness "
pervades the volumes, but it is seldom offensive. It
is fine to see how Patteson himself, who, if he had
lived in England all these years, instead of in Me-
lanesia, might easily have grown narrow and exclu-
sive in his prejudices, magnifying unduly small
matters of ritual or of dogma, finds no time for con-
troversies on such matters when pressed upon by
the exigencies of practical work.

A smaller volume, prepared by Frances Awdry,
gives in a more compact form, and with omission of
much detail, the story of the Bishop's life, — and is
extremely well suited for the libraries of Sunday-
schools. Both books are issued by the house of
Macmillan & Co.

French and German Books.

La psychologU soctale dts nouveaux peuples, Phila-
r^te Chasles. $1.50. New York: Christern, 77
Univ. Place. — A posthumous work, with some of
the defects of such publications, this last drop of ink
in Chasles's pen must be read with something of
the interest one gives to the words of a dying man.
A patriot, his last cry to his country is for internal



peace — ^for a stop to thd eternal jealously and batreds
that have always deformed France ; as wl wHter,
he finds literature the real test of a nation^
strength or weakness, the most potent eng^e for
good or bad ; as a Frenchman — that is, an admirer of
the other sex, — ^he gives woman a high rank axnof^
the causes that affect the fate of nations. If tlils "vol-
ume has not the connectedness and polish vre maj
suppose it would have reached had the writer Irred.
yet the generalities Ix^dly thrown down are at least
brilliant, and among them many are true. It
impresses one as the woHl of a very versatile man imC
far off from his grave, who strives to gather togetber
into genera and apeoies the isolated fiiets of ^rfasdi
he has become impressed at various times, in vaikms
lands* among the books of various peoples. As fiur as
Social Psychology is conc ern ed^ it can be only swaid, to
form a sketch. Like so many another earnest striwr
after truth, Chasles lacks material to fill out his s^»ed-
ules. His ideas may be good, his generalizatioos
magnificent, but there needs a laborious coUectkm
of facts on which to build firmly many of his most
daring structures. It will surprise Americans to find
him say concerning the new literary genius of America
in general :

*<What is less ideal in i^pearance ^an tlos
American genius? what less literary? It is not
disinterested. It sits on a bale of cotton, brandishes
a revolver, travels from East to West like a bullet,
without looking around; has virtues, but sketcdiy
ones; violent, turbulent, furious, savage, often
gross. It is not homogeneous* Puritan in origin,
with a reminiscence of the royalist cavaliers of
Charles I.; Quaker at Philadelphia, Chinese and
Japanese in the direction of the Sierra Nevada;
polygamous near Salt Lake; mystic among the
trapputes and ipiruteSf — it has created a true sect,
that of the Ku-Klux-Klan, whidi professes assassi-
nation like the Thugs, or like the followers of the Old
Man of the Mountain. And yet the American
adores Franklin, and makes a holiday for Washing*
ton. Point of unification I"

After this we are not so mudi surprised to find
that Joaquin Miller is the only American poet whoac
figure possesses sufficient saliency to catch the eye
of Pliilar^te Chasles* He is the representative of
that literature whidi is to exemfdify the New World,
of which Mr. Chasles says:

" Disdain of an3rthing at rest ; nothing roofed over
and suppressed; few inveterate hatnds between
fellow-citizens, but many bloody violences; no
grudges, but many hot fights. In fine, tlie contrary
of our Latin Europe, where salons still reign, where
parties greet each other, hiss each other, spit on each
other mutually ; polite, ulcerated, full of rages and
implacable hatreds in the midst of their hidden
maneuvers."

But if our author is now and then a little led away
by rhetoric, the grand lines of his arguments are
of the soundest. The great point he makes through-
out, whether by reasoning or by appeals to the
nation's heart, is that Frenchmen must unite — must
love each other ; for it is enly love that builds cities ;
hate puUs them do^n.



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SektwktntmdScknuurm, I// 7^eile,^Max knd
MmriiM^ time Bmhenfftschkhie, '-^Sekm uhHiB mrr oder
€NeBunen, Wilhelm Bnseh. $r. 25 each. Schmidt,
34 Barclay street, New Ydrk.— Those who were
brought up on Slovenly Peter, the little boy who was
sofued in the inkstand, that odier boy who refuses
to eat and pines into a shadowy line, as well as his
ooQTerse of a gastrononScid tendency, whoends by Kt-
crally * bursting with richness," will take kmdly to
these langhter-proroking sketches of Bnsch. A very
Kmited knowledge of German is needed to the
enjoyment of such broad farce as the disoom6tare
of Diogenes in his tub by certain urchins, whom an
avenging ftite, in the shape of the tub itself, flattens
into exact likenesses to Lebh^ehen, In (he pictures
which chronicle die reward of sudi early piety as
pro m pts two small boys to scale -a lofty crow's nest
with a laddtr, the artist has instructed the eye of the
triumph felt by the unfledged crowlets at the boyi'
disaster, just as fully as tiie mind is appealed to by
the inimitable lines :

Die Raben in dem Raben-aest,
Sind Aber kreuz-fidel gewest

Max and Moritz are still other small boys of mar-
velous grotesqueness and devilish ingenuity, whose
adventures have long amused a wide circle of friends*
Everything happens to them. They iall down
chimneys, are smothered in grain, thrown into the
hopper of a mill and ground fine» baked into strange
cakes of a singularly human outline, and generally
used up by way of pointing a moraL These may be
called antidotes to a surfeit of over-pious Suaday-
school books on the old plan. The doings of the
irritated bee form the delectable scenes of Schnurr-
diburr. The pictures of the illustrated A B C in
Schnaken and Schnurren are distinguished for a
child-like directness in the verses whkh accompany
them» as for instance in one reading :

The chamois stays out doors all Disht;
We IdH our geese St Martin's night,

where, upon a mountain in the background, the
prudent chanu>is has pulled a sheet over him to
keep off the dew. The very names of Bosch's
books are enough to raise a snsUe.

Das BUehUin TausendschOn, $i; Peter der Moh-
ren-Konig^ $1.50; Was willsi du werdent $1.75;
Bilder /itr ariige Kinder^ $2.50. Schmidt, 24 Bar-
day street. — If Germans are famous for children's
books of a jovial and humorous sort, they are not
less remarkable for a quieter means to the entertain-
ment of small eyes and brains. We can mention
only a few of the Christmas children's books sent
out from the Fatherland, for the list is too long.
While the comic picture-books are distinguished for
the hideous ness of their drawing, the reverse is true
of the serious ones } they are published with such
excellent drawing and coloring that they will cer-
tainly please all who fear the effect, morally and
«sthetically, of ugliness on children. The text
accompanying them is in most cases of so little
importance, that thildren of any nationality would
be as well pleased as any sturdy little Teuton.



TmnsatlanHsehe StreiftUge von Max von Versen.
L. W. Schmidt, 24 Barday street. New York.— A
commandant of the Twelfth Thuringian Hussars,
Lieutenant von Versen writes very much the sort
of travels one may expect from a person occupying
his honorable position. A man of ordinary caliber,
ordinary powers of observation, and, withal, a dedded
honesty of statement, while the pictures he draws
are not much colored, they certainly require no very
dastic credulity on the part of his readers. The
sketch of the United States, which occupies over
three-quarters of the book, gives continuous proof
of this sobriety of judgment. South America, which
to North American r^ers becomes the only novel
and interesting portion of his work, is reduced to a
poor hundred pages of rapidly sketched travel, and
from those more entertumng lands he springs over
to California and our own af&irs.

*< Besides Cooper, Mrs. Stowe's 'Uncle Tom's
Cabin,' a few novels and one or two essays on the
last War of Revolution, I had read nothing about
North America. I had no conception of CaKfomia,
except that the only attraction it possessed was gold
mines. These I wished to see."

Nevertheless the Lieutenant judges quickly and
well, benefited, it is very likdy, t>y the advice of the
many educated Germans he met in San Francisco,
St Louis, and New York, but even more so by the
opportunity of returning to this country after the
last great war, and revising his opinions on things
American. Of brilliancy there is nothing, but he
will give Germans in Germany a dearer and more
temperate idea of the United States.

^Catalogue of Foreign Periodicals. — Mr. L. W.
Schmidt has done a good work for education, sdenoe,
and all the professions, by digesting into a catalogue,
with prices attached, the infinite number of German,
Frendh, English, Italian, and other foreign reviews
which now stand ready to assist men in every art,
sdence, and occupation. Modem division of labor is
nowhere more apparent than in these periodicals,
treating of every imaginable topic separately and to
the best of each editor's ability. Mr. Schmidt's
careful catalogue deserves success.

The Art CoUeotloo of Vaaaar CoUege.

When the late Matthew Vassar consecrated the
earnings of his life to the education of women, he
projected an institution of which every American is
proud. His liberal provisions have resulted in a
college for. women, which, on the whole, surpasses
any other in this or any other country.

Among the many departments equipped with
teachers and apparatus, that of art was not forgotten.
The picture gallery was the feature of the magnificent
building perhaps most attractive to the students and
the publk. But neither the noble founder, nor the
students, nor the public knew predsely what the
requisitions of an art gallery were, espedally an art
gallery appertaining to an institution of learning.
We believe Mr. Vassar paid about twenty thousand
dollars for the art collection which was exhibited at
the opening of the college. As far as the pictures



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were concerned, this collection was rather decorative
than practically usefuL It contained a few choice
treasures, among the chief of which were three or
four fine water-colors of Turner. But for teaching
art historically, this early gallery was about as
poorly provided as it is possible to conceive. Next
in value to the Turners was a large copy of Raphael's
*^ Madonna di Foligno,'* a work which cost enough
to pay for a respectable gallery of Urge autotypes
covering almost the entire range of art history. A
fine life-size portrait of the founder, by Elliott, was
an added ornament, and a just memorial of the large
generosity which had devised so noble a benefaction
to American culture. And thus, for the space of
nearly ten years, the department of art remained the
poorest of all as regards the appliances of instruc-
tion. A little more than two years ago, a retired
pastor of Poughkeepsie, who had been making
a long sojourn in Europe, returned for a short
visit to his former home. During his exile he
had made art history a subject of earnest study in
the chief European galleries and under the tuition
of German professors, and he brought home with
him a conviction that not only Vassar College, but
American colleges generally, were very deficient in
a branch of instruction for which almost all foreign
schools are abundantly equipped. The result of a
few days' sojourn among old friends and neighbors
in Poughkeepsie was a contribution of two thousand
dollars, with which he was to purchase a collection
of pictures and books applicable to a.comprehensive
course of instruction in the history of art. This
sum, which does not look large in view of the object
contemplated, was reduced to something less than
eighteen hundred dollars, by a reserve remitted for
Custom-House duties and contingent expenses.

Our readers may be curious to know how large a
field can be covered in making up a practical art
gallery for so moderate a sum, and the result attained
should encourage every college and school in the
land to attempt something similar, so that within
the next decade the weakest department of Ameri9an
collegiate culture may be re-enforced, and brought
up to a proximate level with other branches of litera-
ture and science.

It is hardly necessary to say that the path trav-
ersed by art history extends firom the earliest records
of the race to the present time, and to give a fair
showing of all this was the object proposed. It is
hardly credible that anywhere on the ]ud}itable globe
the necessary apparatus for such a course of instruc-
tion could be purchased, until we consider that for
half a century art history has been in Europe, and
especially in Germany, a universally recognised



branch of scholastic culture. Thu bos created a
demand for the requisite appliances, and the resok
is, that all sorts of cop3rists, i^iotographers, en gia y ers,
lithographers, cast-molders and the like, do a thriv-
ing business.

For the most part, then, the material was at hand
in the various art ca^Htals of Europe, a world of
wealth almost past computation ; and the most diffi-
cult task was to make a judidous selection. For
this purpose the vast learning and wise jadf^ment
of Professor Wilhelm von L&bke^ of Stuttgart, were
enlisted, to pilot the purchaser over these vast» and
to a novice, trackless seas.

To detail the wide and varied explorations which
were made in all the great o^itals of Europe ia
search of the required copies would occupy too
mudi of our space. Suffice it to say that, beginnii^
with Egypt and coming down the ages thnyngh
Ass3rria, Persia, India, Greece, Etmria, and Rome;
through the eariy Christian age, the Medieval, dbe
Renaissance, the seventeenth and eighteenth centu-
ries, to the present time, every great epoch and
school of ardiitecture, sculpture, and painting* is
represented. Among the world-renowned monu-
ments of art, copies of which may be seen here, we
may specify the Elgin marbles, the great sculptures
of classic Greece from the Louvre and Vatican
museums, the paintings of Michael Angelo in the
Sistine Chapel, and of Ri^hael in the Stanze and
Loggie of the Vatican. These wonderful creations
of the Peridean age and the golden era of the
Renabsance well reproduced are enough to make an
excellent art gallery without any auxiliaries. But
the Vassar collection tells pictorially the story of the
infancy and childhood, as well as of the maturity, of
art. And this every art gallery in every coUege and
university should tell.

Besides a large bust of the Ludovisi Juno and a
goodly collection of explanatory books and albums*
there were purchased for the sum named over one
thousand pictures. The greater number of these
were the fiunous autotypes of Adolphe Braun, which
are the most serviceable of all copies, combining the
fidelity of photographs with the permanency of cop-
per-plates.

Considering the ideal of aa art collection, we are
quite aware that modest words should be spoken of
that which has just come over the sea to Vassar
College. But for the purpose of teaching the history
of art, we do not doubt that it takes first rank among
American galleries, and it would be a boon to
every American college to receive even a duplicate
of this one, which, we trust, within a decade will
quadrille its wealth.



THE WORLD'S WORK.



Solar Engine.
Thb most recent contribution to the solar heat
problem presents some features that are both inter-
esting and promising. The apparatus consists of a
oone-shaped reflector of polished brass, or silvered



sheet metal, mounted on an iron frame, with suitable
machinery for keeping it adjusted to the movements
of the sun. The cone opens, or flares, at an angle
of 450, and may be made of any convenient size.
Supported in the center of this inverted cone is a



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c^per boiler for goneradng xteam. This is made
in two parts, and* being hollow in the oenter, holds
the water in a thin annular sheet next the outside.
At the bottom is a pipe for supplying the water, and
at the top a pipe with proper safety valves, etc., for
th« steam. The exterior of the boiler is blackened
to assist in absorbing the heat, and over it is placed
a bell glass to prevent the access of cooling currents
of air. On supplying the boiler with water and
exposing the apparatus to the full sun, steam was
raised, and kept at a high pressure without difficulty.
The first apparatus of this kind used a reflector
having a base, or openinf^ 2.60 meters in diameter,
while the boiler held 20 liters of waters On a clear
day in May steam was raised to a pressure of two
atmospheres in (brty minutes, and soon rose to five
atmospheres. In July the apparatus raised 1 5 liters
of water to steam an hour, and the sttam was made
available in driving a small steam-engine. The
apparatus has attracted much attention, and is still
under experiment.

dUr-LMga.

This new fabric consists of sheets of cork and
doth united by a preparation of India-rubber, and,
in the form of blankets, tarpaulins, horse and car-
riage covers, clothing, buckets, tent material, etc.,
has attracted much attention. Its manufacture is
simple and inexpensive. Thin sheets of cork are
given two coats of a solution of crude rubber on one
side. Canvas, linen, or other material is then treated
in the same way. When cold, the sheets of cork
are laid closely on the canvas and pressed down
firm. Two more coats of rubber solution are then
given to the other side of the coric, and more of the
linen, or other fabric, similarly treated, is laid over
it The three sheets are submitted, when cold, to
heavy pressure, and the new material is finished.
It then consists of a layer of cork inclosed between
two pieces of doth and tmited by films of rubber,
and is said to be both water-proof^ flexible, strong,
and a good resbtant to heat and cold.

Air Cooler.

To reduce the temperature in a factory in Paris,
recourse was had to an inexpensive form of air
cooler. A thin pUte of metal* perforated with holes
one-tenth of an inch in diameter, and having a total
area equal to one-ninth of the sur&ce of the plate, was
set at a slight angle in a tight box. Over this plate a
thin sheet of water at a temperature of $$ Falu>. was
allowed to flow steadily, and by means of a power-
blower air was forced into the box bdow the plate.
By iu pressure the air forced its way through the
holes in the plate and through the water, and was
then led by pipes to all parU of the factory. By
this device, the air in the room was reduced to 57^^
Fahr., or within four degrees of the temperature of
the water. Other experiments gave varying results
according to the initial temperature of the water,
but in each case the apparatus reduced the tempera-
ture of tlie current of air to within seven degrees of
that of the water. Steam power is required for the
blower, and, for the best results, the supply of



water must be abundant and its temperature low.
TIm^ application of this device might, in our warm
climate^ prove of use in pork-packing and other
industries where a low temperature is desirable.

New Meaauring Iptmmenta.

These two instruments are designed for measur-
ing plain surfaces, fabrics, etc., and for measuring
distances on scale maps. The machine for measur-
ing surf3u:es, doths, etc., is somewhat larger than a
watdi, has three sets of figures, three hands, and a
slight projection on one edge in which plays a small
wheel The figures on the hot are arranged in
three rings. The outer drde represents ten inches
and fi-actions of indies. The next ring gives feet,
from one up to ten, and the smaller drde of figures
corresponding to the second figures of a watch, give
ten feet each, up to a hundred. The long, hand
points to the indies, the short hand to feet, and the
Httle hand to the groups of ten feet To use the
instrument, set the hands at i, or zero, and then,
holding the instrument upright in the hand, let it nm
on its wheel over the surfoce to be measured. It
win then record on its fiice any dbtance up to 100
feet, and without examination or error, and without
reference to the path followed by the wheel. It
may follow curves, comers, or any other trace, how-
ever complicated, and if a number of pieces of doth
are to be measured, will give the total result without
regard to the stoppages or dianges from one piece
of goods to another. To measure greater lengths
than 100 feet, it is only needed to notice how many
times that point is passed. The other instrument,
called a charto-meter, is smaller, and has only one
hand, and one set of figures on its face. It is
deseed for measuring dbtances on maps drawn to
a fixed scale. Its wheel will follow any path, how-
ever crooked, and it will give the total distance in
miles according to the scale of that particular map.
For maps of other scales, diflerent dials are sup-
plied, and may be easily inserted in the charto-
meter. For maps of unusual scale, as 22 miles to
an inch, a dial is used giving 1 1 miles to an inch,
and the result is multiplied by 2. For a map drawn
to 3 miles to an inch, a dial graded to 6 miles is used,
and the final result divided by 2 gives the distance
in miles. For persons using coast survey diarts
and other important maps, and for persons measur-
ing great quantities of stufls, papers, etc., these two
instruments seem likely to prove useful.

The Electro-lfagnctic Pan.

This novel and faitercsting madune consists of a
hollow metallic pen-handle of the usual length, and
indosing a slender needle. The end of the pen-
handle is drawn to a point ending in a minute hole.
Inside the pen is hung a slender wire, baring a
common cambric needle soldered to the end. At
the top of the pen-handle is a small electro-mag-
netic machine, provided with a drcuit breaker of the
usual form and an eccentric wheel, whereby the circu-
lar motion of the machine is transferred to an up and
down stroke. The interior wire, bearing the needle.



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is secured to this, and performs an up and down
motion, thrusting i.ts point through the hole in the
end of the pen-handle at every stroke. Flexible
wires connect the electro-magnet with a two-cup
battery, and, when prepared for work, this is sufficient
to give the needle about i,ooo strokes a minute. By
holding the pen upright over a piece of writing-paper,
any writing, drawing, plan, tracing, or print may be



Online LibraryFrancis HallThe Century, Volume 11 → online text (page 104 of 163)