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made on the paper as quickly as the operator can
move his hand. So far there is no ink used, and
when the letter or drawing is finished, there is
nothing visible except the lines of minute holes
punched in the paper. Hold the paper up to the
light, and the writing or drawing is plainly seen.
By laying the sheet on other paper and holding it
firm, it may be inked with a printer's hand-roller,
and it thus becomes a stencil-plate. The ink readily
passes through the holes made by the needle, and
many hundred copies may be thus taken. A single
copy can be made in less than half a minute, and if
the paper stencil becomes worn or is destroyed,
another is quickly and easily made. This pen has
already proved usefid in copying letters, plans,
music, and drawings of all kinds, and new uses in
the dress-making and embroidery trades are now
being developed.

Movable Propeller for Sailing Ships.

This new propeller, designed for occasional use
on sailing ships, was first shown at the recent Mari-
time Exhibition, Paris. As sailing vessels in our
coastwise marine now frequently carry a small
steam-engine for handling Uie sails and cargo, the
idea of employing a propeller to be used in calms,
against head-winds, or as occasion demands, would
seem available were it not for the fact that a fixed
propeller would only be a drag when not in use.
This apparatus is designed to overcome this objec-
tion. It consists of an iron frame hung on hinged
arms at the stem, and bearing in the center an
upright shaft At the lower end of the frame-work
are two toothed wheels for transmitting the motion
of the shaft to a short propeller shaft hung below.
At the top of the upright shah is a horizontal grooved
wheel for a belt that extends inboard to a wheel
connected with the engine. When ready for work,
the apparatus hangs partially submerged just behind
the rudder, and, by the means of the belt, the pro-
peller is readily turned and the vessel moved.
When the ^ip is under sail the belt is thrown off,
and by the aid of a hand-windlass on the deck, the
whole apparatus is lifted out of the water, and may
be secured to the edge of the rail, just where the
ship's boat commonly hangs. The apparatus may
be lowered and put in order in less than five min-
utes, and in efscaping calms, navigating crooked
rivers and canals, and against light head-winds, will,
in the opinion of marine experts who have examined
it, prove of great value.

Ostrich Panning.

The accidental discovery of the artificial incuba-
tion of ostrich eggs some years since in Algeria has,
after many disappointing failures, led to practical

commercial results. From Algeria the idea of
domesticating and raising ostriches for their featlieis,
in time spread to the Cape of Good Hope, ^rberc
the business has now assumed the prsi^^n of a
great and growing interest. The chidu are almost
wholly raised by artificial means, and during tiieir
entire life are supplied widi food and belter like so
many domestic fowls. The birds grow up compnrn-
tively tame, though they never seem to lose a cc f taia
irritableness of temper. The ostrich farms are tiss-
ally very large, and to start and maintain one demands
at least $10,000 capitaL The business has also
extended to South America, and is reported to be
profitable. The chides give salable feathers during
the first year, and increase in productiveness vp to
five years of age, when they mature. The fatzds
are said to be hardy and healthy under the semi-
confinement of the farms. The business has beea
suggested as available in our Gulf States.

Preservation of Hops.

A NEWLY patented metiiod of keeping lieps
emplojrs carbonic add as a preservative agenL Air-
tight, tin-lined boxes are loosely filled widi liopsi.
Carbonic add (made in a soda fountain machine by
the usual sulphuric add and marble dust process) is
then admitted to the box through a tul>e that reaches
to the bottom. The gas fills the box, driving die
air out before it as it rises from the bottom. The
hops are then compressed, and more filled in with
an additional supply of gas. This is repeated tfll
the box is loaded with pressed hops saturated with
carbonic add. The cover is put on, and more gs
is added under pressure to drive out the last txaoe
of air, and then the box is quickly sealed hermeti-
cally. The first experiments in this direction
proved entirely suocessfuL

Speed Indicator.
One of the most interesting applications of cen-
trifugal force is shown in a new speed indicator.
The apparatus consists of four glass tubes plaofd
upright in a brass frame-work that turns horixoo-
tally. One tube is placed in the center and in front
of a brass plate (like a thermometer), on wfaidi are
marked the figures that represent the speed. The
other tubes stand at equal distances outside the cen-
tral tube. All are joined together by cross pipes at
the bottom, and the top of each is left open. Mer-
cury is poured into one and finds its level in all, and
rising in the center tube to any desired point on die
scale. By means of a small belt the apparatus is
connected with the engine, press, or other madune,
and turns horizontally with it, fast or slow, as may
be. The revolution of the three tubes round the
central one causes the quicksilver to rise by centrifu-
gal force in each, at the same time drawing down
the column in the central tube, that is merdy turn-
ing on its own axis. The top of this colunm of
mercury then indicates the speed at which the
machinery is moving, and the slightest variation of
the speed is shown visibly. The rapid movement
of the three outside tubes past the scale does not
interfere with the sight in reading the instrument

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Maritime Bocineerinf .

In removing soft mud and silt from sea and riTer
bottoms, a notably interesting device has recently
been exhibited. Tbe plan is to itaft a steam-tug or
barge of large size and fitted with powerful engines,
both for its propulsion and the movement of its
dredging madiinerj. Just abaft the center of the
boat, four holes are inade in the bottom, and to
these are fitted iron pipes, having flexible joints, so
as to hang freely below the keeL These are joined
together by a framet-work, and, by means of a crane
at the stem, they may be raised or lowered at will.
Eadi pipe terminates in a tient shoe, having open-
ings at the sides. When at work, they rest lightly
in the mud at the bottom, and, being flexible, readily
adjust themselves to the changing dq>th caused by
the waves, the tide, or the shoaling of the water.
Through these pipes is sucked up, by the natural
pressure caused by the displacement of the boat, the
loose mud and sand to be removed. It enters the
hold of the boat under considerable pressure, and,
by the aid of steam-pumps, is thrown up through
pipes to the dedc, and thence outboard into barges
alongside. Fitted with such tubes, each lo inches in
diameter, such a boat, it is estimated, will lift and
disdiarge 32,000 yards of silt in 10 hours. With
dean sand, an increase of 20 per cent, over this is
estimated. The plan also presents another interest-
ing feature in a machine for tearing up and loosening
hard packed silt, and preparing it for the suction
tubes. This consists of an iron fork or harrow,
revolving on its own axis, and supported on a frame-
work, lowered by chains from the bow. By this
means it is kept at any required ang^e, and, by
means of a cludn belt, it is caused to revolve, and
thus tear and rip up the bottom just in advance of
the pipes. When at work, the boat is designed to
' be advanced, by means of a line secured to moorings,
and leaving a path on the bottom of varying depth,
according to the character of the material. Each
pipe sucks up a wide area about its mouth, and, in
case of choking or stoppage, may be instantly cleared
by raising the pipes firom the bottom and allowing
the dear water to sweep through. When not in
use, the harrow and the pipes may be raised to the
keel, and the boat then moved to another spot
This new dredging machine has been made the
subject of exhaustive experiment, with satisfactory

Inextinguishable Life Signals.

These chemical lights are now made in a variety
of forms, and serve a useful purpose in giving a
bright light upon the water when thrown overboard.
One of the best of these contains chemicals that will
not bum at any application of heat, but touched by
water will evolve a bright flame. A small cylindri-
cal box, ending above in a soft copper nib, is weighted
below to keep it upright in the water, and filled
with phosphate of caldum. When thrown into the
sea, after the copper nib has been cut off, the water
penetrates into the box, and the phosphureted
hydrogen evolved escapes through a perforated tube

leading to the open nib in a brilliant jet of Ug^
Rain and spray only increase its brilliancy.

N«w Puela,

In the manufacture of bricquetts, or brick of coal-
dust, for ftiel, a slight modification of the usual Bel-
gium process is announced. Instead of using water
in making the coal-dust into a paste, a boiling mixt-
ure of tar and pitch is employed. To this is added
sulphate of lime to remove the ammonia of the tar.
The mixture is composed of 33^ parts of pitch,
13.6 of tar, and 1.80 of sulphate of lime, to one ton
of coal-dust. The experiments going on in this
department of ftiel economy in this country have
reached a practical stage in Pennsylvania, and fuel
manufttctuied from coal-slack is already being exten-
sively employed. So far, the reports are favorable
to the quality of these American bricquetts, and they
are bdng freely introduced on locomotive engines.
A French company is now extensively manufactur-
ing kindling material for domestic fires by utilizing
corn-cobs. Two processes are employed. By one,
thjB com-cobs are first steeped in hot water contain-
ing 2 per cent of saltpeter, and then saturated with
resinous matter. By the other process, the cobs are
soaked in a hot mixture of 60 parts resin and 40 parts
tar. They are then dried, and afterward bak^ on
a plate heated to 212^ Fahr. Assorted and secured
in bundles, they sell at the rate of four for an Eng-
lish halfpenny, or, at wholesale, for $2 or $3 a thou-
sand. A process for utilizing com-cobs by satu-
rating them with resin has been patented in this
country, and their manufacture h^s been attempted.
The inventor already reports an active demand for
them as domestic fire-lighters.

Ship and Canal Boat PropeUetB.

From the offidal reports concerning the hood
placed over and before the screw of the British war
sh^ ** Bruiser,'' and from recent experiments with
a new propeller for canal boats, some interesting
fistcts are added to the sdence of sea and inland
navigation. The hood or casing of iron plates
placed about the screw of the steamship ^ Bmiser''
resulted in increased speed, and less jar or motion
to the ship. It also prevented, in an appredative
degree, the racing of the engine when the screw ran
out of water in a high sea, by holding a certain
amount of water about the propeller. The hood
also serves as an efiectual guard in preventing float-
ing debris from fouling the screw. The new canal
boat propeller consists of a large sheet-iron screw
or wheel, 7 feet in diameter, hung in the air at the
stem, and just dear of the water. A canal boat 40
feet long and drawing 13 inches was driven at a
speed of four miles an hour with this screw, making
400 revolutions a minute. The power emplo3red
was a common upright engine vrith an eight-inch
cylinder. The practical results obtained with this
air-wheel were suffident to warrant the inventors in
constructing another, which is soon to be tried on
the Erie Canal.

Digitized by





Wordsworth to the Queen.

The following poem of Wordsworth, addressed
to Queen Victoria, has recently been printed for the
first time in an edition of Wordsworth's prose:
"The Prose Works of William Wordsworth, for
the first time collected, with additions from repub-
lished manuscripts. Edited, with preface, notes, and
illustrations, by the Rev. Alexander B. Grosart In
three volumes." *

Dcigiif Soverngn Mistress! to accex^t a lAy»

No Laureate ofibrin^ of elabosate ait;
But salutaticm taking its glad wav

From deep recesses of a loyal neart.

Queen, Wife, and Mother! may All-judging Heaven
Shower with a bounteous hand on Thee and Hiine

Fdidty that only can be given
On earth to goodness bleit by grace (fivine.

Lady I devoutly honored and beloved
Throueh every realm confided to thy sway;

Mayst "Diou pursue thy course by God approved,
And He will teach thy people to obey.

As Thou art wont, thy sovereignty adorn
With woman's gentleness, yet fum and staid;

So shall that earthly crown thy brows have worn
Be changed for one whose glory cannot fiuie.

And now, by duty urg^ I lay this Bode

Before thy Majesty, m humble triist
That on its simplest pages Thou wih look

With a benign indulgence more than just

Nor wih Thou blame an aged Poet's prayer.
That issumg hence may steal into tny mind

Some solace under weight of royal car^
Or giie^the inheritance of human land.

For know we not that from celestial spheres,
When Time was young, an inspiration came

(Oh, were it mine!) to hallow saddest tean.
And help life onward in its noblest aimt

9th January, 1846. W. W.

Who waa «*The Lost Leader?*'

1 N the preface of the recent edition of Wordsworth's
prose occurs this letter from Robert Browning, in
reply to an inquiry by the Editor regarding the
original of the "Lost Leader." It is certainly
explicit enough to set forever at rest all discussion
and speculation upon this much-mooted topic :

"19, WARWicK-caBScnrr, W.
Dkar Mr. Grosakt, Feb. 94, '75.

I have been asked the question you now addren me with,
and as duly answered it, I can't remember how many times:
there is no sort of objection to one more assurance, or rather
confession, on my part, that I did in my hasty youth presume
to use the great and veneiattd personaK^ of WoxdsWoxth as
a sort of painter's model ; one from whicn tUs or the other par-
ticular feature maybe selected and turned to account: had I
intended more, above all. such a boldness as portraying the
entire man, I should not have talked about * handfiils of silver
and bits of ribbon.' TheW never influenced die change of
polidcs in the great poet: whose defection, neverthelen, accoin*
panted as it was by a regular &ce-about <A his q>ecial party,
was to my juvenile apprchennon, and even mature oonsKkra-
tkm. an event to deplore. But just as in the tapestry on my
wall I can recognize figures which have struck out a &ncy.
on occasion, diat though truly enough thus derived, yet would
be preposterous as a copy, so, though I dare not deny the
origmal of my Kttle poem. 1 altogether refuse to have it con-
sidered as the 'very effigies' of such a moral and intellectual

Faidifully yours,


*London : Edward Moxon, Son & Co. New Yock: Scrib-
ner, WeMbrd & Armstrong.

The AdvertlMmeDt Answered.

Good momin' til yez, yer honor! And arc yci

the gintlemon
As advertised, in the paper, fur an active, intilfi-

. gint b'y ?
Y' are? Thin I've brought him along wid me,—

a raal, fine spri^ iv a wan:-»
As likely a b'y iv his ag^ sur,^ ivcr yc'd wish

til empl'y.

That's him. Av coorse I'm his niotherl Ye?

can see his resimblance til me.
Fur ivery wan iv his faytures, and mine^ are aHke

as two paze,*-
Barrin' wan iv his hivenly eyes» whidi he lost in

a bit iv a sfuree
Wid Hooligan's b'y, which mtinded to larrup me

Teddy wid aize;

And his taythe, which hun^ out on his lip, like a

pair iv bi^, shinin', twin pearls.
Till wan iv thim taydie was removed by the lat

iv a cow he was tazin;
And his hair, that we niver cu'd comb, along iv

bewhilderin' curls,
So we kape it cropp'd short to save combin', and

that makes our interooorse plazin.

And is it rid-headed, ye call him ? B^Kke be k

foxy, is Ted;
And goold^x>k>red hair is beoomin' til thim thntH

complicted wid blonde!
But who cares fur color ? Sure, contints out-vally

the rest iv the head!
And Ted has a head full iv contints, as fively as

t'hrout in a pondl

Good timpered? Sure niver a bett'her. — The

paceablest, quietest, lamb
As uves the whole lin'th iv our st'hrate, where

the b'ys is that kane fur a row
That Ted has to fight iv'ry day, though he'd

quarrel no more than a dam. —
Faith, thim b'ys 'nd provoke the swate angels, is

hiven, to fight onyhow !

Thim Hooligan b'3rs is that d'hirty, they have to

be washed wanst a wake: —
Faith, Hooligan finds it convanient to live down

feminst the canall
Where the wat'her fur scrubbin the mud off his

child'hers is not far til sake. —
But Teddy is alius that nate that he niver nades

washin' at all!

Can he rade? Sure, me Ted has the makin' iv

a beautiful rader, indade.
And lairn't all his lett'hers, but twinty, in three

months^ attindance at school:
But the mast'her got mad at me Teddy, becase iv

a joke that was played
Wid a pin, that persuaded the mast'her quite sud*

dint to rise from his stool.

Teddy niver cu'd plase that school-mast'her wkl

ony iv thim playful t'hricks;
So, wid his edication unfinished, Ted found it

convanient to lave.

Digitized by




Biity barrin' the learnin', I'll match hhn, for kaiie>

nessy feminst ony six.
In batt'herin' paple wid blarney and playin' nate

t'hricks to desare.

Thim Hooligan b*ys is all raders, but Teddy jist

skins 'em alive:
Wid their marbles, and pavnuts and pennies,

iv'ry wan iv his podcets nell fill
By the turn iv his wnst» ur such tactics as Teddy

knows how til cont'hrive:—
They'd gladly f hrade off their book-lamin' fur

Ted^s suparior skill!

Politeness comes aisy til Ted, for he's had me to

tache him the thrick
It bowin' and scrapin' and spakin' to show paple

proper respict.
Spake up tU the gintlemon, Teddy! Whist! AA

wid yer cap first, ye stick!
He's sluq>ish a t'hrifle, ^er honor; he's alios been

brought up that stnct.

Come! Spake up, and show yer foine bradin!

Och! Hear that! «How are yea, Owld

Arrah, millia mnrtherl Did iver yea hear jist

the aqual iv that?
•"How are yea, Owld Moke?" says he! Ha!

Ha! Sure, yer honor, he manes it in joke!
He's the playfulleat b'y! Faith, it's laughin' at

Teddy that makes me so &t! -

Honest? Troth, he is that! He's that honest,

he was niver tuk by the perlace,
Barrin' wanst that Owld H9olinn swore that

Teddy had stole his b'v's knUe
Wid divii a blade. And tne iidce he remairked,

wid contimpt, 'twas the t'nrininest case
To bod'her a dignified Coort wid, he iver had

known in his life!

Yea can t'hrust him wid onything. Honest ! Does

he luk like a b'y that 'ud stale ?
Jist luk in the swate, open face iv him, barrin'

the eye wid the wink: —
Och! Teddv!! Phat ugly black sfhrameis it

runnin' down there by yer hale! ♦ ♦ ♦
Murtheration ! Yer honor, me Teddy has spilt

yer fine bottle iv ink! !

Phat? How kem the ink in his pocket?
thinkin' he borry'd it, sur:^


And yez saw him pick up yer pen-howlder and

stick it inside iv his slaive!
And yez think that Ted mint til purline 'em ! !

An, wirra! The likes iv that slur
Will d'hrive me,— poor, tiuder, lone widdy,-HRrid

sorrow down intil me grave!

Bad cess til yea, Teddy, ve spalpeen! Why

c'u'dn't yea howld ou, tne day—
Yc thafe iv the world !— widout breakin' the heart

iv me ? No. Yez must stale !
I'll Uche yez a t'hrick, ye rid-headed, pilferin',

gimlet-eyed flay! —
Yc (reckle-faced, impident bki'guard !— Och ! whin

we git home yez '11 squale!

Frank M. Thorn.

A Pleca of Red Caltco.

Ma. EorroR : If the fc4lowuig true experienoe shall prare of
tOY advantage to any of your readers, I shall be glad.
I was going into town the other moraing, when my wife

ttle piece of red caHco^ and asked me if I would
have lime, during the day. to buy her two yards and a half of
caficoKkethat I assured her that it woulcl be no trouble at all,
and putting die piece of calico in my pocket, I look the train
for the dtv.

At hmcb time I stopped in at a large dry-goods store to attend
to onr wife's commission. I say a wellwlresaed man walking
the floor b etween the counters, where long lines of giris were
waiting on much longer lines of customers, and asked him
where I could see some red calica

''llkis way, sir," and he led me up the store. "Miss
Stone," said he to a young lady, '* show this gentleman some
red omco.**

"What shade do youwantt" asked Miss Stone.

I showed her die httle piece of calico that my wife had given
me. She kxJced at it and handed it back to me. Then she took
down a great nJI of red calico and spread it out on the counter.

"Why, that isn't the shade!" said I.

" No, not exactly," aaid ah^ '* but it is pcettier than your

"Ihat may be^" said I; "but, you see, 1 wamt to match dus
piece. There is something already made of this Idnd of caUcc^
which needs to be made larger, or mended, or something. I
want some calico of the same slmde."

The gill made no answer, but took down anodier roH

** That's the shade," said she.

"Yes," I replied, "but it's striped."

" Stripes are more worn than anything else in caUcoes,*' ai^

"Yes: but this isn't to be worn. It's for furniture, I think.
At any rate, I want periectly plain stufl^ to match somethaog
already in use."

"Wdl, I don't think you can find it perfectly pUun, unless
you get Turkey red."

" What b Turkey redt " I asked.

" Turkey red is perfectly plain in caUcoes," she answered


"We haven't any Turkey red calko left," she said, "but we
have some very nice plain calicoes in other colors."

" I don't want any other color. 1 want stuff to nutdi this. "

" It's hard to match cheap calico like that," she said, and ao
I left her.

I next went into a store a few doors further up Broadway.
When 1 entered I approached the "floor-walker, ' and hand-
ing him my sample, said:

" Have you any calico Hkc this?"

" Yes, sir," said he. •* Third counter to U»e right"

I went to the third comer to the right, and showed my sam-
ple to the salesman in attendance there. He kK>kcd at it oo
both sides. Then he said :

" We haven't any of this."

"That gentleman said you had," said 1.

" We had it, but we're out of it now. VouH get that goods
at an upholsterer's."

I went across the street to an upholsterer's.

" Have you any stuff' Hke this f " I asked.

" No," said the salesman. "We haven't Is it for furniture f"


" Then Turlcey red is what you want? "

" Is Turkey red just like dus? " I asked.

• No " said he; "*• but it's much better."

"That makes no difference to me," I replied "I want
something just like this."

" But mey don't use that for furniture," he aaid

" I should think people could use an^rthing they wanted for

miture?" I renuunkeo, somewhat shj


furniture?" I renuu^ed, somewhat sharply.^

" They can. but ihey don't" he said, quite calmly.

don't use red Hke that They use Turkey red. "
I said no more, but left. 'The next place 1 visited was a verv

large dry-goods store.^ Of the first salesman 1 saw 1 inquired tt

tlu^ kept red calico like my sample.
" You'n find that on the second s

story," said he.

I went upstairs. There I asked a man :

" Where win I find red calico ? "

^'In the for room to the left. Right over diere." And he
pointed to a distant comer.

I walked through the crowds of purchasers and salespeople,
and around the counters and tables filled with goods, to the fi»
room to the left When I got there I asked for red calica

" The second counter down this side," said the man.

I went there and produced my sample. " Calicoes down-
stain," said the man.

" They told me they were up here," I said.

" Not these plain goods. You'll find 'em down-stairs at the
back of the store, over on that side."

I went down ■stairs to the back of the store.

" Where wiU I find red calico Kke diisT " I asked.

" Next counter but one," said the man addressed, 'walking
with me in the direction pointed out

" Dunn, show red calicoes."

Mr. Dunn took my sample and kwked at it

" We haven't this shade in that quality of goods." he said.

" Well, have you it in any quality of goods? " I asked.

Digitized by




** Oh, this is buHy \ I geu wanned, and has a cndl •'

Online LibraryFrancis HallThe Century, Volume 11 → online text (page 105 of 163)