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out the large lines on which he failed.

Reden und Vorlesungen, F. Hecker, LL.D. St
Louis. — A German refugee of 1848, Friedrich
Hecker has further claims upon our notice, because-
he fought in our Rebellion, and is the possessor of
a gift of public speaking, which makes him a mouths
piece of our fellow-dtizens of German tongue. If
we may trust the portrait that accompanies these his
Speeches and Readings, he is in appearance as thor-
ough a Teuton as his enthusiastic, dose-pressed
sentences argue him to be in mind. It is this quality
which makes his words pleasant reading; there is
no half way with him ; he has not only the courage
of his opinions, but wields a tmmpet with which U>
blow them abroad in the ears of men. It is a pity
there is not an English translation of all that he has
to say, both because we ought to know what our
German neighbors think, and because there are
many among ourselves whom this kind of writing-
and no other will reach. He is not unlike some of
our own public speakers of the past generation ; not
as fvie as the best, but without the fellings of the
second best in the way of knowledge and good
taste. The samples of his work before us combine
speeches at festivals and meetings of Tumvereine^ a
Defense of the Republic, a parallel between office-
holders here and abroad, another between Lincoln
and Cromwell, much to the advantage of the former,
and an impressive bit of German thunder against
woman's rights. Although very unequal, all these
pieces possess a vital breath of conviction, and are
well disposed to stir slothful minds into looking about
them, and seeing what manner of land this is, espe-
cially what advantages they possess in their own coun-
try, and what national sins must be crushed. Like
many persons of positive temperament, Herr Hecker
is sometimes a partisan, even to inconsequence. He
should not slur over the difficulty in Alsatia by say-



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THE WORLD'S WORK,



ing that, because the inhabitants speak German,
they ought to belong to Gennany, or that theirs is
land stolen from Germany. It would be more con-
sistent in a refugee of 1848, and an ardent upholder
of our institutions, to advocate freedom of choice
for the victims (as they now think themselves) of
Prussian tyranny. When Alsatia was taken from
France and tacked willy-nilly on to the German
Empire, there was no slavery question or certainty
of national disruption, as when South Carolina hur-
ried us into a great war.

Beruf der Frauen %um Studium und Ausiibung
der Hcihnssensch^^, W. V. Zehender. — A speech
delivered at the University of Rostock reflects
pretty well the sentiments of most educated physi-
cians, not only of conservative Germany, but even
of the United States, in regard to the question of the
study and practice of medicine on the part of women.
It is needless to say that the opinion is adverse as
far as the practice is concerned ; as to the study, that
the speaker would leave to women themselves. He
advocates giving them all possible advantages, but
thinks them better fitted for nurses than doctors.
The number of women who can stand the hard
study and hard work of practicing the profession is



so small, that it is not possible to recognize tfaem as
a class ; but if diplomas are open to one they most
be open to all. The inference is, that the few
abnormal women who are mentally and physicallj
equal to the strain must go without the usual formal
recognition of graduation, although nothing shall
stand in the way of their self-improvement The
number of poor physicians is already great enougii,
without turning on a flood of imperfectly capacitated
women doctors. The real genius will show without
diploma. — Schmidt.

Le Manage de GMtrd. Une Ondine. A. Then-
riet — Slight plots moving in charming scenes of
provincial life make these a very pleasing brace of
novels, whidi will not " raise a blush to the cheek"
of that young person famous in modem English lit-
erature. The heroines are, of course, Parisiennes
in manners and attractive wiles, but their caprices
only make them all the more charming in contrast
with stiff provincials. The author strains a point
of conscientiousness, when he acknowledges his obli-
gations to an English novel called ** Good-bye, Sweet-
heart," for the idea of '^ Une Ondine;" sudi pains
are hardly necessary, hb own story being very dif-
ferent and much the better. — Christem.



THE WORLD'S WORK.



Carbon Furnace.

vXoi elaborate and costly ex-
>f years this furnace has re-
sting and apparently success-

In this instance it was em-
ight scrap" (refuse wrought
for roUing into plates. An
am-boiler on top, was used,
t of the fire door was erected
le design of this furnace is to
to an inflammable vapor by
Ueam. To do this, a " gen-
e form of superheater are
ion with a brick '* mixing
f " Bunsen burner " made of
ator consists of an upright
rhat higher than wide, and
thin iron shelves, one above

bottom. At the top is an
escape-pipe for the resulting
is an inlet for the steam, and
ck-work, is the superheater,

pipe, resting in a small fiir-

n pounds pressure is taken

y becoming incandescent, it

Crude petroleum is then

he generator, and, as it drips



downward from shelf to shelf^ it meets the slowly
ascending steam, and becomes completely vaporized,
and is taken up and carried forward in the form of
vapor through the escape-pipe to the furnace. To
bum this combined oil and steam, air must be sup-
plied, and it is led into the ''mixing chamber."
This is a brick chamber erected just where the fire
door stood when the fiimace employed coal for fuel.
Air is here mingled with the vapor through a regu-
lating-damper, and the mixture flows on, still under
pressure, to the *^ combustion diamber." In a solid
brick wall, forming one side of this chamber, is
left an opening opposite the pipe that discharges the
vapor from the generator. Here is a tier of fire-
bricks, 18 inches thick, and so arranged as to pre-
sent a net-work of openings through the wall. This
serves to break up the stream of mingled air and
vapor, and the flame that bums immediately behind
it spreads out and fills the entire furnace. Six piles
of scrap-iron, averaging 500 lbs. each, are placed in
the furnace, and in the dazzling white heat of the
hydro-carbon flame are reduced to a workable con-
dition in less time and with less trouble than by the
usual coal-burning process. The flame and heat,
after passing the furnace, flow on through the tubu-
lar boiler overhead, and there make steam for driv-
ing the rolling-mills, where the reheated scrap is
finally made into plates. The advantages claimed



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139



for this patton of hydro- carbon furnace are : a gain
in time in heating the furnace and raising steam, a
large saving of labor, entire freedom from dust,
soot, dnders, and smoke in the furnace and boiler-
floes, and a greatly improved quality of iron. The
nomber of hands employed in maintaining the fire is
reduced, and the cost of fuel and labor is much
lessened. The experiments were entirely satisfactory
in every respect, and hopes are entertained that the
hydro-carbon question may by this apparatus reach
a satisfactory solution. The same plan is about to
be tried upon a first-dass locomotive. Details of
the results will be promptly furnished as soon as the
engine is in operation.

Ifarcurial Safety-valve.

This new apparatus does not differ in its action
from the ordinary weighted lever-valve. In place
of the usnal slidhig weight upon a solid arm, is a
hoUow arm carrying metallic diambers at each end.
Thb arm passes through eyes in the top of three
small uprights over the valves. One of these is
jointed ; one, in the center, is fixed to the top of the
valve, and the other moves up and down in guides.
Set screws hold the hollow bar in these at any
desired position, and a locked cover prevents access
to them. At the weighted end of the hollow lever,
and communicating with it, is a cast-iron chamber
made heavy by a thick base. At the opposite end
of the lever is another and smaller chamber. When
ready for use the large chamber is filled with mer-
cury. When the steam pressure exceeds the desired
limit the valve rises and lifb the lever. The mer-
cury at once flows through the lever to the chamber
at the opposite end. This transfer acts as a counter-
poise, and the valve instantiy opens wide and the
stean escapes freely. When the pressure is relieved
the lever frdb, and the mercury flows back to its
former position. The object of this device is to
prevent the usual hesitation in safety valves, and in
practice it is said to work well



ArtlUery Praetlcew

The race between guns and j^tes has been quite
even for the past few years. Recently, a novel
application of electricity to the firing of guns seems
to place the guns ahead. Four or more guns having
been shotted and trained upon the target, are fired
simultaneously by wire. The combined shots strik-
ing at the same instant, shatter the target in a man-
ner that no armor plates could survive. This
method of firing opens a new field in artillery prac-
tice, and places plates as a means of defense at a
disadvantage. In shells, a new application of gim-
cotton and water forms a formidable and destructive
shot known as the water-shell. This is a common
iron shell charged with half an ounce of gun-cotton,
and provided with a suitable fulminate and fuse.
These are placed in the shell, and the remaining
space is filled with water. When exploded, the
^lell breaks into a great number bf very small frag-



ments. The common powder-charged shell breaks
into only a few large pieces, and for this reason is
less destructive. The theory of this is, that the
powder bums slowly, and that the shell splits only
in places where the pressure is first exerted. Gun-
cotton, on the other hand, explodes instantaneously,
and the shock being communicated by the uncom-
pressible water to all parts of the shell at once, it is
more thoroughly shattered, and the resulting cloud
of missiles is greatly increased, in number and
destructiveness.

The Phonometer.

This apparatus is designed to assist the signal-
man on steamships in marking the intervals of time
at which the fog-horn or whistle is to be blown, and
to regulate the sounds in such a way as to cause
them to announce the ship's course. It consists of
a horizontal dock, placed, face up, in some conveni-
ent position in sight of the signal-man. The face is
about eight inches in diameter, and indicates seconds
only, the minute and hour figures and hands being
upon a small dial near one edge, just as the second-
hand is placed on watches. The second-hand has
four arms at right angles with each other, and above
the face is a movable disk, or dumb card, that
obscures about three-fourths of the whole dial.
Around the edge of the dock face are painted sec-
tions or segments. One of these covers ten seconds'
space; four mark five seconds each, and between
each are blanks of three seconds each. Outside of
the clock is a flat brass ring, having the points of
the compass marked upon it In using the pho-
nometer, the disk is moved round till the open part
comes opposite the ship's head and in line with her
course. The segments on the dial that are then
visible indicate the number of blasts to be given on
the whistle. The second-hands, as they then come
into view, give the duration in seconds of each blast
and each pause. The signal-man has no thought or
choice in the matter. He merdy watches the hands
as they traverse the segments in sight, and sounds
his whistle accordingly, and it is impossible to com-
mit an error. The sounds, if they follow the instru-
ment, announce the ship's direction. For instance,
one blast of ten seconds indicates that the ship is
steering within the points north and east, quarter
north. Two blasts of five seconds each, with an
interval of three seconds between them, would
announce the ship's direction as between east and
south, quarter east. Three blasts, and two pauses
of five and three seconds, would mean south to west,
quarter south, while four blasts of five seconds, with
the same pauses, would indicate the ship's course to
be between west and north, quarter west. These
signals would be sufiident to give a general idea of
the direction from which the unseen steamer was
approaching, and the formula, being easily remem-
bered, would be quickly and readily understood by
all. The disk employed is designed to prevent
mistakes, and the four hands serve to save time in
watching for their appearance and journey over the
visible portion of the diaL



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THE WORLD'S WORK,



RiblesB Boats.

Sail-boats, for coast and river fishing,** built up"
without ribs, are very popular in Massachusetts Bay,
on account of their speed, lightness, cheapness, and
ease of construction. They are so easily and quickly
made that Eastern fishermen are becoming inde-
pendent of the boat-builders, and each man builds
his own boat at his leisure. To make one, the only
material needed are good dear pine boards, each the
whole length of the intended boat, a few pounds of
small nails (galvanized), and the material for the
stem, keel, and stem-post The boards are run
through a saw-mill and cut into strips about an inch
and a-half wide, and out of these the boat is built up
according to working models. These models are
merely patterns of wood that give the outside of a
half-section of the boat. They give the shape of
the boat at every foot of her length, and are formed
fxova some existing boat or drawn from a scale de-
signed by some competent boat-builder. The keel,
stem-post and stem are set up and secured together
firmly, and then to the keel two strips are fitted hori-
zontally, one on each side, and having been planed
down at each end to fit the model, holes are bored
through them and they aresecnrely nailed to the keel.
Over each is laid another strip, and with the plane
and shave it is fitted to them in such a way as to
conform to the shape of the boat, and then each is
nailed doMm as before. In this simple manner the
work proceeds. As the strips are nailed one over
the other, they are bent to conform to the shape of
the boat, and beveled to give the sides the right
form.

A single day's practice in fitting the strips to
the shape of the bosit will enable a good carpenter to
do the work with neatness and dispatch, and any
person skillful with plane and hammer could in time
turn boat-builder. When the sides rise to the gun-
wale, a broader and thicker strip of oak or ash is
laid over all, to act as a fender and gunwale. During
the whole process, the strips are kept heavily puiint-
ed with white lead, and, when all is finished, we
have a ribless shell, showing no nails except at the
top, and exactly conforming on the outside and in
to the model. To give lateral strength, shorter pieces
of the strips are built up from the keel inside, and
carefully fitted to the sides. The seats are placed
over these, and then decks, store-room and cabin
may be added as desired. Boats made in this way
are very light and buoyant, and, being smooth on
the outside, are good sailers. In case of injury,
they are easily repaired by cutting out the broken
place and inserting new strips, secured by backing
on the inside. In practical use, such boats are
found to be swift, dry and safe. They make good
sea boats, and are said to resist injury with ease.
In sailing they demand plenty of ballast, to com-
pensate for their lightness. Their cheapness and
ease of constraction are rapidly bringing them into
fiivor, as the cost is about one-third less than by
the ordinary method. Two men with the mate-
rials in hand can easily make a boat 18x6 in sixteen
days.



Riveted Joinu.

The increased demand for plate and boiler-work
has stimulated scientific investigation, and brought
out many fiacts of general interest The value of a
piece of plate-work depends on the strength of the
riveted portions. Calling the strength of an un-
punched plate at 100, the strength of a double-riveted
joint is reckoned at 66, a single-riveted joint at 50.
Pinched rivet-holes, by means 'of the tearing and
splitting caused by a smashing blow, are found to
be less valuable by 15 per cent than drilled holes.
Oval rivet-holes have been tried with success. The
long diameter of the rivet is placed in line with the
length of the plate, thus reducing the space between,
the holes in its weakest direction. Sir W. Fairbaim
suggests roUing-plates with thickened edges, so that
the line of rivet-holes will be relatively stronger.
This idea is now undergoing experiment. Bofler-
plates are also being riveted diagonally, with the
joints at an angle of 45 with the axis of the boiler.
As the relative strength of iron and steel plates is —
iron, 50,000 lbs. ; steel, 60,000 lbs., many boilers
are now being made of steel for the sake of this dif-
ference in strength.

Enameled Ceilinge.

A REFRESHMENT saloon in London has been fiii>
ished inside in such a manner as to be readily washed
out with a hose. The floor is paved, the walls are
of majolica, and the oeiling is covered with enameled
sheet iron. When it is desired to dean ^e room,
the furniture is removed, the hose is laid on, and the
place is simply drenched and flooded till dean. The
ceiling is the novel feature of the room. To prepare
it, large pieces of sheet iron were coated with white
enamel in the usual manner, and were then hand-
somely painted in colors. Alter baking to secure the
odors, the sheets were affixed to the beams of the
floor overhead. The joints are made to fit tig^t, and
once in place, the enamded plates will last as longas
the building stands. This style of ceiling is partially
fire-proof^ and saves all the expense, repairs and
dangers of laths and plaster. There is no patent on
this system of ceilings, and any enameling firm may
make the sheets in plain colors, dear white, or in
patterns to fit any refireshment-room, bath-room,
laundry, dairy, or other room where a washaMe ceil-
ing is desired.

Aebeatos Paper.

Asbestos pounded in a mortar till reduced to a
cotton-like mass, and then freed from earthy matter
in a sieve, has been put in a paper vat, and gpod
sheets of laid paper produced in the usual way. The
sheets, on being written upon, were placed in the
fire, but came out uninjured, though the writing was
burned out and effaced. Such sheets of paper might
be easily available if the letters in the writing were
punched through it.

Morse's alphabet would be useful here, as the let-
ters would be mere slits and minute holes, not ha^
i ble to tear the paper.



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141



Qmphic niostrtttiona of Music applied to Doconrtion.

The osdUations of illuminated tuning-forks are
often used to exhibit graphically the curves that
result from the union of harmonic vibrations. Bits
of glass are fixed to the forks, and, by the aid of a
lamp, reflections from the little mirrors are cast upon
Che screen. On sounding the forks, the spots of
reflected light assume various curves and figures
upon the screen. A fork sounding a note, and
another giving its octave, give one figure; two icy^k&^
tuned a fifUi apcut, give another, and so on. In
every case the figures are fixed for each chord, and
50 well known are the curves produced in this way,
that each chord is readily recognized, and the curves
are named the octave, the third, the fifth, the seven-
teenth, etc. All of these harmonic figures have
more or less beauty of form. Some of the more com -
plex are exceedingly interesting and attractive on
account of their grace of outline and detail. Draw-
ings of these figures have been made; but aside
from their scientific interest, they did not prove of
any special value. Another and more simple method
of producing them has led to a new application of
these curves, and they can now be produced in a
permanent form that makes them available in deco-
rative art This method is well known to students
of sound, and may be easily carried out alter a little
practice. A stiff wooden bar (a yard-stick will
answer) is supported at the ends in a horizontal
position. From this is suspended a short piece of
string m the form of a loop, each end being fixed to
the stick. The string is drawn through a common
four-bole button, and from this is hung a single
piece of string, having a cup or hollow pendulum at
the end. This pendulum has a small hole in the
bottom, and when m use is fiUed with sand. This
compound pendulum has a universal motion upon a
horixontal plane. Set the string swinging in the
fine of the loop, and the pendulum will perform
backward and forward excursions in that direction.
Let the string rest and swing the loop, and the pen-
dulum will make journeys at exactly right angles
with the first directions. Set both loop and string
in motion in the two directions, and the pendulum
will describe curves that represent the combined or
resultant motions. It is easy to see that the lengths
of the string and the loop may be so adjusted to
each other as to bear the same relation as a note to
its octave, its third, fifth, etc If arranged in this
way, the pendulum will then make its excursions in
curves, exactly representing the figures shown upon
the screen in graphic illustrations of harmonic inter-
vals by the aid of tuning-forks. To make the pen-
dulum record its motions, it is filled with sand.
This escapes in a slender stream through the hole in
the bottom, and is distributed along its path; A
plate of £^s held beneath the pendulum will be
covered with the sand laid down in lines correspond-
ing to the figure it describes. To fix the sand per-
manently, the glass Is first painted lightly with
Trench vamidbL" When this is cold and hard,
the sand figure is laid upon it by the pendulum. On
exposing the under side of the glass to a gentle



heat (without disturbing the sand), the varnish is
melted, and the sand quickly adheres to it On
cooling the plate, the varnish sets, and a portion of
the sand is fixed. The loose sand is rubbed off, and
a perfect and permanent picture of the harmonic
curves is permanently secured to the glass. Glass
decorated in this way may then be treated as lights
in window decoration; or, framed, may be hung upon
the wall. In place of sand, smalt may be employed
to give color to the designs. Tiles for exterior
walls might have the same figures laid upon them
in the various vitreous colors used in tile-painting,
and, properly burned, would give an entirely new
style of architectural decoration.

Memoranda.

A NEW device for controlling the tension of the
thread in sewing-machines has been brought out
which has some features of interest In place of the
usual tension is a horizontal disk fixed to a stand-
ard placed at the end of the machine opposite the
needle, and at the operator's right This disk has a
slight up-and-down motion, and is connected by a
short arm that is geared to a small wheel on the
shaft under the table. At each revolution of the
wheel the arm raises and lowers the disk, alternately
biting and holding the thread, and throwing it loose
at every stroke. By this simple device the tension
of the thread follows the motion of the needles auto-
matically, and adjusts it to whatever kind of work is
passing through the machine.

In the straw-burning engines now in use the
straw is fed to the fire in a loose stream, and con-
sumed as fast as it enters the fire-box. The con-
sumption is therefore rapid and continuous. A
device for retarding the combustion of straw, and for
the utilization of a vast supply of fuel in the form of
dead leaves, grass, etc., has been brought out, and
good results are claimed for it. The grass or straw
in the stove is compressed into a solid mass by a
movable follower or wei^t that rests upon it By
thus applying pressure to the straw only the sides
of the mass can bum, the top and bottom being
protected by the follower and grate. By regulating
the draft the fire may then be placed under control.

In place of a needle in ships' compasses two con-
centric cirdea mounted upon a cross piece of alumi-
num are recommended. The maximum of magneti-
zation is at the nordi and south sides of the rings,
and decreases to the neutral points east and west
The advantages claimed for this ring-compass, and
recommended by the naval experts who have exam-
ined it, are greater sensitiveness, a less sluggish



Online LibraryFrancis HallThe Century, Volume 11 → online text (page 26 of 163)