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tragedies. Nations have been marching and coun-
termarching in Bulgaria from the earliest days,



oppressing and being oppressed, merging widi one
another, or exterminating as the case might be.
The present Bulgarian is a mixture of conquering
Finn- Bulgarian with a conquered Servian, but his
land is also in part possessed by other races. A
thorough and conscientious workman, Kanitz has
had long acquaintance with the country, and die
supply of polidcal, industrial, and ethnological knowl-
edge on which he has to draw is very greaL The
woHl is illustrated with lithognqpfas in the text, tea
lull-page illustrations, and contains a map by Peter-
mann, giving the routes taken by Kanitz in Us many
joumeyings in the Balkan.

Mimcires posthumes de OtRIon Barroi^ I79i-i83a
— Barrot was in the front of events during most of
his life, which was passed in the most eventful
age that French history can show. He was a hour-
g€otSt and had the bourgeois virtues. A man of
decided caliber, he was hardly vident enou^
hardly vivid enou^ to impress Paris very strongly,
for Paris has always detested moderation. It has
said to her first men : If you have no power bdiind
you, make believe 1 Barrot is minute in these post-
humous memoirs, but not too minute for whomso-
ever the annals of Paris interest. (Christem.)

Voyage au pays des milliards, Victor Tissot.—
The land of milliards b of course Germany, a coun-
try about which Frenchmen are of late years some-
what curious. M. Ussot is much more than an
observant traveler, — he appears to be a thinker, and,
not alone that, but the owner of a haj^y style of
writing, inclining to the gendy satiricaL Above aU
diings, he is a Liberal, and can put an estimate on
Napoleon and William without prejudice, national or
otherwise. There is no slipshod writing ; all is dose
description or quotation, so that the amount of infor-
mation he conveys is large. He adds also one
more voice to the testimony concerning the incred-
ible brutality of the criminal classes of BerliB.
(Christem. )



THE WORLD'S WORK.



Novel Counter Bcala.



A SCALE for weighing small goods has been brought
out that presents some features of value in a new
method of arranging the weights. In place of a
single beam and a hook at the end on which to hang
the extra weights, are three beams placed side by
ride. Two of these are round and serrated on top
in the usual manner. The other beam is broad and
flat, and is placed in the middle, between the others.
This beam is pierced with holes along its length.
One of the small beams is for the tare. A movable
weight is fixed on this, and by moving it the weight
of the butter box, tray, basket, or scoop, may be
accurately balanced at pleasure. The other small
beam is for ounces, and its weight measures from
half an ounce up to one pound. For pound weights
an iron ball is used. Placed in the first hole, marked



number one, it weighs one pound ; in the next hole
two, and so one up to eight pounds. An extra
weight on the end adds fifteen more pounds, if so
much is needed. In weighing, say a plate of butter,
the tare weight is first adjusted, then the pound
ball is put in the socket nearest the estimated
weight. Then the fifteen pound' weight, and lastly
the ounce weight, are added, till a half pound is
measured. The weight is thus readily reckoned
up. Fifteen pounds for that weight, two for the
1^11 weight, and half a pound for the ounce
weight, or seventeen and a half pounds in all.
The customer looking on can easily see the whole
operation, and there is no vexatious hunting for
extra weights, no discussion about the tare, and no
deceptive "figuring" by the overdriven "tender"
and suspicious customer.



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DMUgMtiMtioa of W«lchM.

Watches worn by students and others in tech-
nical laboratories are often rendered useless by being
magnetized by the magnets used in such places.
Magnets kept in the house often create equal mis-
chief by being laid near watches, and much time and
expense are sometimes needed to demagnetize them
before they can be made to work. A serious case
of this kind of injury recently led Proll A. M. Mayer,
of the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, to
experiments which resulted in a very simple method
of demagnetization. The magnetized watch was laid
upon a table in the neighborhood of a common com-
pass-needle. Each hour on the (ace was then placed
in turn before it to discover die location and intensity
of the magnetbm in the watch. The movements of
the compass showed the north and south poles to be
located (say ) at the figures V and XI, while the neutral
points were at VIII and II. The watdi was then
held in a horizontal position before a large bar mag-
net, the south poles of each being together. A gentle
tilting motion was given to it for a moment, and, on
trying the watch again before the compass, a sensi-
ble decrease of magnetism was observed. The proc-
ess was repeated till the sensitiveness of the watch
at that pole was nearly extinguished, when the same
thing was tried with the north pole of the watch.
After a few trials and comparisons, the magnetic
influence was found to be removed, and the watch
readily resumed its work.

Automatic Lubricator.

This new oiler resembles in general appearance
the brass oilers now used upon our locomotives. It
oonsists of a metallic cup with a short hollow stem,
designed to be screwed into the slide valve casing.
The top is closed with a cap screwed on steam-tight,
and having a feeding-hole in the center closed by a
screw. Inside of this is hung a smaller cop, designed
to hold the tallow or other lubricant. At the bottom
is a sieve, and a minute hole or capillary. The
space between the two caps communicates freely
with the steam through the base. When the engine
starts steam enters, and, rising, flows over the top
of the smaller cup, and presses upon the surface of
the tallow. The result is, that every pulsation or
increase of pressure of the steam as the engine
moves causes a single drop of the oil to escape
through the capillary, where it falls upon the slides
below. The greater the speed the greater the flow
of oil, and when the engine stops it ceases at once.
The oiler may be readily taken apart when the
engine is at rest, for removing the water of conden-
sation and for cleaning, and may be filled without
removing the cover.

The Application of the PenUgraph.

The use of the pentagraph is common in the
wood-cutting, engraving, and wooden type-making
trades. Recently a new form and a wider field has
been given it by the simple device of hanging it by
movable sleeves to the long bar that supports it. In
general appearance the new tool does not vary from



the ordinary pentagraph except in this particuUur,
but its motion becomes universal instead of merely
horizontal. By the aid of a counterpoise weight, it
is accurately balanced, and readily follows the form
of the model, whatever its shape. This, giving the
pentagraph a universal motion, enables the engraver
to trace any form, whether it is a human hand, an
engraved bk)ck, raised mi4>, or other uneven sur^ce,
and at once opens a wider field for this useful tooL

The CouBtarahaft Hanger.

In mill-work, where shafting and belts are em-
ployed, this new hanging device and belt-tightener
may prove of value. Instead of placing the counter-
shaft in a fixed position, it is hung upon a standard
that moves freely up and down in guides. Rack
teeth upon this standard engage in the teeth of a
small wheel that is connected with a weighted lever.
The movement of this lever raises or lowers the
shaft, and, as a natural result, loosens or tigihtens
all the belts running upon its pulleys, while its
weight tends, when at rest, to keep Uiem all tight
and in running order. On raising the lever (by hand
or with the aid of a rope ) the belts run free on the driven
pulleys, and turn loosely on the driving-wheels.
By this device, the &st and loose pulleys in pairs
are not needed, and only one fixed pulley is used, at
a great gain in safety, power, and economy.

Culture of the Aapen for Wood Pulp.
The aspen, on account of its rank growth and its
supposed injury to trees of harder wood, has been
by the forestry laws of Germany excluded from cult-
ure. Its clean and flexible fiber« on the other hand,
renders it valuable in making wood-pulp for paper.
In view of this, efforts are being made to induce the
administration of forests to allow its more liberal
culture. In this country, where land is cheap, and
where so much attention is being paid to forest-
planting, it may prove a profitable tree for the
arborist, as it grows quickly, and may be readily
made commercially available in the manufiicture of
paper.

Piniala.

FiNiALS and ridgings are being made of various
patterns in common pottery clay, and burned to a
fine red. They are designed to cap ordinary slate
and shingle roofs, and are simply screwed down to
the ridge-pole after the roofing is finished. The
effect of the bands of red, and the various ornamental
finials on top, is said to be very pleasing. Any pot-
tery works could make them to order, and in prac-
ticsil use they are found more durable than the zinc
and iron finials and ridgings now so freely used in
this country.

Colorod Photographa.

In art manufactures may be noticed the extensive
importation of colored photographs. They are nearly
all copies of modem pictures, and are done in water-
colors. The subjects being dress goods, furniture,
and social incidents, they imitate the fabrics in the
originals with eno^*"*" ^''-'•*~ for descriptive, if not
for artistic purpo*



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THE WORLD'S WORK.



Novelties in Mmiine and Stationary Boginee.

A SIX-CYLINDER Stationary engine, and a fiye-
cylinder marine engine, have been brooght oat, and,
under trial, have shown good results. The station*
ary engine consists of a bed plate supporting a cir-
cular iron casing, in which are placed six small cylin-
ders in a ring, with their axes parallel to the main
shaft that passes between them aU. Each cylinder
is single-acting, and has a hollow piston, having a
smoothly rounded end, in place of a pbton rod. At
the rear of the casing is a disk, balanced in the center,
and supported by a joint that allows it to turn freely
in any way. To this is fiistened a short arm that is
geared to the main shaft. The operation of this
engine is quite simple. On admitting steam, one of
the cylinders pushes its piston back ag^nst the disk,
and makes a partial revolution on its pivot, drag-
ging the shaft round with it Before this piston
has advanced &r, the port of the next cylinder opens,
and begins its work. The next cylinder comes
into play by the time the first has nearly completed
its stroke, and this one then exhausts, and its piston
is driven back by the motion of the disk. In this
manner each piston makes its stroke in turn, and its
piston is returned by the disk for the next stroke.
As each overlaps the other, the motion is continuous,
and in tnalring one revolution of the shaft and disk,
each cylinder makes two strokes. Three are at
work and three are going out at the same time.
Each piston presses the disk in turn as it rolls under
them, and each in turn is pushed back. The exhaust
steam makes some resistance, so that the disk and
returning pistons are kept in contact, and there is
no shock or jar. A four-horse-power engine of this
pattern measures outside only 17x17 inches, and gives
a combined piston area of 33 square inches. All the
parts are easily examined, and the engine b said to
run at a high speed, and with a good economy of
steam. The marine engine is noticeable on account
of the system used in running it, the high pressure
employed, and the peculiar grouping of the cylin-
ders. The boiler employed is multitubular, and
gives a pressure of 250 lbs., and the water used is
doubly distilled rain water. The engine has two
high-pressure cylinders of 16 inches, two medium-
pressure of 32 inches, and one low-pressure of 56
inches. The two high and medium-pressure cylin-
ders are bolted together in pairs. Each pair is in
line, and they, have a piston rod common to both.
This passes directly through the medium cylinder,
and, on taking steam, the high-pressure cylinder
makes one stroke, and its exhaust steam is taken to
the medium cylinder, where it makes the return
stroke. The exhaust steam from the medium cylin-
ders then goes to a chamber, where it supplies the
low-pressure cylinder. There are three cranks on
the shaft, placed 120 degrees apart. The after crank
is coupled to one pair of cylinders, and the forward
to the other pair, while the crank in the center is
connected with the piston of the low-pressure cylin-
der. The cylinders stand side by side, slightly
raised from the horizontal. They have also been
set up vertically. Instead of a lubricant, the makers



use a composition of 5 parte tin and 16 parts copper
in the pistons, and good results are claimed for this
device.

Hand Shaper and Planer.

In machinists' tools may be mentioned a compar-
atively new i^^paratus, designed to do iron planing^
slotting, shaping, and gear-cutting by hand-power.
This tool may be set up on any bench or may stand
alone. It is mounted upon a pipe or cylinder, and
may be placed at any desired an^e by means of set-
screws. The cutter-head is also set upon a pipe,
and may be placed in any position to meet the
demands of the work. These two devices give it a
universal motion, and apply it to every variety of
work. The work is placed in a vise immediately in
front of the cutter-head, and the tool is then adjusted
to it To operate it, a hand-lever is secured to a
horizontal wheel diat is geared to the frame that
holds the cutter-head, and drives it backward and
forward as frist as the operator chooses to move it
An automatic feed is supplied. The tool is attract-
ing the &vorable notice of machinists and others.

Sheep for Profit
£. Menault, in one of a series of little farm
books published by Hachette, Paris, considers that
hill sheep are naturally small but rustic and robust,
while those in valleys are larger but less ener-
getic Wet argillaceous soils produce a tall, lym-
phatic rather than sanguine animal, with long, soft,
coarse wool, not elastic This sheep is hard to
fatten, but is long-lived. The best soils are calca-
reous, producing medium-sized, sanguine animals,
with fine fleeces, the wool running to flocks.
Siliceous soils give an excellent temperament with
less food, a small sheep with short wool and savory
flesh. Cold dews and the heat of th6 day should
be avoided by the shepherd. Dew on clover or
other rich g^rass is often fetal to sheep, while, on the
other hand, many die from lack of water. Sheep
should not be washed before shearing, because it is
troublesome, dangerous to the sheep, and of little or
no advantage to consumers of wool. The lamb is bom
with twenty-four molars, and in the lower jaw only
eight incisors. In the second year the two middle
incisors fidl and are replaced ; in the third year die
next two incisors on each side fall and are likewise
replaced, the animal being then called ''of four
teeth;" in the fourth it becomes a beast of six
teeth, the two incisors next in order, one on either
side of the jaw, fiidling in turn. In the fifth year
adult teeth have taken the place of all the eight ind-
sors. It should be remembered, however, that
improved and precocious breeds of sheep have these
effects hastened by from eight to twelve months.

Memoranda.
Thk antiseptic qualities of salicylic add, discovered
some months since by Kolbc, of Leipsic, have led to
the manufacture of this add upon a comraerdal
scale. It is now made in the form of a yellowish-
white powder, and in this crude shape is available
for disinfecting purposes. Purified, it becomes pure



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white, and is said to be of great Talne as a preserva-
tive for meats, milk, beer, etc. Rantert has sue-
ceeded in sublimating it in a current of superheated
steam, thus obtaining it pure. RecrystalKted from
hot distilled water, it assumes the shape of slender
needles an inch long. The various experiments
reported by chemists who have tested the antiseptic
qualities of this add, prove its great value; lOO
grammes of the add in 1,000 liters of grape mash
checked fermentation absolutely. Milk treated with
0.04 per cent of add remained uncoagulated thirty-
six hours longer than without it A liter of beer
with one gramme of the add, and fully exposed to
the air, did not sour nor mold for a long time.
Eggs immersed for an hour in a solution of Ae add
kept sweet three months, and fresh meat dusted
over with the dry powder kept perfectly for a num-
ber of weeks. In the treatment of diphtheria, small-
pox, typhus, and allied diseases, it has already pro-
duced good results, and has established itself in
favor with physicians. In surgery it has also been
tried with advantage.

The ordinary routine in bending metal pipes, like
gas-fixtures, brass-band instruments, etc, is to fill
the pipe with lead, and bend to the required curve
by force. The wrinkles that form in the inner side
of the curve are then hammered out by hand. In
the place of lead a square wire spiral spring is now
employed. This, inserted in the pipe, acU as a
flexible mandrel, and by its aid good curves may be
obtained, and much of the usual stretching and
crowding up of the metal avoided, while the after
hammering is not needed. For square pipes two
flat strips of metal are employed to re-inforce the
spring and preserve the shape of the pipe. Patents
on this method of bending pipes are pending, and
it seems destined to be of great value to the copper,
brass, and iron-pipe traders.

The T rail exhibits a disposition to change its
form. It is now being rolled with a wider flange
or base and a thicker head, without increasing the
standard weight of sixty-seven pounds to a yard.
The material of the upright part is reduced to make
up for the increased size of the base and head. The
head is made more nearly square at the sides, and
the edges of the base are thinner. The object of
this is to increase the resistance to wearing by the
flanges of the wheels, and to prevent the rail from
cutting into the sleepers. In place of the notdies
cut in the rail to hold the spikes that have been
found so destructive to the life of the rail, holes are
now drilled through the base, and through these the
rail is fastened to the road bed.

In France, where the natural ice is too thin to
have any commercial value, it is proposed to press
the thin sheets together in an ordinary screw or lever
press till they recongeal into single masses. It is
estimated that two men with a press and a good
supply of ice can make three thousand blocks of mer-
chantable ice in a day. The idea has been sdentifically
reported upon by Tyndall and others, and might be
worthy of experiment in our States south of the ice



crop line. Snow has been treated in the same way,
and a very fidr artide of ice produced from it The
only objection to snow-ice is the impurities it is apt
to take up fi»m the air, which give it a disagreea-
ble taste.

In the manufacture of glass vault-Hgfats for side-
walks, roofs, decks, etc., a new system of inserting
the Ughts meets with some flavor. Each glass has a
screw cut in the side, and two studs are placed in
the opening designed to hold it By this means the
glasses may be screwed or locked in without the aid
of putty. An elastic ring is placed under the \jas&
for a cushion to resist Uie contraction of the iron,
and to save the glass firom the shock of a blow on
top. The chief advantages of this system of setting
these glasses are ease of removal for ventilation
and repairs, and a tight joint

As an instance of the reverse effects of strikes
may be noticed the introduction of new forms of
machinery to take the place of the striking work-
men. The late coal strike led to the use of ma-
chinery in anthradte ''coal breakers," and the men
and boys employed in separating the slate from the
coal are permanently thrown out of work. In pud-
dling furnaces strikes have done much to advance
mechanical puddling, and in the nail trade the strik-
ing nail-madiine tenders have been replaced by self-
feeding machines in a large number of shops.

The London " Times " now publishes a reduced
copy of the daily weather mi^ for Great Britain. To
do this, molds having an outline map of the islands,
France, Bdgium, and the North Sea, drawn upon
them, are prepared. When the rq>ort8 of the ba-
rometer, weadier and wind, arrive, another and krger
map is drawn, and a pantagraph drill copies the re-
ports on the mold, and when this is done, a stereo-
type plate is cast from it, and prepared for the press
in the usual way.

The immense demand for the firuit of the lemon-
tree has induced the owners of lemon plantations to
force the trees into excessive bearing. This, com-
bined with the effects of transplanting to uncon-
genial climates, has induced a spedes of dry rot that
is rapidly destroying the trees. The only remedies
proposed by sdentific culturists are the grafting of
healthy cuttings on the wild orange and a less grasp-
ing system of culture.

The great value of lithographic stone has brought
out a patented system of splitting and backing the
stones with cement The thin veneers of stone are
made ** type high " by the cement molded and pressed
upon the back, and when finished, the blodcs are said
to be stronger than the native stone.

Nora.— The appantiis deiafted in the November numbtf
for the gmphk iUustratioiu of onuic was the invenuon of Prof.
Blackburn, of Glasgow, wbik he was a student at Cambridge.
The method of fbdag the illustrations was the invention of Prof.
- - - - ^ -.-«,.. •♦ boken,

aiticle



print. The rods used in joining the staves are ?^ inch in <Uam-
eter. The slot for the irons at the side is designed to be a



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BJRIC-A^BjRAC.



BRIC-A-BRAC. ;




"Pat Agencsr! That's a quare name
A Constant Reader.

BY PASMBNAS MIX.

The overworked scribe of the " Mudvflle Gazette '

Sat wondering,— moneyless wight, —
If his oiSce would ever be cleared of its debt,

With the times so deplorably tighty—
When die tread of old leather was heard on the stair

And a stranger stepped into the room.
Who asked with the "don't let me bother you" air,

Which die bote is so apt to assume—

" How are ye?" The editor rose with a smile

And pleasandy yiekled his chair-
Placed the visitor^s sadly unbeautiful tile

(Which exhibited symptoms of wear)
On the top of the desk, alongikle of his own

(A shoddng old plug, by the way),
And then asked in a rather obsequious tonc^

"Can we do anything for you to-day?"

"No— I jest called to see ye"— the viator said;

" I'm a fHend to the newspaper man "—
Here he ran a red handkerchief over his head,

And accepted the editor's fim—
" I hev read all the pieces you've writ for your sheet,

And they're straight to d>e p'int, I confess-
That 'ar slap you gin Keyser was sartinly neat —

You're an omyment, sir, to the press I"

"I am glad you are pleased," said the writer, "indeed

But you praise me too highly, by fer—
Just sdect an exchange that you're anxious to read,

And while reading it, try this cigar.



onyhow— I woodher if he's a Tippemy oan."



By the way, I've a melon faud up for a treat— >
I've been keeping it nestled in ice.

It's a beauty, sir, fit for an angel to eat-
Now, periiaps, you wiU relish a slice?"

Then the stranger rolled up half a dosen or more

Of the choicest exchanges of all-
Helped himself to the fruit, threw the rinds on the floor.

Or fltmg them at flies on the wall.
He assured his new friend dut his "pieces were wrote

In a manner oncommonly able"—
As he wiped his red hands on the editor's coat

lliat hung at the side of the table.

" By the way, I've neglected to ask you your name^"

^id the scribe as the stranger arose;
"That's a fiict," he replied, "I'm Abimalech Same,

You have heerd o' that name, I suppose?
I'm a-ltvin' out here on the Fiddletown Creek

Where I own a good house and a lot;
The 'Gazette' gets around to me wunst e v er y week—

I'm the oonstantest reader you've got ! "

"Abimalech Bame," mused the etStor, "B-a-m-»—

(Here his guest begged a chew of his 'twist')—
" I am sorry to say your mellifluous name



Online LibraryFrancis HallThe Century, Volume 11 → online text (page 52 of 163)