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correspondents could easily make detection difficulL
This device is already employed by some govern-
ments in sending despatdies. By the use of card-
board or other simple materials, any one can make
something of the kind that might be useful in cor-
responding with postal cards.

Bn^nea for Steep Gradao.

On railroads where steep grades have to be over-
come, it has been the general practice to detadi the
locomotive and to haul the tiidn up the indtne by
the aid of wire ropes moved by a stationary engine
placed at the top of the hilL If the grade is not too
severe, the locomotive is commonly able to take
itself up the indme. Where this is possible, two
novel modifications of this idea have been intro-
duced, and the locomotive takes the place of the
stationary engine. In each system a rope and
winding drum is used. In one the drum is fixed
on the engine, in the other the drum is at the top
of the incline. By the first method the engine is
provided with gripping stmts, that, on being let
down, grip the rails and anchor the engine se-
curely. The winding dmm is fixed to the frame
of the engine, and has the wire rope wound up on
it. On reaching the foot of the grades the engine
is detadied firom the train, the end of the rope is
secured to the first car, and Uien the engine mounts
the incline to the top^ or as fiur as the rope will per-
mit The gripping struts then anchor the engine,
and, on iqpplying power to the drum the train is
hauled up. If the top of the grade is not reached,
gripping struts are i4>plied to the cars, and the
engine goes on and repeats the (^)eration. The
grade being overcome, the engme is again coupled
and the train continues its jonrney* By the oAer
system, the winding drum is fixed in a sunken pit
at the top of the incline, and is provided with a iHre
rope for dragging up the train. This winding appa-
ratus is provided with four driving wheels conpled
in pairs, and so placed as to have their upper snr-
faces just level with the tracks. A gap is left in the
rails over each wheel, so that it may turn fteely.
On reaching the foot of the incUne, the engine
mounts the hill alone and runs over the winding
drum till its four driving wheels exactly coincide
with the wheels of the drum. In fact, it rests upon
them, and is locked in that position* The wire rope
meanwhile is secured to the train. On starting; the
engine the driving wheels turn those it stands upon
by friction, and in place of moving onward it stands
motionless and turns the winding gear. By this
simple means the train is dragged up the incline
till it rests upon the higher leveL llie engine is
then unlocked, and, joining its train on the main
line, it resumes its duty. On descending the gnule*
both train and engine are lowered in safety by the
rope under the control of a brake on the winding
drum. Both of these systems are still in the exper-
imental stage.



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THE WORLnS WORK.



453



The Compreaaion Engine.

This engine, designed for general use, where from
one-eighth to three horse-power is desired, is one
of the latest contributions to the wide-spread demand
for a small inexpensive motor. Unlike the steam
engine, it has no boiler, needs no skilled attendant,
has no loose working parts, slides, valves, eccentrics,
etc, and is entirely safe. Unlike the caloric engine,
it emits no heated air or burned oil, and is smooth
and silent in its action. The smaller size, of }i
horse-power, has cylinders 3}i inches in diameter,
andis 36 indies high. The largest size has lo-inch
cylinders, is ^yi feet high, and occupies a floor space
of less than 3x5 feet. The engine consists of two
cylinders, placed side by side, and joined together
near the top by a large square pipe. Each has a
piston with connecting rods joining it to the crank
shaft. The two cranks are set 180O apart, and
an opposite motion is given them, that is, one de-
scends while the other ascends. Both cylinders
may be closed air-tight, and beyond the connecting
rods there are no other working parts, except a
small pump and the governor. One of the cylinders
is much larger than the other, and is provided with
a jacket through which water circulates by the aid
of the pump. The smaller cylinder is placed
directly over a small coal fire m a simple circular
stove or fire-box. In the smaller engines the fire
is replaced by a gas jet The connection between
the two cylinders consists of a small square cast-iron
box filled with thin sheets of metal set on edge, and
provided vdth a small air-cock on top. The action
of the engine is easily understood. The piston in
the compression or cold cylinder descends and com-
presses the air below and around it, and under this
pressure the air is forced in thin sheets between the
leaves of the regenerator, or connecting box between
the cylinders. It then enters the hot cylinder, and,
under the influence of the heat, expands and drives
up the piston. The piston having reached the limit
of its journey, allows the heated and expanded air
to return through the regenerator to the cold cylin-
der. On its passage it parts with its heat and enters
the other cylinder, reduced in volume and tempera-
ture. Here it meets the cold jacketed walls oi the
cylinder, and, in a thin annular sheet, is both chilled
and compressed at the same time. On its next trip
through the regenerator, it takes back some of the
heat it parted with on the first trip, and, in this
manner, the process is repeated. Once started by
hand, the engine maintains its speed oontinually.
The only attention it demands is an occasional oiling,
a steady fire, and a constant supply of cold water
for the pump. The cost of running these engines
is exceedingly small, and their simplicity of con-
struction, ease of management, safety, and silence,
will, imdoubtedly, make them of value to persons
wishing a moderate amount of power.

Waahlag Smoke.

Two of the latest contributions to the abatement
of the smoke nuisance employ water to wash the
smoke as it passes through the flue of the chimney.



The more simple of the two consists of a spray or
shower of water driven upward in the chimney flue.
The water cleans the smoke of much of its impuri-
ties, and falling back escapes below. The blackened
water is afterward collected, and under proper treat-
ment yields a coloring material for a fine black
painL The other apparatus is more complicated.
It consists of an upright cylinder of boiler plates
14 feet high and 5 feet m diameter. Inside
are a number of sheet iron diaphragms placed one
over another, and partly filling the interior. Each
diaphragm overlaps the other, and all are perforated
with a great number of holes 0.2 of an inch in diam-
eter. The smoke enters below, and a stream of
water flows in at the top. The water drips in a
shower throu^ the holes, and by the aid of a pow-
erful exhaust, the smoke is forced upward through
the apparatus. On its passage, owing to the ob-
structions caused by the diaphragms, the smoke
travels 5 1 feet, and is perfectly cleared of soot The
experiments made with this apparatus go to show
that the value of such devices depends chiefly on
the power of the exhaust or diaft, the distance
traveled by the smoke through the shower of water,
and the perfect subdivision of the water. The
amount of water employed seems to be of less oon«
sequence.

Memoranda.

In iron and brass founding the simple device of
fixing a nickel-i^ed concave disk to the handles of
the ladles used in pouring the hot metal into the
molds IS worthy of notice. Its bright surface serves
to reflect and concentrate the glare of the molten
metal downward upon the month of the flask to be
filled, thus aiding the operator in his work. As
molding rooms are usually dark, this cheap light
will be an advantage. The reflector also serves to
shade the operator's hands and face from the heat
of the metal, and adds much to his comfort The
reflector is supported by a ring slipped over the
handle of the ladle, and may be fixed in any desired
position by the aid of a set screw.

A new element, named Gallium (in honor of
France), has been discovered by spectral analysis.
Its spectrum is two bright lines in Uie violet region.
One of these, slightly brighter than the other, is in the
41 7th degree of the scale, the other is at the 405th
degree, and both in the place occupied by the
brightest lines of zinc. Chemical examination also
proved its relationship to zinc Only a very small
quantity of the new metal has been obtained, and its
properties are now under examination by a Com-
mittee of the Academy of Science, France.

As an aid in teaching swimming, a stout wire
resembling a telegraph wire is now hung just above
the water and drawn tight. On this travels a
grooved pulley or "door hanger," and from this
hangs down an elastic cord that is fastened to a bdt
worn by the swimmer. This permits free use of
his limbs, gives sufficient support, and aUows him
to move forward akmg the length of tiie wire with
ease



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*'So great a musician was OitPHmvs that whemrer he went the animal Ido^dom was attracted to hb sade^ and pavinf atonei^
old booto, bottles; biu of kindling wood and other inanimate objects followed him."— CiSsMAr Author,



Uncle Cap Interviewed.

Good mornin', mahs'r— thank you, sah; Ts tol*-

aUe myselfy
Consaderin'dat it's almost time I's laid opon de shelf;
De onliest t'ing dat bodders much is right

around in here,
Dis mis'ry in my back dat won't recease to

persevere.

And so you come to see me, sah, beca'se 3rou

hab been told
Dat I's de oldest man about ? Yes, I is mighty old !
A hundred and eleben years dis comin' Christmas

day —
1 couldn't tell ezxackly, but dat's what de people say.

When 1 come to dis country fust dar wa'n't no

houses roun'.
And me and my ole mahs'r had to camp out on

de groun*;
De fust house dat was 'rected, sah, I helped in

raisin' it —
Sometimes I tries to 'member whar it sot, but I

forgit.

You Liza! ain't you nebber gwine to set dat pot

to bile?
Niggers nebber was so lazy when your fader was

a diile!
Dat 'ar's my youngest daughter, sah, a-washin'

ob de greens;
She was born de year dat Jackson fit de battle

ob Orleans.

Dey aint wuf shucks, dese young folks dat's a-

gmwin' up now days,
I nebber seed no niggers yit dat had such triflin'

ways;



I b'licve dis country's gwine to smash — I knows,

at any rate,
Dat f ings ain't like dey used to wuz in ole Vir-

ginuy State.

So you thought 'twas Sonf Calma, sah, whar I

was bom and raised?
No ! I'm from ole Virginny, and for dat de Lord

be praised!

j[inny niggers always was de best dat you

could buy;
Poor white trash couldn't git 'em, 'ca'se de

prices was so hi^.

Yes, sah, I's from Virginny, and I reckon dat

you mout
Have heerd of folks I knowed— dey're often

talked about.
Dar's Ginnle Washin'ton, for one ; he lived across

the road;
I 'spect you've heerd ob him, sah ? He was one

ob dem I knowed.

He rode about de oonntrT on a big old dupple-my.
And used to come ana dine with manrr 'bout

ebery udder day;
De finest-lookin' gentleman dat I most eber seed-
He tried to buy me, but old mahs'r told him,

"No, indeed!"

What do I t'ink of freedom? I dunno; it's

true I's free;
But now I's got so awful old, what good is 'at

to me?
I nebber bodders 'bout it much — to tell de trooC

my min'
Is tuk up now in t'inkin' 'bout dc, place

I's a-gwine.



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De hjrmn says: "John de Bapds' he was nuifin'

but a Jew,
But de Holy Bible tells us dat he was a preacher

too,"
And if a 'ligious Jew can *mong de chosen few

advance,
Dere shorely ain't no questioQ bat a nigger'U

hab a chance.

I done been had religion now for gwine on sixty

year.
And my troubles is mos' ober, for de end is

drawin* near;
And I know dat when I mount de skies de Lord

will make ob me
A young and hkely nigger, sah, just like I use

to M. Irwin Russell.




INGRA-nrUDE.



Crltlca, and Critics.

[From tht Spaaiah of I>oo L Yriane.]

BY LILUE E. BARE.

A Bear who kindly helped a Piedmontese

To make an honest living,
A erand rehearsal of a novel dance

One day was kindly giTing-
The company was <)uite select, and fdt

The worth of their decision ;
And two— « learned pig and monkey^knew

It touched their own provision.

The Bear, with cumbrous grace, went strictly
through

Each step, and turn, and movement;
**Now, how do you like it? Really, I've been
told

It needs no more improvement."
"MHiy, not at all!" the Monkey promptly said,

A critic wise and witty;
** I can assure you, and I know my trade.

It will not take the city."



"Why! what's the matter? Is there not an air

Of dipiity about it?"
"Indeed, there is," the Pig with warmth replied;

"I would not have vou doubt it
I ne'er have seen, ana ne'er expect to see,

A movement so entrancing;
And I, a learned Pig, may surely claim

To know what's perfect dancing."

At this most unexpected panegyric

The Bear's heart proucDv boimded;
But suddenly he stood before the crowd.

Abashed and quite confounded.
"I beg your pardons, G;entlemen," he said.

And modestly stood bowing ;
"I'll not detain you further— what's the use

To longer stay pow- wowing?

"For when I found the Monkey disapproved,

I doubted tny position;
But since the Fig has praised, I have no hope.

And give up my ambition.
For, if the wise condemn, good reason, sirs.

To doubt of our acauirement;
But if the fools should praise — what then remains

But sensible retirement?"

Term was over, the " Defiance" coach was full
of undergraduates returning to their respective col-
leges, the day was cold, wet and miserable, when a
well-appointed dray drove up to the White Horse
Cellar, Piccadilly. " Have you room for one inside
to Oxford?" asked as pretty a girl as you would
wish to see on a summer's day. " What a beauty I "
exclaimed one. " Quite lovely ! " said another. " Per-
feet!" lisped a third. "Quite full, miss," re{^ed
the coachman, "inside and out" "Surely )rou
could make room for one," persevered the fair
applicant "Quite impossible, miss, without the
gentlemen's consent" " Lots of room," cried the
insides. " We are not very large ; we can manage
to take one more." " If the young gentlemen con-
sent," said the driver, who was one of the best-tem-
pered fellows on earth, and as honest as Aristides,
"I have no objection." "We agree," said the
inside quartet. " All right," responded the driver.
The fare was paid, and the guard proceeded to open
the door and let down the steps. " Now, miss, if
you please, we are behind our time." "Come
along, grandfather/' cried the damsel, addressing a
most respectable-looking, portly elderly gendeman,
" the money is i>aid, get in, and be sure you thank
the young gentlemen," at the same time suiting the
action to the word, and with a wicked smile assist-
ing her respected grandfiEither into the coach.
" Here's some mistake; you'll squeeze us to death,"
cried the astonished party. But at this moment
" All right," " Sit fast," was heard, and away rat-
tled the " Defiance " at its best pace, drowning the
voices of the crestfallen Oxonians.

Those who liked a witty remark, or a pun-
gent epigram, would join the table at which James
Smith sat, and any commonplace remark of the day
was immediately converted by him into verse. Lord
Lennox once asked him if he was going to the ball
at the Biansion House, got up in aid of the unfor^
tunate Polish refugees. "No," said he. Then



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Tb« Bftllad of • Gmcsome Batcher, and I

SauMge Machine, and th« Dear Little

ChUdren.



HARROWING.



Highly intbrbstbd party (reading) — "At that mo-ment the as-
•es-dm en-tered the de-pan-nient and brandy-ishing aloft a knive cov*
red with blood ex-claimed—To be continued u our next i "



It was a gruesome butcher,

With countenance saturnine;
He stood at the door of his little shop^

It was the hour of nine.

The children going by to school

Lxx>ked in at the open door;
They loved to see the sausage machixiey

And hear its awful roar.

The butcher he looked out and in.

Then horribly he swore.
Next yawned, then, smiling, he licked his
chops ;

Quoth he: "Life's a awful bore!

"Now here's all these dear httle children.
Some on 'em might live to be sixty;

Why shouldn't I save 'em the trouble to
wunst
An* chop 'cm up sHpperty licksty ? "

So he winked to the children and beckoned

them in :

" O, don't ye's want some candy ?
But ye see ye^l have to come in to the sbop^

For out nere it isn't handy 1 "

He 'ticed them into the little shop.
The machine went round and round;

And when those poor babes came out again*
They fetched ten cents a pound.

R. R. B.



calling for a sheet of paper and a pencil, he wrote :

" Aloft in rotatory motion buried,
The Poles are called on to support die wofkL
In these our days a difierent law controls;
The worid is called on to support the Poles.*'

No cne studied what is termed the ** business "
of his part more than Talma. Instead of remaining
in the green-room, or standing behind the scenes
ready to be called on, as most actors do. Talma
would walk slowly up and down, practicing the
attitudes he was about to display ; nay, it is reported
that just before he went on in Hamlet he would
seize some supernumerary by the collar
and exclaim :

" Ftiis, spectre ^pouvan tabic!
Porte au fond des tombeaux ton
aspect redoutable !"

in order, to adopt a modem expres-
sion, "to keep the steam up."

Wellington was once asked by a lady
of rank, after dinner, to give her an
account of the battle of Waterloo, a re-
quest very like that made by the French
Countess who seized a phik)sopher
at the supper-table and exclaimed:
*^ While they are cutting up the fowls,
and we have got Bve minutes to spare,
do tell me the history of the world,
for I want to know it so much."



At the ComAiie Fnmfaistf one of the princqMl
artisU in a tragedy stopped short after delivering
the following line :

** I was in Rome, where " —

When, finding the prompter not at all disposed
to help him out of his difficulty, he turned to him
and exclaimed with the utmost dignity, " Well, yon
varlet, what did I do in Rome?"

"Deputation,^* said Gladstone, "is a noun of
multitude that signifies many, but does not signify
much,**



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ScRiBNER's Monthly.



Vol. XI.



FEBRUARY, 1876.



No. 4.



NEW YORK IN THE REVOLUTION.

SECOND PAPER.



UKB. SOBXKT MUXXAY BNTESTAUrUfO BXITUH OFFICBIt:. WHILB PUTNAM ESCAPES. (SEE PACE 466.)



The importance of New York as a cen-
ter of operations was early impressed upon
the patriot leaders. General Charles Lee
occupied the city in March, 1776, and on
the fourteenth of April Washington arrived
to assume command in person. It was not
expected that the British would quietly sub-
mit to this state of affairs, but the Continen-
tal commanders vigorously pushed the work
of fortifying the i^and, and Lord Stirling,
Gen. Putnam and Gen. Greene did their
You XL— 30.



best to make an army of the raw material
gathered from the plow and the anvil by
5ie order of Congress.

Gen. Putnam made his headquarters at
No. I Broadway. The house still stands,
and is the most interesting relic of revolu-
tionary days that is to be foimd in the city.
Its walls look out as of old upon the
Battery, but Fort George and the mtrench-
ments that flanked it have long since disap-
peared. Its garden once stretched down to



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458



NEW YORK IN THE REVOLUTION



the Hudson River, but two streets have been
built out upon die beach that was then
gently washed by the waves. Still its Upper
windows look out toward the wooded shore
of Staten Island, but the tents of the British
soldiery camped there in 1776
have given place to multitudinous
cottages. The ceaseless roar of
traffic surrounds the old house,
and all guests who can pay for
their entertainment are made wel-
come where the doors once were
only opened to those who had
wealth or tides or had won dis-
tincdon in arms. A sign now
announces that die '< Washington
Hotel " is conducting business in
the mansion that was built by an
earl, and the honest fanner and
unromandc sailor may sleep under
the xoof that was long ago conse-
crated by the slumbers of dded
beauty. Frdm this house Gen.
Lee issued his first proclamation
of defiance to the British navy, and
Washington made it his head-
quarters when the last British sol-
dier had embarked at the Battery.
The house known as No. i
Broadway has suffered compara-
tively Htde change in the last
century. It was erected in 1750
by the Honorable Archibald Ken-
nedy, captain in the British nav^.
Afterward eleventh Earl of Cassihs.

Judging fix)m the brick-work, the
ouse No. 3 Broadway, which has
survived the hands of die iconoclast, was
built in conjunction with No. i, and had
means of commimication with it In their
very earliest days these houses formed one of
the chief centers of New York's best society,
and grand entertainments were celebrated
connectedly in both. Litde did those who
enjoyed their hospitality in diose first peace-
fill days know the vicissitudes through which
they were to pass. Their owners suffered
die sequestration of their property through
loyalty to the British King, and afterward
were compelled to buy it back at exor-
bitant rates. It was the fortime of war.
Both houses are now in the possession of
the De Peyster family, whose ancestress, Ann
Watts, was the wife of Captain Kennedy.
When the American forces entered the city of
New York, the house of so prominent a roy-
alist as the British naval captain offered itself
as the most suitable place for headquarters,
and it was occupied first by Lee and then



by Putnam. Friends, however, treated it
no better than foes. Sir Henry Ointoc
seized upon No. x Broadway and establisiied
his headquarters there, while Sir WiHiasi
Howe found a comfortable shelter in tltt



OLD KBWNBDY HOUSE (WASHINGTON'S RBADQUAKtVaS) 410



also



dwelling adjoining it SubsequendT Sir G«y
Carleton resided at No. x, occupymg Ridi-
mond Hill as his country house. A MlSam
array of officers made tne entertainments of
the English Commander-in-Chief exceed-
ingly attractive in the eyes of the loyalist
merchants of New York, and their wives and
daughters. There gathered, on gala xiig^itSi
Earb Comwallis and Percy, Adnuiab Digbf
and Rodney, Counts Donop and ITnyjihii
sen. Generals Robertson, Erskine, Grant, and
a host of younger aspirants for fame. Ptinot
William Henry, afterward William the
Foiuth of England, at one time graced its
halls, and was so enthralled by ^e beaiotT
that flattered the royal middy that lie wxs
suddenly taken to sea by his guardian, lest
he should be so imprudent as to ferther cd-
tangle the erratic house of Guelph by a rsD-
away match with an untided Yankee giiL

Not a litde of the romance of the Renh
lution clusters about these historic building
Here Margaret Moncrieffe, daugjbter of jb



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NEW YORK JN THE REVOLUTION.



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English engineer of distinction, was detained
as a spy, and here she saw and loved Aaron
Bun, the handsome, fickle young aide-de-
cailip on General Putnam's staff. Though
she afterward became somewhat notorious
for her flirtations at the royal court, she
never forgot her hero of the blue and bu£ In
her memoir, she speaks, also, of having often
ascended to the cupola of the house to
watch the white tents of the royal army on
the Staten Island shore, and to pray for her
speedy deliverance from captivity. Buir,
however, never seems to have forgotten his
nuHtaiy duties for the call of pleasure. It
was he who pointed out to Putnam the way
of escape for his army, after Lord Howe had
occupied the east and middle roads. Neither
die American commander nor any of his
duef officers knew how to penetrate the
forests and swamps, but Aaron Burr piloted
ftem through the woods west of Broadway
to Greenwich, and thence by a road skirt-
ng the river bank to Bloomingdale. The
CMpe was narrow but complete.

Jb was at No. i Broadway that Clinton
wA Andr6 hatched the plot which resulted
in Aniold's treason and the ignominious
daia of the Adjutant-General of the British
anfty. Subsequently Arnold made his head-
(piuters*at the house adjoining, and it be-
came the scene of one of the most daring



Online LibraryFrancis HallThe Century, Volume 11 → online text (page 79 of 163)