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6'(c:



PROCEEDINGS



OF



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION



FOR THE



ADYANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.

EIGHTH MEETINO,

HELD AT WASHINGTON, D. C,
MAT, 1854.



CAMBRIDGE:

PUBLISHED BY JOSEPH LOVERING.

NEW TOBK: G. P. PUTNAM & CO.



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EDITED BY

JOSEPH LOVERING,

Permanent Secretary.



cahsribob:
mstcalp and company, printbrs to the univbbbity.



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TABLE OF CONTENTS.



Page
Officers of the Association . . . . . ix

Committees ......... xl

Officers of the next Meeting ....... xiii

Meetings of the Association ....... xiv

Constitation of the Association . . . . . . . xv

Besolntions and Enactments of a Permanent and Prospective Character xix

List of Members ........ xzv

Members Elected at the Washington Meeting ... . Iv

Address of the President of the Association .... 1

Address in Commemoration of Sears Cook Walker. By B. A. Gould, Jr. 18



GOMMIJNICATIONS.

A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS.

I. ASTRONOMY.

1. Besnlts of some Investigations respecting Biela*s Doable Comet By

Prof. J. S. HuBBASD 47

2. On the Satellites of Uranus. Bj Prof. Elias Loomis. ... 52

3. A ConstnictiYe Method of Projecting Solar Eclipses. By Chjluncey

Wright .55

4. Abstract of a Paper on Moon and Star Culminations. By Prof. Geobge

W. COAKLBY. 58

5. On the Besnlts of the Chronometric Expeditions of the Coast Survey for

determining the Longitude of Cambridge, made in 1849, 1850, and 1851.
By G. P. Bond 61

6. On the Determination of the Longitude of Frontera, El Paso, and San

Elciario, resulting in the Determination of the Longitude of a Cardinal



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IV CONTENTS.

Point in the Survey of the Boundary between the United States and
Mexico. By Major W. H. Emobt 62

7. Suggestions relative to the Observation of the Solar Eclipse of May 26,

1854. By Stephen Albxandeb, LL.D 65

8. On the Relative Value of the Different Astronomical Methods of Deter-

mining the Longitude. By Captain C. H. Dayis 73

9. Abstract of a Paper on the Difference of Personal Equation in Transit

Observations of the Sun and of the Fixed Stars. By Joseph Winlock. 76

10. Method of Observing at Sea for the Determination of the Latitude, Longi-

tude, and Variation of the Compass. By 0. C. Badger. . .76

11. Cloverden Observatory and the Shelby Equatorial. By Dr. B. A. Gould,

Jr., and Prof. Joseph Winlock 83

12. The Longitude of America j determined by Moon Culminations. By

Prof. Benjamin Peibcb. [Not received.] 88

13. Comparison of the British Association Catalogue of Stars with the Green-

wich Twelve- Year Catalogue. By Prof. Elias Loomis. [Not re-
ceived.] 88

14. The Astronomical Expedition to Chili. By Lieut J. M. Gilliss. [Not

received.] 88

15. On the Physical Constitution of the Sun and Cometary Bodies. By Prof.

W. A. NoBTON.* 88

16. On the Superior Facilities for the Computation of the Lunar Ephemeris

afforded by a new System of Arguments introduced by Professor Peirce
into his " Tables of the Moon.'' By J. D. Bunkls. [Not received.] 88

17. Astronomical Determination of the Sun's Diurnal and Annual Intensity.

ByL. W. Mebch. [Not received.] 88

U. MECHANICS AND PHYSICS.

18. On the Nature of Forces. By Lieut E. B. Hunt 89

19. Note on a New Electro-Chronometric Method. By Prof. Wolcott Gibbs. 103

20. Abstract of a Paper on the Inverted Microscope ; with some Bemarks on

the Illumination of Microscopical Objects. By Prof. J. Lawbbnob
Smith 106

21. On the Arrangement of Lecture-Booms, with Beference to Sound and

Sight. By Prof. Joseph Henbt. [Not received.] . . . . 106

22. On Irradiation. By Prof. W. B. Rogbbs. [Not received.] ... 107

23. On the Besistance experienced by Bodies falling through the Atmosphere.

By Prof. Elias Loomis. [Not received.] 107

24. Electric Properties of Whalebone Rubber. By John M. Batcheldbb.

[Not received.] 107

25. On a New Form of Electrical Machine. By G. C. Sch^ffbb. [Not re-

ceived.] 107

* This paper was overlooked j but is printed among those on the " Physics of
the Globe.^ ^



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CONTENTS. V

in. PHYSICS OF THE GLOBE.

26. Preliminary Det^rminatioii of Ck>-tidal Idiies on the Atlantic Coast of the

United States, from the Coast Surrey Tidal Observation. By A. D.
Bachb 107

27. Comparison of the Diurnal Inequality of the Tides at San Diego, San

Francisco, and Astoria, on the Pacific Coast of the United States, from
Observations in Connection with the Coast Survey. By A. D. Bachx. 116

28. Besnit of an Investigation <^ the Tidal Currents in Long Island Sound,

with an Appendix containing Tables, and Two Sketches. By Charles
A. SOHOTT. 121

29. On the Distribution of Temperature in and near the Gulf-Stream, off the

Coast of the United States, from Observations made in the Coast Sur-
vey. By A. D. Baohe. 134

30. On the Periodic and Occasional Perturbations of the Declination and Di-

rective FOTce of the Magnetic Needle. By Prof. W. A. Noetow. . . 144

31. On the Physical Constitution of the Sun and the Cometary Bodies. By

Prof. W. A. NoETOir. 161

32. On the Swelling <^ Springs and the Beappearance of Streams just before

Rain. By Prof. John Brocklbsbt 170

33. On the Transparency of the Ocean. By Commander James Gltnn.

[Not received.] 179

34. On the Gulf-Stream. By laeut M. F. Maukt. [Not received.] . . 179

35. OntheBasinofthe Atiantic. By Lieut M. F. Maust. [Not received.] 179

36. On the Magnetic Forces observed along the Line of the Boundary between

the United States and Mexico. By Major W. H. Emobt. [Not re-
ceived.] 179

37. Earthquakes of Chili. By Lieut J. M. Gilliss. [Not received.] 179

IV. METEOROLOGY.

38. On the Probable Increase in the Number of Hail-Storms occurring in Cuba,

especially from 1844 to 1854. By Ain>sES Poet 179

39. An Account of a remarkable Lunar Phenomenon whidi was observed at

Auburn, N. Y., on the Evening of February 16, 1843. By Blanohabd
FOSOATB 187

40. The Brandon Tornado of January 20tii, 1854. By Prof. O.N. Stoddasd. 188

41. An Account of a Tornado which passed over the State of Connecticut on

the 9th of August, 1851. By Prof. John Bbocklesbt. . . .199

42. Cape Verde and Hatteras Hurricane, and other Storms, with a Hurricane

Chart By W. C. Redfield. . . 208

43. The Meteorograph, an Automatic Meteorological Register. By Prof.

Nathan B. Wbbstek. 224

44. Illustration of Cycloidal Curvature as involved in the Supposititious Travel-

ling Whirlwinds, and some New Demonstrations of the Impossibility of
Storms being Whirlwinds, unless on a limited Scale, as the Consequence
of In-blowing Winds. By Prof. Robebt Habb. [Not received.] . 226
a*



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VI CONTENTS.

45. On the Law of Variations of Atmospheric Pressure through Successire

Months of the Year; and its Practical Application to Barometric
Measurements of Heights in the Interior of Continents. B7 Lobin
BiiODaBT. [Not received.] 226

46. On the Meteorological Phenomena observed at various Points on the

Boundary Survey. By Mibinb T. W. Chandlbb. [Not received.] 226

47. A Theory of Storms. By T. Bassnbt. [Not received.] . .226

48. On the Permanence of the Principal Conditions of Climate. By Lobin

Blodobt. [Not received.] 226

49. The Climate of Chili. By Lieut. J. M. Gilliss. [Not received.] . 226

50. On the Barometer off Cape Horn. By Lieut. M. F. Maubt. [Not re-

ceived.] 226

V. GEODESY AND NAVIGATION.

51. Description of the United States Coast Survey Apparatus for measuring

Base Lines. By Lieut E. B. Hunt 226

52. The Application of the Gnomonic Projection to Nautical Charts, showing

by Inspection the Great-Circle Courses as Straight Lines, in the same
manner as the Ehumb-Lines are made to appear as Straight Lines on
Mercator*8 Projection. By Commander C. H. DavIs. [Not received.] 237

53. On a New Instrument for Facilitating the Projection of Great-Circle Routes

in Charts, and Finding by Inspection the Course and Distance. By
Prof. W. Chauvenet. [Not received.] 237



B. CHEMISTRY, NATURAL HISTORY, AND GEOLOGY.

L CHEMISTRY.

1. Illustrations of Chemical Homology. By T. StbbbyHunt. . . .237

2. On the Volumetric Determination of Nitric, Arsenic, Antimonic, and Stan-

nic Acids, and on the Separation of Manganese, Cobalt, and Nickel.
By Dr. Wolcott Gibbs. [Not received.] 247

3. On the Meteoric Stones ; with an Account of some recently discovered.

By Prof. J. Lawbencb Smith. [Not received.] . . . .247

4. On the Us^ of Hydrogen Gas to displace Sulphuretted Hydrogen in the

Analysis of Mineral Waters. By Profs. W. B. Rogebs and B. 3E.
RoaBBS. [Not received.] 247

5. Decomposition of Water at the Ordinary Temperature, by an Alloy of

Zinc and Antimony ; with a Description of a New Process for procuring
Hydrogen. By Prof. J. P. Cooke. [Not received.] .... 248

6. On two New General Methods of Chemical Analysis. By Dr. Wolcott

^GiBBS. [Not received.] -248

7. A New Filtering Apparatus. By Prof. J. P. Cooke, Jr. [Not received.] 248

8. Researches on Arseniated and Antimoniated Hydrogen, and their Rela-

tions to Toxicology. By Prof. Rafhael Napoli. [Not received.] . 248



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CONTENTS. Vll

9. On the Chemical Belations of Odors, and their Employment as Tests. By
Gbo. C. SoHJEVFEE. [Kot received.] 248

n. NATURAL mSTOKY.

10. Experimental Obseryatlons on Taste and SmelL By Dr. Thsodobb C.

HiLGABD 248

11. The Whale-Killer, or Thresher, mentioned by Tradescant in the Journal of

his Voyage to Bnssia, in 1618. By Dr. Hjlmel 258

12. On the Whale. By Lieut. M. F. Maubt. [Not received.] ... 271

13. On the Development of Monocotyledonous Stems. By J. Dabbt. [Not

received.] 271

14. Sketch of the General Zoological Structure of the Kegion of Country in

Connection with the United States and Mexican Boundary Line. By
Dr. C. C. Pabbt. [Not received.] 271

15. Life in its Physical Aspects. By Chables Gibabd. [Not received.] . 271

m. GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY.

16. The Cretaceous Basin of the Kio Bravo del Norte. By Abthub Schott. 272

17. Notice of some Spontaneous Movements occasionally observed in the

Sandstone Strata in one of the Quarries at Portland, Ct. By Prof.
John Johnston 283

18. Brief Outline or General Description of a Remarkable Fossil, not known

to be described, and by some supposed to be an Ichthyodorulite. By
Prof. William Hopkins 287

19. Observations upon the Geology of the Mauvaises Terres, Nebraska, with

Notices of the Greographical and Geological Bange of some of the Fos-
sils of that Region. By Prof. James Hall. [Not received.] . .290

20. Bemarks upon a Collection of Cretaceous Fossils from Nebraska, and the

Absence of Species known in the Southern Extension of the same
Formation. By Prof. James Hall. [Not received.] .... 290

21. Bemarks upon the Besults of Extensive and Continued Collections of Fos-

sil Species from a Portion of the Silurian Bocks of New York, showing
the Number of Species and Individuals of each Species obtained from a
limited Locality during a Period of Ten Years. By Prof. James
Hall. [Not received.] 290

22. On the Beprodnction of Similar Types or Representative Species in Suc-

cessive Geological Formations. Illustrated by a Collection of Species
of the Brachiopoda from the Niagara and Lower Helderberg Groups of
the PalsBozoic Bocks of the United States. By Prof. James Hall.
[Not received.] 290

23. Geology of the Lead Mines of Wisconsin. By Edwabd Daniels. [Not

received.] 290

24. On the Age of the so-called New Bed Sandstone of the United States.

By Prof. W. B. Boqbbs. [Not received.] 290



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Vm CONTENTS.

25. Bed Sandstone of the Connecticut Biver Yallej, and the Proofs of its

Oolitic or Liassic Age. BjFrof. Jambs Hall. [Not received.] . 290

26. Some ComparatiTe Observations on the Caiboniferons Strata of North

America. By Prof. H. D. BoasBfl. [Not received.] . . .291

27. On some Phenomena of Cleavage Stmctnre, and Metamorphism in Coal

and other Strata. ByProf. H. D. Boobbs. [Not received.] . .291

28. On Phosphatic Organic Bemains in the Palaeozoic Bocks. By T. S.

Hunt. [Not received.] 291

29. On the Crystalline Limestone of North America. By T. S. Hunt. [Not

received.] 291

30. Bemarks upon the Geological Pormation of the Country along the Line of

the Boundary Survey, based upon the Examination of Dr. Parry, made
under the Order of Major Emory. By Prof. Jambs Hall. [Not re-
ceived.] 291

31. On the Chemical Composition and Metamorphoses of some Sedimentary

Bocks. By T. S. Hunt. [Not received.] 291

32. The Silurian and Devonian Systems, and the Nature of the Evidence for

Drawing a Line of Separation between the two Systems in the United
States. By Prof. Jambs Hall. [Not received.] 291

33. On the Western Limits of the Cretaceous Formation on the Northern Con-

tinent of America, as evidenced by the Various Collections that have
been made by Exploring Expeditions under the Direction of the Gov-
ernment of the United States. By Prof. James Hall. [Not received.] 291

34. On the Cleavage and other Effects caused by Trap Dykes in the Middle

Secondary Bock of Va. By Prof. W. B. Bogebs. [Not recwved.] . 291

35. Notice of a Peculiar Variety of Coal firom Breckenridge County, Ky. By

Prof.B. Silliman, Jr. [Not received.] 291

36. On a Number of Mineral Species. By T. S. Hukt. [Not received.] . 291

C. PRACTICAL SCIENCE.

PATENTS.

1. On the Belations of the American Patent System to the Progress of

Science. By Dr. L. D. Gale 292



CXC€UTITi: PROGEEDINGS.

History of the Meeting 303

Besolutions Adopted 305

Votes of Thanks 307

Correspondence 309



Index, 313



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OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION



AT THE



WASHINGTON MEETING.



Prof. J. D. Dana, President.
Prof. Joseph Lovering, Permanent Secretary,
Prof. J. Lawbence Smith, General Secretary.
Dr. A. L. Elwyn, Treasurer.



Standing Committee.



Prof. J. D. Dana,
Prof. Joseph Loveeing,
Prof. J. Laweence Smith,
Dr. J. L. Le Conte,*
Prof. Benjamin Peirce,
Prof. S. F. Baird,



Prof. A. D. Bache,
Prof. John Leconte,

Dr. WOLCOTT GiBBS,

Dr. J. P. Kietland,
Prof. J. W. Bailey,
Prof. Benjamin Silliman, Jr.



Local Committee,

Hon. J. W. Maury, Chairman.
Lieut. J. M. GiLLiss, Secretary.



Col. J. J. Abert, U. S. a..

Prof. A. D. Bache,

R6v. Dr. Bacon,

Prof. S. F. Baird,

Capt. H. W. Benham, U. S. A.,

John Carroll Brent,

LoRiN Blodget,



Joseph Bryan,

Prof. J. H. Coffin, U. S. N.,

W. W. Corcoran,

Richard S. Coxe,

Rev. Prof. Curley,

Lieut. J. A. Dahlgren, U. S. N.»

A. O. Dayton,



Ex officio, as Treasurer pio tern.



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OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION.



Capt. S. Eastman, U. S. A.,

Maj. W. H. Emory, U. S. A.,

Prof. J. P. Espy,

Peter Force,

Lieut J. M. GiLLiss, U. S. N.,

Charles Girard,

Prof. B. Hallowell,

Capt. L. F. Hardcastle,

Prof. Joseph Henry,

Silas H. Hill,

F. Howard, M. D.,

Prof. Hubbard, U. S. N.,

Lieut. E. B.Hunt, U. S. A.,

Lieut. T. A. Jenkins, U. S. N.,

Prof. C. C. Jewett,

Prof. R.Keith, U.S. N.,

J. C. G. Kennedy,

W. C. Langdon,

Capt. T. J. Lee, U. S. A.,

J. C. M'GUIRE,

Prof. Jas. Major, U. S. N.,



F. Markoe,

Hon. Charles Mason,

Capt. Maynadier, U. S. A.,

Francis Mohun,

Maj. Mordecai, U. S. A.,

A. O. P. Nicholson,
Charles G. Page, M. D.,
T. R. Peale,

Prof. Pendleton, U. S. N.,

L. F. POURTALES,

Rev. Dr. Pyne,
Z. Richards,
H. R. Schoolcraft,
W. W. Seaton,
Prof. J. L. Smith,
Rev. B. Sunderland,

B. O. Tayloe,

Gen. J. G. Totten, U. S. A.,
Prof. W. W. Turner,
Commander C. Wilkes,
Lieut. M. Woodhull, U. S. N.



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SPECIAL COMMITTEES.



A. Committees continued fbom Fobmeb Meetings.

Committee to Memorialize the Legislature of Ohio on the Subject of a
Geological Exploration of that State.



Judge Lane, Sandusky, Chairman.
John Andrews, Esq., Columbus.
S. Medaey, Esq., Columbus.
Judge Vance, Hamilton.
John H. James, Esq., Urbana.



Prof. S. St. John, Hudson.
Robert Buchanan, Esq., Cinc'ti.
John P. Foote, Esq., Cincinnati.
Hon. Allen Tbimble, Highl'd Co.
Hon. S. J. Andbews, Cleveland.



Committee to Revise the Constitution.



Prof. A. D. Bache,
Prof. J. Lawbence Smith,
Prof. John Leconte,
Dr. WoLcoTT Gibes,
Dr. B. A. Gould,



Prof. W. B. RoGEBS,
Prof. J. D. Dana,
Dr. Joseph Leidy,
Prof. S. S. Haldeman,
Dr. A. A. Gould.



Committee to Memorialize Congress in Relation to a Geographical
D^artment of the Congress Library.



Prof. A. D. Bache,
Gen. Jos. G. Totten, U. S. A.,
Col. J.J. Abebt, U.S.A.,
Lieut. M. F. Mauby, U. S. N.,



Lieut. C. H. Davis, U. S. N.,
Peteb Fobce, Esq.
Prof. Abnold Guyot,
Lieut. E. B. Hunt, U. S. A.



Committee to Memorialize Congress for an Appropriation to enable
Professor Mitchel to perfect and apply his new Astronomical
Apparatus.



Prof. Benjamin Peibce,

Prof. S. St. John,

Capt. Chas. Wilkes, U. S. N.,

Dr. B. A. Gould,

Prof. J. H. C. Coffin, U. S.N.,



Prof. A. D. Bache,
Prof. W. B. RoGEBS,
Prof. Elias Loomis,
Lieut M. F. Mauby, U. S.N.,
Prof. Joseph Henby.



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xu



SPECIAL COMMITTEES.



B. New Committees.



Committee to take Proper
Eclipse

Prof. A. D. Bache,
Prof. Benjamin Peiece,
Prof. Stephen Alexandee,
Capt. C. H. Davis,
Lieut. M. F. Maury,
Prof. Joseph Heney,
George P. Bond,
Prof. W. M. Chauvenet,
Prof. John F. Frazer,
Prof. Lewis R. Gibbs,



Measures in Regard to the Annular
of May 26th, 1854.

Prof. W. C. C. Coffin,
Dr. B. A. GoiTLD,
Prof. John Leconte,
Prof. O. M. Mitchel,
Prof. W. H. C. Bartlett,
Prof. C. D. Kendall,
Prof. G. W. Keely,
Prof. E. S. Snell,
Prof. Elias Loomis,
Prof. F. a. B. Barnard.



Committee to Report in Relation to Uniform Standards in Weights^
Measures^ and Coinage.



Prof. A. D. Bache,
Prof. Joseph Henry,
Prof. J. H. Alexander,



Prof. John F. Frazer,
Prof. Wolcott Gibbs,
Prof. Benjamin Peirce,



Prof. John Leconte.

Committee to Audit the Accounts of the Treasurer.
Dr. Franklin Bache, | William S. Vaux, Esq.

Consulting Committee on the Publication of the Washington Pro-

ceedings.
Prof. Benjamin Peirce, I Prof. Louis Agassiz,

Prof. Joseph Winlock, | Dr. Asa Gray.



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OFFICERS OF THE PROVIDENCE MEETING.



Prof. John Torrey, President.
Prof. Joseph Lovering, Permanent Secretary,
Prof. WoLcoTT GiBBS, General Secretary,
Dr. A. L. Elwyn, Treasurer.

Standing Committee,
Prof. John Torrey,
Prof. Joseph Lovering,

Prof. WoLCOTT GiBBS,

Dr. A. L. Elwyn,

Prof. J. D. Dana,

Prof. J. Lawrence Smith.



Local Committee.
Prof. Alexis Caswell, Chairman.
William F. Webster, Secretary,



Dr. Joseph Mauran,
Owen Mason, Esq.,
George Thurber, Esq.,



Prof. George J. Chase,
Stephen Olney, Esq.,
Hon. Thomas P. Shepard.



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XIV



MEETINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION.



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CONSTITUTION OF THE ASSOCIATION.



OBJECTS,



The Society shall be called " The American Association for the
Advancement of Science." The objects of the Association are, by
periodical and migratory meetings, to promote intercourse between
those who are cultivating science in different parts of the United
States ; to give a stronger and more general impulse, and a more
systematic direction, to scientific research in our country ; and to pro-
cure for the labors of scientific men increased facilities and a wider
usefulness.

RULES.

MEMBERS.

Rule 1. Those persons whose names have been already enrolled
in the published proceedings of the Association, and all those who
have been invited to attend the meetings, shall be considered mem-
bers, on subscribing to these rules.

Rule 2. Members of scientific societies, or learned bodies, having
in view any of the objects of this Society, and publishing transactions,
shall likewise be considered members, on subscribing to these rules.

Rule 3. Collegiate professors of natural history, physics, chemistry,
mathematics, and political economy, and of the theoretical and applied



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