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THE



AMElllCAN LAW



REAL PROPERTY.



BY

ERANCIS HILLIARD,



COUNSELLOR- AT-LAW.



GREATLY ENLARGED AND IMPROVED,



.IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL 11.



NEW YOEK:

BANKS, GOULD & CO., 144 NASSAU STREET,

ALBANY :

GOULD, BANKS & CO., 475 BROADWAY.
1855



r

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year One Thousand Eight Hundred and
Fifty-five, by FEAifOiS Hixliard, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massa-
chusetts.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME SECOND.



CHAPTEE LX.

EASEMENTS, -



1. Incorporeal hereditaments.

2. Easements — definition.

3. How acquired — prescription — presump-

tion of grant.
7. Exception to general rule; uncultivated
landa



8. Easement can never arise from enjoy-
ment of known legal riglit.

10. How lost; n^n-user; obstruction ; pre-
sumption of release.

13. A public easement is real estate.

1-4. Easement and license — distinction.



CHAPTER LXI.



WATS. PRIVATE WATS,



1. Definition.

4. Classification.

6. Private ways— course and terminations-
construction of language — uncertainty,
&c.
22. How acquired — by prescription.
42. By grant.

47. By necessity — general doctrine.
50. Arising from the levy of an execution.
56. Are newly created.
59. Construed strictly.



60. Ways in gross and appendant.

64. Privileges and appurtenances — whether
a way passes under.

68. How ways may be used — party has no
right to go beyond the terminus.

74. Or out of the way, though impassable;
distinction between ways in this re-
spect.

84. Extinguishment of way by unity of
possession.

92. Laying out of private way.



CHAPTER LXIL

WATS. HIGHWATS,



24



1. How laid out; power, how restricted.

2. Title to the soil remains in former owner.
9. Privileges incident to a highway.

11. Statutory provisions as to trees.

12. Analogy between highways and rivers;



title to the soil of the road, whether in
adjoining owner.
17. Conveyance bounded by highway.

21. Provisions in N. Torlj and Indiana.

22. Highway by dedication and user.
34. Way along banks of rivers.



CHAPTER LXIII.

FRANCHISES. FERRIES,



39



1. Franchise — definition.

2. Ferry, what it is, and how established.

4. How affected by the title to the waters.

5. Privilege of a ferry ; its nature and ex-

tent.



20. Question of public convenience, &c.

21. Ownership of the land adjoining a ferry.

22. Statutory provisions.



671425



IV



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER LXIV.

FRANCHISES. BRIDGES, ETC. CONSTITUTIONAL LAW,



49



CHAPTEE LXV.

FRANCHISES. FAIRS AND MARKETS,



68



CHAPTER LXVI.



1. Definition.

2. Origin and classification.

3. Inseparable from land.

5. Improvement by landlord.



COMMONS,



69



1. Extinguishment.
8. Estovers — apportionment.
12. Right of common and common lands, in
the United States.



CHAPTER LXVII.



OFFICES, ANNUITIES, LIGHTS, ETC.,



75



1. Offices.

2. Annuities.

3. Lights general principles ancient

lights.
6. When protected, though not ancient.



1 6. Privilege of lights, how lost.
18. Parties liable; amount of damage.
20. License to obstruct.
22. Other rights connected with buildings,
walls, foundations, &c.



CHAPTER LXVIIL



RIVERS, ETC. OWNERSHIP OF THE SOIL,



86



1. The sea and navigable rivers.
■ 5. Rivers riot navigable.
11. Grant of land upon a river.
17. Change in the course or width of a river.



18. Alluvion.

19. Islands.

21. American doctrine.



CHAPTER LXIX.



WATER COURSES, MILLS, DAMS, ETC.,



98



1. Water-course — nature of the property

therein.
8. General principle, as to the useofninning
water — distinction between riparian
proprietor and mill-owner.
13. Cases where the public is interested.
15. Detention of the water.



17. Right to erect a dam — amount of injury,

&c.
20. Measure of one's water power, what.
22- Water cannot be corrupted.

23. Opposite owners.

24. Adverse and prescriptive right.
31. Right gained by prior occupancy.
38. Right of irrigation, &c.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER LXX.

WATER-COURSES.— TITLE TO A WATER-COURSE— ITS NATURE AND
EXTENT; HOW CONVEYED, RESERVED, ACQUIRED, OR EXTIN-
GUISHED, 112



1. Cannot be taken, without compensation,
for public uses.

6. By what terms conveyed or devised.
12. A quahfied right may be transferred.
14. Conflicting rights of several owners.



17. Exception or reservation in a convey-
ance.

21. Parol agreement; license; acquies-
cence, &c.

30. Extinguishment — unity of possession
— title by prescription.



CHAPTER LXXI.

WATER-COURSES, ETC. FLOWAGE.



- 123



1. General rule.

4. Applies to land below, as well as that

above.

5. Right of flowing an incorporeal heredita-

ment — how acquired.
I?. Right of election.



9. License — when no defence.
11. Construction of particular grants and

reservations.
18. Prescriptive right.
25. Unity of possession — extinguishment.



CHAPTER LXXII.

WATER-COURSES, ETC. STATUTORY PROVISIONS,



128



1. General remarks.

2. Statutes in New England.
24. In the Middle States.



28. In the Southern States.
38. In the Western States.



CHAPTER LXXIII.



FISHERY, 142



1. General division of the subject.

2. Kinds of fishery — common of piscary;

free and several fishery; common and
exclusive rights.

16. Construction of grants.

19. Fishery in river not navigable, who enti-
tled to.

22. Quahfication of the right ; passage of the
fish; passage-ways through dams, &c.



29. Fishery in the sea and navigable
streams.

32. Modifications of the common law in
the United States — regulation of riv-
ers not navigable— doctrine in Penn-
sylvania, &c.

54. Right ■ of fishery, whether it gives a
right to enter on private lands.

58. Statutory provisions.



CHAPTER LXXIY.

TITLE TO REAL PROPERTY,



155



2. Definition of title.

3. Stages or degrees — possession.

4. Right of possession — entry.
6. Apparent and actual right.

Vol. II,



8. Loss of right of possession — right of

property.

9. DiscontiniMnce.

10. Complete title.

11. Reraitter.



Yl



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER LXXY.



TITLE BY PRESCRIPTION,



15T



1. General divisiou of the modes of acqui-

ring title.

2. Prescription — nature and foundation of

tlie title.
6. To what kind of property applicable;
whether to lands and tenements.

13. Prescription positive or negative.

14. Prescription and custom; points of resem-

blance and distinction.

22. Prescription in theperson, or in a que es-

tate.

23. To what rights applicable; matters of

record ; grant ; lost grant.
25. Que estate for what.



27. Time of prescription.
31. What user necessary ; continued, peace-
able, &c.
33. Certainty, reasonableness, &c.

37. "Whether one may prescribe against a
Statute.

38. Constitutional rights, no prescription

against.

39. One prescription cannot contradict an-

other.

40. How destroyed.

44. Descent of prescriptive right.

45. Prescription in the United States.



CHAPTER LXXVI.



STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS,



167



1. General remarks; analogy and distinction
between limitation and prescription.

5. Periods of linaitatiou by successive Stat-

utes. '

6. Heirs in tail, when harred—formedon.

S. Entry, how limited ; descent cast; pos-
session must be adverse.
13. Reversioners, &c. ; whether within the
statutes.

18. Possession, when not adverse.

19. New right of entry.

20. Whether different possessions may be

joined, to give an adverse title.



21. Statute does not apply to dower and

waste.

22. Action, when necessary after entry.

23. Disabilities, general principles concern-

ing.

38. Must be expressly provided for; not
regarded by the common law.

40. To what persons and things the stat-
utes apply.

43. Do not apply to the government.

44. Whether applicable in equity.

50. Statutes of Limitation in the United
Stales.



CHAPTER LXXVII.



DESCENT.



189



1. Nature of the title ; whether natural or
positive.

3. What right or property descends ; dis-
tinction of freeliold and chattel inter-
ests; heir of person last seized.

19. Consanguinity or kindred, what.

20. Illegitimate children ; whetlier they in-

herit; presumption as to legitimacy.
38. Aliens, riglits ot; as to inheritance.



61



Canons of descent; distinction between
the English and American law.
62. Characteristics of the English rules of

descent.
64. Computation by the civil law.
G9. General principles of descent in the
United States; and statutory provi-
sions in the several States.



CHAPTER LXXVIIL

DESCENT. PARTITION AMONG HEIRS, ETC.,



222



1. General rcmark.s.

2. Partition in NfW P'ngland.
15. In the Middle Slates.



2G. Partition in the Southern States.
27. lu the Western States.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER LXXIX.



Vll



TITLE BY PUBLIC GRANT, PATENT, SURVEY, ETC.^



230



1. United States grants, &c.
34. Grants, &c., in the several States — Mas-
sachusetts.
42. Maine.
49. New Hampshire.

55. Rhode Island.

56. Vermont.
65. New York.
81. Pennsylvania.

162. New Jersey — Delaware.



163. Maryland.
170. Virginia.
198. North Carolina.
203. South Carolina.

215. Georgia.

216. Alabama.

217. Tennessee.
240. Kentucky.
249. Ohio.

257. Missouri and other States.



CHAPTER LXXX.



TITLE BY DEED,



278



1. Deed — definition, nature and objects.
6. Deedj'oll and indenture.
10. Acceptance or disclaimer by a grantee.

18. Parties to a deed, who must be.

19. Joint deed.

21. Execution by attorney, distinction be-
tween private and public convey-
ances.
33. "Who may convey by deed — disabilities
— corporations, infants, insane per-
sons, femes covert.
50. Who may be grantees.



58,



79.

80.

81,

82,

88

89.

192,

131,

123,



Consideration, whether necessary.
Whether, if expressed, it is conclu-
sive, &c.

Deed — how written.

Filling of blanks.

Stamp.

Formal parts of deed.

Must be read.

Signing and sealing.

Delivery.

Delivery to third persons — escrows.

Attestation.



CHAPTER LXXXI.

FORMS AND KINDS OF DEEDS. COMMON LAW CONVEYANCES, 310



1. Feofifment and livery of seisin.
21. Gift and grant.
30. Exchange.
38. Partition.
41. Release, and quit claim deed.



69. Confirmation.
76. Surrender.
88. Assignment.
92. Defeasance.



CHAPTER LXXXII.



FORMS AND KINDS OP DEEDS. DEEDS UNDER THE STATUTE OF USES 323



1. Uses and trusts, conveyances which

create,
3. Bargain and sale, nature and history of;

whether a contract, or a conveyance.

8. Words necessary to.

9. Who may convey by.
10. What may be conveyed.

12. Conveyance in futuro.

13. Consideration.

19. Enrolment.

20. Covenant to stand seized, &c., nature of,

and words necessary to create ; other



conveyances, when construed as such.

37. Who may convey by.

38. Consideration.

52. Operation and efi'ect of.

53. Rent created by.

54. When void.

55. Bargain and sale, &c., pass only the

grantor's estate.

56. Use upon a use.

57. Lease and release.

65. Conveyances to uses, changing the pos-
session.



Vlll



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER LXXXIIL

TITLE BY DEED. CONSTRUCTION OP DEEDS,



336



1. Ancient, general rules of construction.
16. Uncertainty and repugnancy avoid a

deed.
20. Deeds may operate in any way necessary

to give them effect.
26. Parol evidence, whether admissible in



the construction of deeds ; declara-
tions, acts and circumstances ; am-
biguities, &c.
45. Mistakes, in deeds, correction of, in law
and equity.



CHAPTER LXXXIV.



TITLE BY DEED. CONSTRUCTION. FORMAL PARTS OP A DEED, 349



1. Clauses in a deed.

2. Pren.ises ; what.

3. Date, whether necessary or conclusive.
10. Parties, when bound.

12. How described; whether a name is



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