Francis Kingsley Ball.

A German grammar, for schools and colleges online

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^ barfi'ber over ity at it. ^ The dative with a prepiosition generally expresses
the place where or from which ; the accusatiye, the plcue whither*

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20 A GERMAN GRAMMAR

IX. fteitt, (Sittf AND THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

S!em, ein, and the possessive adjectives are inflected like biefet
(8, 2), except that the nominative singular masculine and neu-
ter and the accusative singular neuter have no case endings,
and are called defective : ^







Masculine


Feminine


Neuter






N.


fein


feine


fein


no


Singular


G.


feine^


feinet


feine^


of no


D.


feinem


feinet


feinem


to or for no




A.


feineti


teine


fein


no




N.


!eine


feine


feine


no


Plural


G.


feinet


feinet


feiner


of no


D.


teinett


feineti


teinett


to ox for no




A.


Itmt


feine


feine


no



When the meaning is dear, the definite article (10, i) is often used
instead of a possessive adjective, and is sometimes accompanied by the
dative of the person affected : as,

I. 8ie Breti^ett tnir ben Strtn, you are breaking my arjn.



\t\% feitte, feitt, no^
cin^ eine^ ein, a^ an (no plural)^
weitt, meine^ mein, my^
bein, belne, bein, thy^ your^ in
familiar address to one personi
fein, feine, fein, his, its^

itttfer, ttttfre,2 uttfer, our^



Vocabulary

Cttcr, ettre,^ cucr, your, in familiar
address to two or more personsi

tl^r, i^re, t^r, their^ •

3^r, 3^rc, 3^ir, your, in formal
address to two or more persons
or to one person^

bet fjrcunb, the friend

bftig ^XVXVXtX^ the room



^^cin, cin, etc. are inflected alike and may be called fein-words (cf. iqI)
* When a stem ends in el, en, or er, the e of the ending is commonly dropped
if possible ; otherwise, the e of the stem : as, unicrm, eueni, unfrc.



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THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 21

Exercise i6, German into English

I. SBar St)rc S^od^ter SWarie geftern ju §aufe? 2. 9?ein, fie
tt)ar bet i^rer S^tuefter Slnna. 3* Slber t)eute tft fie ju §aufe,
unb it)re ©d^tpefter tft bei i^r. 4* SBattn ge^t i^re ©^luefter
2lnna nad^ §aufe? s- SJiarie, frage^ beine ©d^tuefter Slnna,
tpattit fie tta^ §aufe ge^t! 6. ©ie get)t ntorgen ntit ntetttem
©ruber ttac^ §aufe. 7- Sft it)r 93ruber §an^ itt ber @^ute?
8. 3a, er ift in ber ©d^ute ntit feiner ©^njefter ©lifabet^. 9* Un=
fer §an^ ift ftein, bo^ {still) lernt er h)a^ in ber ©d^ute.
10. §ot er feinen 93ruber ? 11. 3a, er t)at einen JBruber, gri^
ift fein ©ruber. 12. Sft gri^ bei feinem SSater ? 13. 9?ein, er
tft l^ier, er ift in meinem ^tomer. 14. Unfer §au^ tft flein, unb
SKarie tDol^nt bei unfrer 2!od^ter Slnna. 15. §ier finb §an^ unb
%x\% ; njo ift bein SSater, §an^ ? 16. ®t(t ^ in "^txi ®arten, ^ani^
unb gri§, unb fud^t^ euern SSater! 17- ®e^en ©ie^ in Stir
3intmer, grautein! SSater ift f^on ba. 18. Sft euer greunb
^itlietm bei euc§? 19. 9?ein, er ift nid)t t)ier, er ift bei feiner
abutter.

Exercise 17, English into German

20. Have you water in your room, Fred? 21. I have no
water in my room, and no table. 22. Your table is in our
room. 23. Elizabeth, does your brother Jack go to school }

24. Yes, he goes to school, and lives at our sister Anna's.

25. Where is your sister Anna to-day.? 26. She is at our
father's. 27. His brother is there in the garden. 28. Does
he have a room at your house } 29. No, he lives at his
daughter's. 30. Ask ^ my brother when he is going home.

^ Familiar imperative, formed by adding e (singular), (e)t (plural) to the stem ;
the subject (bu, i^r, 6, a) is unexpressed unless emphatic : as, frage ! ask,

2 Formal imperative, formed by adding ctt to the stem. The subject, @ic
(6, 2), is always expressed and stands after the verb : as, ge^en ^ie ! go.

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A GERMAN GRAMMAR

X. THE PRESSNT AND THE PAST INDICATIVS OF
STRONG VERBS

The past indicative of strong verbs is not formed by add-
ing tt or etc to the stem (as in weak verbs, 14, i), but merely
by changing the stem vowel, as in English: as,



resent Infinitive


Past Indlcatiye






fing-en (stem fltig)


fang




sing


finb-en (stem flttb)


fanb




find


fc^Ieidhcn (stem fi^Icli^)


m\^




sneaky creep


fc^ieKn (stem fi^r£ib)


fc^tieb




write


fpmm-en (stem (ontm)


f ftm (for


famm)


come





Present (12


,x)




Past (14, s





tc6
bfl
er


ftnge finbe
fingft pnbeft
fmgt finbet


fomme
fommft
fommt


fong

fangft

fang


fanb

fanbeft

fanb


ffim

ffimft

fSm


ttjfr
fic


fmgeti pnbeit
fingt finbet
fingett finbett


fommett

fommt

fommett


fangett

fangt

fangett


fanbett
fanbet
fanbett


fSmett

ffimt

f&mett


@tc


fmgett finbett ^


fommett


fangett


fanbett


ffimett



3 In the past indicative the third person singular is like the first and
has no personal ending.



atteitt', alone

bleiben, blieb, remain^ stay
ber Srief, the letter
ber Sr^ftfc i^ ^V^r
gilt, good; beffer, better
\ft\\t% lB^t% be called: mie
ir? what is his name? ft
^atl^ his name is Charles



Vocabulary |

f»iriiifieii, f>tatif|, spring
trinfen^ tranf, drink
gg^(e)ti (irregular), glng^ got tote
gf^t W 3^tie«? how do you doh
(how goes it for you?) Id 9^
^eiftt uttr gfit^ / am well
^eitt ff^eti (irregular), fjft, sit

fte^(e)n (irregular), ftttnb, stand

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THE INDICATIVE MOOD 2$

Exercise i8, Gennan into English

I. aSic get)t e^ Sl^rer abutter i)mk abenb, graulein? 2. Sc§ i
bonfe ^\)r\m, §err S)oftor, e^ ge^t i^r beffer. 3« ®te [t^t am geuer
unb trtnft 2)?ild^. 4- Slber geftern ging ei§ il^r nid^t gut 5- ©eftent
morgen ging metn 93ruber 9!Bit^etm nad^ ber ^ir^e. 6. 95or
ber ^r^e fanb er feinen greunb ^ort S^mibt 7- ^art fragte
SBU^elm: „9Bann fommt SSater no^ §oufe?'' 8. aBil^etm anU
tDortete: „Sr fommt nidjt l)eute, fonbern morgen abenb." 9. 3Btt
l^elm fu^rte Sari in jenen ©arten unb fprang in ben glu§.
10. SWeine SRutter fafe am genfter, §err ©oftor, unb furd)tete
ftc§ fel)r. II. @ie fe^te fid^ an ben ^ifd^ unb fd^rieb i^rem
SBater einen 93rief. 12. Slber SSittjetm unb Sart btieben nid^t
lange ba, fonbern fd^Iidjen in§ §au^. 13. 3^ ging in^ 3'"^==
mer unb fanb SRutter fef)r !ran!. 14. Sd^ blieb tange bei it)r.
IS- S(^ bteibe (11^) t)eute, graulein; ge^n @ie (212) ju St)rer
©(^ttjefter ! 16. ®a fommt mein SSruber SBil^elm. 17- SBit^etm,
bleibe (21I) tjeute bei 9Kutter ! S^ get)e ju ©d^toefter Slnna.

Exercise 19, English into German

18. William, what is your friend's name ? 19. His name is 2
Charles. 20. How is he to-day ? 21. He is well, Miss Smith.
22. Did he stay at your house last night ? 23. Yes, he was
here last night, and he stays at our house to-day. 24. Yester-
day he went into the garden and sprang into the river. 25. He
found the water cold. 26. He did not remain there long, but
crept into my room. 27. Did he write his sister a letter ?
28. No, he sat at the fire a long time, but he wrote her no
letter. 29. When is he going to his sister's.? 30. To-
night; and he stays at her house till to-morrow. 31. There
sits Charles in the garden. 32. Charles, stay (21^) with me
to-day ; Miss Smith is going home.

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24 A GERMAN GRAMMAR

XI. THE PRESENT AND THE PAST INDICATIVE OF SSetbetl



Present ( 1 2, i)


Past (14, a)


icft toerbe I become^ etc.


ic^ tDilrbe / became, etc.


bfl iDirft thou becomest, etc.


bfl Wiirbeft M^« becamest, etc.


cr tt)irb he becomes, etc.


er wttrbe ^ became, etc.


Wir tocrbett w^ become, etc.


tt)tr iDilrbett «/^ became, etc.


i^r ttJcrbet j'^ become, etc.


{^r ttrtlrbet ^^ became, etc.


fie loerbett />^ become, etc.


fie Wilrbett /Afj' became, etc.


@ie Wcrbett ^^w become, etc.


(5ie Wiirbett >'^« becatne, etc.



In the present indicative the stem vowel e is changed to iin the
second and third persons singular (as in some other strong verbs, 72, 3).
In the second person singular b is dropped, and in the third person there
is no personal ending.

The past indicative is formed by changing the stem yowel (22, i) and
adding the personal ending e (cf. 22, 3). In the singular the forms icj^
mftrb, bfi mftrbft, it Wftrb are now poetic ; but in compound forms they
occur sometimes in prose : as, ber ^rme ftarb nub tuarb begra'bett^ the poor
man died and was buried.



Vocabulary



aid, when, introducing a subordi-
nate clause (12,3) expressing a
single act in past time

mettn, whenever, introducing a sub-
ordinate clause (12, 3) expressing
repeated action in any time ; if
ever,. if

bftiS @tiS, the ice

frettttblt^, friendly

tttt'frettnbU^, unfriendly [against

0{gett, prep, with a., toward.



^of^ann', fohn

mftbe, tired; with G. or A., tired of

bic Sad^e, the thing, the affair

ber @(^tiee, the snow

f^Blt, beautiful, pretty

ttieit, because, introducing a subor-
dinate clause (12,3)

bie iBett, the world

nifrben, become, get: nifrbett ims,
become ofj loSrben gtt, turn to

niieber, again

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THE INDICATIVE MOOD 2$

Exercise 20, German into English

1. Sefet tft c^ SBinter, unb ha^ SBaffer toirb ju ©d^ncc unb ju i
gig ! 2. Sm SBinter, toenn e^ !alt luirb, gef)t ei§ meinem SSater
l)iel {muck) beffer. 3- 50fit fetbft gelit e^ beffer im ©ommer, tuenn
c^ wicber ^ei§ luirb. 4. Site id^ franf luar, njurbe bie 9Bett ^ fait
unb unfreunblid^ gegen mid^. s« S)ie SBett hjurbe fait gegen bi(^,
©lifabet^, tDeil bu unfreunbtid^ gegen fie (it) tparft. 6. SBenn
bu felbft freunbltd^ gegen bie SBelt njtrft, toirb fte^ toteber iDarm
unb fd^dn. 7« 2lu^ btr njtrb ni^t^, tvtmi bu unfreunblid) unb
Jolt bift- 8. SBurbe bein greunb So^ann oud^ (also) fait gegen
bid^, ©lifabet^? 9. @r tourbe fef)r unfreunblid^ gegen mic^ unb
bid^. 10. §eute tft er felbft franf, er hjurbe geftern franf, afe
er auS ber ©d^ute fam. 11. SBenn t^ tuieber ,@ommer ift,
totrb er^ franf. 12. @r ift ber ®d)ule fi^on lange miibe, unb
toenn eig I)ei§ ift, tuirb er ^ aud^ ber SBelt miibe. is- Sa, ja, iu
unb er, i^r tuerbet alt! 14- SBerbet (21^) njieber jung, unb bleibt
jung im ©ommer unb im SBinter !

Exercise 21, English into German

15. Now it is getting summer again, Anna, and you are 2
better when it is warm. 16. But I am getting tired of the
affair. 17. Yes, but John became unfriendly to you because
you were cold to him and to his brother. 18. They are now
becoming friendly again to us. 19. When you are ill, the
world becomes^ cold and unfriendly to you. 20. It becomes
cold to you because you yourself are cold to it. 21. How
are you to-day ? Are you getting better ? 22. I am getting
better, but I have been ill a long time (13, i). 23. I was not
at home when you became ill. 24. I am very glad (idl) freue
mtd^ fef|r) that you are getting better.

1 The inTerted order ; for an entire clause precedes the subject (i i, x).

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26



A GERMAN GRAMMAR



>Xn. THE PERFECT AND THE PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE OF
WEAK VERBS

The principal parts of a verb are the present infinitive, the
.past indicative, and the past participle, as in English. The
past participle of weak verbs is formed from the stem by pre-
fixing ge (denoting completion) and adding t or ct : as.



Present Inflnitiye


Past Indicative


Past Participle




fag-en (stem f 5g)


ffig-te


ge-fag-f


say


5ff n-cn (stem 3ffti)


SfTn-cte


ge-fiffn-et


open


anf wort-cn (stem anttooirt)


anfttJort-cte


ge-anfttjort-et


answer


]^ab-en (stem ^jib)


l^at-te (for ^b-te)'


ge-^ab-f


have



2 The perfect and the pluperfect of most verbs are inflected
as in English, by using the tense auxiliary j^ben, ^ve : as, ^
l^Bc Stfagt; I said^ I have saidy or I have been saying; id^l^tte
gefagt^ / had said or / had been saying:



Perfect


Pluperfect


i*
bu
er


liabe


Qefagf
gefagf
gefagf


i«.

bu

cr


^Sit gefagf
liatteft gefagf
%mt gefagf


XOVt

fte


i^aben

^abt

^aben


gefagf
gefagf
gefagf


wtr
fie


pttett gefagf
^attet gefagf
l^ttett gefagf


(Sic


i^abett


gefagf


@ic


^atte» gefagf



Vocabulary



bantt, then; jottiS^r^ yes indeed
^einri(^^ Henry; ^eins, Harry
^dlen^ loUe, ^t^xM^ fetch
ftot^fett^ flo^iftc, geflo|)ft, knock
Ugeii, Kgtc^ ge^lflt, /-ty^, put



bte %ix{ft\ the door
X^VixXtn^ ttfartete, getnartet, ze/atV.-
tuarten auf, with a., wait for

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THE INDICATIVE MOOD 2/

In questions or statements not in narrative or description
(14, 2) the perfect is used like the English past. As a rule,
the participle stands at the end of its clause, but in a sub-
ordinate clause it stands before the auxiliary verb : as,

1. ttier \i^ bie %^x gedffnet ? who opened the doorf

2. iii^ frage, mer bie Vkt geoffnet ^at^ / ask who opened the door.

Exercise 22, German into English

I. SBer l|at an bie %vx geffopft, TOarte? 2. S^re TOutter fjot
gef lopft. 3* §at fie baig genftcr gedffnet ? 4- 9?etn, abet id^ y&t
e^ geSffnet 5* |Kift bu aud^ biefen Sifd^ an^^ genfter gefteUt?
6. grSuIeut aWorie l^ot i^ boran ^ gefteHt. 7- @ie ^ot mit beinem
S3ruber gefpielt 8. %% \q\x I)a6en lange mit tt)m gefpiett 9* ^^^
^einrid^ ^tyx 93rief ge^oft ? 10. @r ^at t^n ^eute morgen gel^olt
unb auf ben 2;ifd^ gelegt. 11. 9Bo tuar ^inj geftern? ^atte er
ntd^t auf mid^ getpartet? 12. Satt)oI)t, er l^atte fe^r (ange auf
bt^ getoartet. 13. SSater ^fiX ^inj nad^ §aufe ju SRutter
gefd^idtt. 14* ®r \)(x\\,t nad^ feiner SJhitter gefragt! 15. Sa, er
^atte nad^ t^r gefragt. 16. Sd& ^abe geanttoortet, bafe fie ju §aufe
bei 3t)ttett ift.

Exercise 23, English into German

17. Have you waited long for us ? 18. No, we have not
waited long. .19. Did you knock on the window.? 20. No,
but Henry knocked at the door. 21. Did Henry have my
book with him (bei ftd^) } 22. Yes ; he laid it on that table.
23. Who put this table at the door ? 24. I put it (i^n) at the
door, but I did not open the door. 25. Did you not play in
the garden t 26. We did not play ; I sent Harry home to his
sister. 27. I sent him home because she had been asking
for him. 28. He did not wait for his brother Charles.
1 baran', on it, at it.

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28



A GERMAN GRAMMAR



Xm. THE PSRFECT AND THE PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE OF
STRONG VERBS

I The past participle of strong verbs is formed from the stem
by prefixing gc (denoting completion) and adding cn^ the stem
vowel often being changed (as in English) : as,



Present Infinitive



Past Indicative



fing-en (stem fmg) fang

finb-cn (stem finb) fanb

fc^reib-cn (stem fc^retB) fc^rieb

trin!-cn (stem ttinf) tranf

fi^-en (stem fl^, irregular) ffife

fte^-(e)n (stem \il% irregular) ftftnb



Past Participle
ge-fiing'-ett
ge-fitn'b-cii
ge-fc^ric'b-cii
ge-tmnf-en
fieferf-en
ge-ftftn'b-en



sing
find
ivrite
drink
sit
stand



Perfect (26, a)


Pluperfect (26, 2)


id)
bii
cr


l)abc


gefung'en
gcfung'en
gefung'en


id) pttc
bii ^attcft
cr • \fiXit


gefung'en
gefung'en
gefung'en


mtr
fie


Ijfibctt

tiabt

l)abctt


gefung'en
gefung'en
gefung'en


tt)tr l^attctt
fie l^Sttett


gefung'en
gefung'en
gefung'en


eie


f)5bett


gefung'en


@ie patten


gefung'en



Vocabulary



Iftffcn, Ueg, flelftffCtt, let, leave
fc^lafen, f^Uef, gefc^lfifcn, sleep
f (^lagen, f Jftluflf flcf t^lagcn, strike, beat
trSgen, trilg, gctrSgen, carry
geicn, gfii, gegeien, ^/V^
Iffen, IftS, geUfen^ r^a^
fei^ett^ fal^^ geff^ett^ ^^
Hei^en, 6!g, geBlffett^ bite
lirSf^ett, UrSf^^ geftrdc^en, break



l^elfen, ^alf, gel^olfen, with d., help
Vil\vxt% tta^m, gendmmett (irregu-
lar), take; with d., take fro fn

tiltt, tilt, getan', irregular, do

rei^t, right: xt^i gSt, ^/^f^ '^^H

ber t^ittger, the finger

%tx $nttb, />4^ ^^^

ber JRiiig, the ring; tiie, «/v^

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THE INDICATIVE MOOD 29

After verbs meaning take^ the dative expresses the object i
from which the person or the thing is taken : as,

1. l^at tx bir beinett $nttb gettommeu ? did he take your dog from you t

2. \% vc )^tLi i^tt vm ^VX^VXVXt% yes^ lie took him from me.

Exercise 24, German into English

I. S)ein SSater t)at mi^ in feinem 3^^""^^^ ciHein gelaffcn. 2
2, ,^a6en @ie gut gefd^Iafen ? 3- Sc^ banfe bir, i^ l^abe red^t gut
gefrfjlafen. 4- SBag l^abett ©ie l^eute morgett getan? 5- Sci) l^abe
bie^ 95ud^ gelefen, beine SKutter t)at eiS mir gegeben. 6, ^aben ©ic
meinen SBruber gri^ gefe^en? 7- 3a, ja, id^ ^abe i^n gefet)en.
8. 28o l^aben ©ie i^n gefel^en ? 9* %^ ^abe i^tt l^eute uiorgen im
©arten gefel^en. lo, Slber biiS t)eute t)atte ici) i^n nie gefel^en.
II. Sci) l^abe aud^ beine @c^tt)efter im ®arten gefel^en, afe ber
^unb au^ bent §aufe in ben (Sarten fprang unb fie bife. 12. ^a^
ben @ie ben §unb gefrf)lagen? 13. Sa, ic^ l^abe i^n gefdjlagcn
unb beine ©c^mefter in^ §au^ getragen, beine Wutter l)at niir ge=»
I)olfen. 14. S)elne ©d)me|ter l^atte einen 9iing am ginger ge^abt,
bein 93ruber Sari ^atte i^n i^r genommen.

Exercise 25, English into German

15, Did mother leave you alone in her room, Charles? 3
i6. No, she left us with (bei) your brother. 17. Did you not
see father? 18. We saw him this morning in the garden.
19, Have you never seen my sister ? 20. Not till this morn-
ing ; but how did she break her arm ? 21. A dog bit it (il)n)
and broke it. 22. My brother beat the dog, and I helped him.
23. Who carried her into the house ? 24. Doctor Smith and
I carried her into the house. 25. We carried her into your
room. 26. Did you find my book ? 27. Yes, and I gave it
to your sister. 28. She has been reading it. 29. Have you
not seen the doctor ?

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30



A GERMAN GRAMMAR



XIV. THE PERFECT AND THE PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE OP
VERBS INFLECTED WITH ^eitt

Many verbs have the perfect and the pluperfect inflected
with the auxiliary fein (not l^abett, 26, 2). These verbs are
feiti^ merbett^ and 6Iei6en;and intransitive verbs (or their com-
, pounds) that denote change of position or of condition,:^ as,

1 . er ift 5tt ^auf e ge^Ue^en, he remained at home,

2. fie ift vx^ SBaffcr gefatten, she fell into the water.



Perfect


Pluperfect


ic^ bin
bil bift
er ift


gefolgf I followed^
gcfolgf etc. (26, 2)
gefolgt'


ici& tt)fir gefunfen I had sufik,
bil ttjfirft gefunt'en etc. (26, 2)
er n)ar gcfunfen


ttJir (inb
tlr feib
fie finb


gefolgf
gefolgf
gefolgf


ttJtr itjfirctt gefunfen
x\)i xoM gefunf'cn
fie marctt gefunfen


@te finb


gefolgt'


@ie tDfirett gefunf en



3 A few intransitive verbs denoting change of position are inflected with
l^aBett when used without reference to the starting pointy the direction^ or
the stopping point of the motion : as,

I. bu ^aft tiiel gereift, j<7« have traveled much.



Vocabulary



fciii, W5r, ift gettiSfen^ ^^
tu^rben, toilrbe^ ift getodrben, ^^?r^/;z<f
(letBen^ blieb, ift geBCieBen^ remain
cilctt, eiftc, ift gccift, hasten^ hurry
folgcn, fofgte, ift gefofgt, with d.,

follow
reifen, rcifte, ift gereift, travel

1 Cf. the French "il est parti"



fal^ren^ fii^r, ift gefill^rett^ drive^

ride^ go ,

fftttctt, fici, ifigefftttctt,/^//
ge^(c)n, ging, ift gcgftngcii,^^
fdmmen^ fam^ ift gefdmmen, come
ftnfctt, fanf, ift gefnnfen^ sink
tuftf^fett, ttitttJ^!^, ift gettiftf^fett^ grow

and the English " he is gone.**

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THE INDICA TIVE MOOD * 3 1

Exercise 26, German into English

I. SQ3o tft mein SSater, graukin? Sft er geftern bet S^nen ge^ i
tt)efen? 2. (£r tpar bet un^, aber er ift ntube getporben unb nac^
^aufe gefa^ren. 3. Sft er allein gefa^ren? 4. 9lein, er ift mit
iJarl in unferm SBagen gefa^rett. 5. Unb ift meine 9Kutter (x)xi)
l^icr getpefen? 6, Seine 2)?utter ift bei Slnna gett^efen, aber fie ift
beinem SSater gefolgt nnb nac^ ^ciufe gegangen. 7, SBann ift fie
gegangen? 8. @ie ift geftern abenb mit nteiner ©c^mefter gegan=
gen. 9. 3ft 3f)r SBrnber lange bei Stinen gett)efen? 10. SRein,
nut bi^ l^eute ift er gebtieben. 11. @r ift je^t naci) §aufe geeilt,
iDeil \Q\x morgen ju if)m gel^en. 12. Sci) unb nteine @(f)tt)efter
l^aben nie gereift, unb ©ruber gri^ \)oi nid)t t)iel gereift. 13. @eib
i^r nic^t ju euerm ©ruber gereift? 14. SBir finb nie ju il)m ge*
reift. 15, SBer ift an ber Sur? St)r ©ruber |)an^? SBie ift er
getDod^fen ! 16. Sr ift fet)r getpad^fen, ift aber boc^ flein ; bleibe
(21^) bei un§, §an^! 17. ®eftern abenb, al^ er im ®arten mar,
ift er \\\% SSaffer gefaHen unb gefunfen. 18. S)ein ©ruber mar
t^m gcfolgt unb fprang in^ SBaffer it)m ju |)ilfe (to his aid).

Exercise 27, English into German

19. Where was your brother yesterday ? 20, He was at 2
Anna's, but last night he came home. 21. He had never
been at Anna's. 22, To-day he has been at home, but to-night
he has gone to my brother's. 23. Did his friend go with him ?
24. Yes, he went with him. 25, Elizabeth did not go because
she had become ill. 26. She has never traveled much ; she
has never been at her brother's. 27, Yesterday she fell into
the water and has become very ill. 28. She is in her room
to-day, and father and mother have remained a long time with
(bei) her. 29. They have now gone home with Charles.
30. He came yesterday and stayed until this morning.

Digitized by VjOOQIC



32



A GERMAN GRAMMAR



XV. THE FUTURE AND TH£ FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE

I The future of a verb is formed by adding its present infini-
tive to the present indicative of Uierbctt ; the future perfect, by
adding its perfect infinitive : as,



Future Indicative


Future Perfect Indicative




ic^ tt)erbe fagen


\6) roerbe gef agf ^8Beii (26, 2)


say


ic^ merbe li^aUn


ic^ merbc fic^ft^f ^aben - "


have


\6) tuerbe flttgett


ic^ tuerbe gefttttg'ett ^Sbett "


sing


i&j werbe feiii


\6) werbc gewrfeti few (30, i)


be


\6) wcrbe werbcn


i* werbc gettJr'beii fciii "


become


ic^ merbe flttfett


i(^ ttjcrbc gefunf ett few "


sink



2 3d^ locrbc fagen^ / shall say or I shall be saying ; vSs^ ttietbe
gefunfen fetn, I shall have sunk or I shall have been sinking:



Future


Future Perfect


i*
bil
er


tuerbe
wirft
wirb


fficjen
ffigen
ffigen


i(^ merbc gefunt'en fein
bil wirft gefunfen fein
er ttJtrb gefunfen fein


itJtr
fie


tDcrbett
iDcrbct
ttJerbctt


ffigen
ffigen
ffigen


ttJtr itjcrbett gefunf'en fein
t^r ttjcrbct gefunfen fein
fie werbctt gefunfen fein


8ic


ttjcrbett


ffigen


@ie itjcrbett gcfunfen fein



Vocabulary



brattf^en, brant^te, gebranc^t^ need
gCanben^ glanbte^ geglattbt, believe
faufeu^ faufte^ gelauft, buy
lac^en^ lac^te, gelac^t, laugh : (ad^en

fiber, with a., laugh at
(Sf^eln, ISf^elte, gelStJ^elt, smile:

Ifti^eln fiber, with a., smile at



laufen, licf, ifit gelanfen, run
balb, soon; bof^, stilly surely^ I hope
fd, so; often used to sum up a
clause, and then not to be trans-
lated
moj^I, perhaps^ probably^ I suppose
toorfi'ber, over what? at whatf

Digitized by VjOOQIC



THE INDICA TIVE MOOD 3 3

The future is often used to express a supposition or a prob-
ability in present time ; the future perfect, in past time. Em-
phasis is given by adding mo^I or bod^ : as,

1. biei? ttiirb too^I beiii Stuber fcin, I suppose this is your brother.

2. tx mirb bai^ ^wx^ boc^ gefattft \^^t% he has surely bought the house ^

I hope he has bought the house.

Exercise 28, German into English

I. S^ tperbe uitfern greuitb ^arl batb fel^eit, braud^t er ettua^?
2. SBattn tperben ©ie il^tt fel^en? 3« SKorgett abettb; tt)irb er
morgen frut) ju SI)nen f ommen ? SBoriiber lad^en @ie ? 4, Uber
©ie! Unfer greunb ift \t%i fdjon bei mir! 5, @ie tperben
il^n boc^ nid^t gefe^en ^abeit! 6. Satpo^l, unb n^enn \d\x nic^t
in^ X£)eater gel^en, fo toirb er fiber un^ (ad^ett. 7* Sc^ ttjerbe
mid^ fdjamen, tpenn er fiber mid^ lad^t. 8. SBerben @ie ftd^
t)or i^m furd^ten? 9* 9?ein, unb id^ merbe nic^t glauben, ba§
er fiber mid^ (ad^en tpirb. 10. SWeine ©d^tpefter tDirb aud) ^eute
abenb ^ier fein, fie ift geftem nad) §aufe gefal^ren. 11. SBenn
fie l^eute in^ Sl^eater ge^t, fo tpirb fie fel^r mfibe ttjerben. 12. 3d^
gtoube, fie tpirb ju |)aufe bleiben.

Exercise 29, English into German

13, Shall you see my father ? 14, Yes, and my brother
will see him. 15. Will Charles laugh at me if I stay at home ?
16. I do not believe he will laugh at you. 17, When will
your brother come home ? i8. He will drive home to-morrow
night. 19. If we go into the garden, we shall find mother.
20. If she stays in the garden, she will catch cold. 2i, When
will she go to your brother's } 22. She will go to-night, and
I shall go with her. 23. I suppose this is your mother.
24. Yes, it is she (17, i). 25. Mother, you will catch cold if


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