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bring the

realm into centrated his energies with the wise intention of

good order.

reducing the Kingdom into good order. One
example of his strenuousness deserves particular



AND RICHARD SANS PEUR. 195

notice. Serlo, the Seigneur of Montigny in the 936942
Soissonais, levied black mail all around his castle ; ^HXZZ
a circumstance somewhat novel. These preda- 937 ~ 938
tory barons, tearing open the Merchant's pack and
emptying the Traveller's purse personages so
prominent in the Tableaux du Moyen Age rarely
present themselves in the pages of our Benedic-
tine folios. Serlo's example might, however, en-
courage others to perpetrate the like outrages.
Louis determined that his subjects should be com-
pelled to appreciate the protection imparted by
the Crown. He worked actively with the small
forces that he could command. Montigny was serio de

Montigny

stormed by the King, Serlo, delivered over to the the bn-

gand.

executioner, and the noble brigand would have
lost his head, had not Archbishop Artaldus in-
terceded. Louis banished the robber, whose life
was spared ; but he demolished the robber's nest,
razing Montigny to the ground. It is interesting
to observe the able stroke of policy carried out,
ages afterwards, by Richelieu, and so redolent of
absolute monarchy, the humiliation of the no-
blesse by the abatement of their chateaux,
taking its commencement under a reign when the
resources of Royal authority were so slender.

Louis had next to deal with a far mightier
wrong-doer. Count Herbert was burrowing his
way into the Archbishop's territories of Rheims.
He still held Corbigny. Louis attacked the Place,
and Archbishop Artaldus again enjoyed the grati-

o 2



196 LOUIS D'OUTREMER, GUILLAUME LON^E-EPEE,

936942 fi ca tion of interceding on behalf of his enerflay
the Vermandois garrison would have been



937938 .11

treated, had they not been permitted, througu
the Archbishop's intercession, to depart in peace.
Herbert continued his depredations; but Louis
was enforced to leave the neighbourhood, im-
portant state-duties calling him elsewhere.
Defection Another and most formidable foe suddenly dis-
laume closes himself The Duke of Normandy, that
Guillaume Longue-epee, recently so zealous in
supporting the King's right to the throne, rises up
also as a Leader amongst the insurgents. Hugh-
le-Grand and Herbert of Vermandois might quote
abundance of grudges and quarrels, and recollec-
tions of grudges and quarrels, past and present,
ancestorial and personal. Had these potentates
continued patient and self-denying under the
provocations given through the boldness of the
young King, and the opportunities which his
conduct offered, they would have contradicted all
the precedents afforded by their respective poli-
tical careers. Had they consistently kept their
oaths and promises they would have been incon-
sistent ; truth to Louis, would have been untruth
to themselves.

With respect to Guillaume Longue-epe'e, the
case was otherwise. He was not merely the
King's subject, but the King's friend and that
he, the young, the gallant Duke, so renowned on
account of the eminent part he had taken in the



AND RICHARD SANS TEUR. 197

no ti/jration, should join the Capetian confederacy, 936943
Soi- n act of outrageous political profligacy which ^T~! '
-_omes upon us by surprise. No previous move-
ment towards the insurrectionary party is re-
corded, no reason assigned. Whether ignorant of
the cause or ashamed of the act, the French and
the Norman historians maintain, on these points,
equal silence. It may be offered as an hypothesis,
that Guillaume yielded to the influence exercised
over him by the Vermandois family. A father-in-
law alone, Count Herbert by himself Count Her-
bert, could not perhaps have effected much with
such a son-in-law as the Norman. Herbert's
daughter, Guillaume's consort, brilliant Liutgarda,
might be more persuasive. But since we must
needs resort to conjectures, we shall prefer the Bernard de

Senlis, first

supposition that Guillaume Longue-dpe'e, when oun . t of
making this bold step in the path of treason,
followed the suggestions of his trusty Verman-
dois uncle, old Bernard de Senlis, to whom he
had planned fleeing for assistance, whilst scared
out of his wits during the Riulph rebellion.

Bernard was now, through Count Herbert's
grant, in possession of Couci, wrenched from the
See of Rheims. Bernard is reckoned as the first
Count of Couci. Learned Ducange denies this
fact, which the Vermandois Genealogists maintain,
these contests sport amidst the ponderosities of
archaeology. But, as we have seen, Archbishop
Artaldus was a bold soldier, not at all willing



198 LOUIS D'OUTREMER, GUILLAUME LONGUE-EPEE,

936942 to allow the spoliation of his temporalities ; and,
,- - . if King Louis gained strength, he would assuredly
aid the Prelate to recover the domain ; therefore
Bernard de Senlis, for the purpose of diverting
the assault, might be well inclined to engage
his Norman nephew on the Capetian side. As
for Guillaume Longue-dpee's violation of his en-
gagements to King Louis, he was kept in counte-
nance by every noble with whom he sat down at
meat. There was not any one who had not done
the same, or was not ready to do the same : and
the Husband who had so cruelly broken the
pledge given to his first love, the Woman of his
choice, the Mother of his child, was scarcely likely
to feel any acute twinge of conscience when de-
serting his Sovereign.
of Amongst the Princes of the Kingdom, Arnoul



asks the aid of Flanders was, at this juncture, the only lay

of Louis. ... .

individual of note who adhered with apparent
earnestness to the Royal cause probably because
he required the young Sovereign's aid: and not
merely for the troops which Louis might furnish,
but valuing his advice as a general, who, young
as he was, had, whilst in England, attained a
precocious military proficiency : skilled in attack,
skilled in defence, and, moreover, a clever con-
triver of ordnance and artillery.

Northern Picardy, from Boulogne eastward,
was then still a country of the Vlaemsche taal.
In Calais, now so thoroughly French, the Belgic



AND RICHARD SANS PEUR. 199

tongue does not seem to have been entirely 936942
effaced by the Romane, until after the period ^ZZCZ^
when that Town, originally included in the County
of Boulogne, had passed to Philippe Hurepel, (the
son of Philippe-Auguste,) husband of the Coun-
tess Maud. Great privileges did the Countess
grant unto the Calais Burghers and the Calais
Magistracy. Her Charter, and her confirmation
of their Keuren, or statutes, may be found
amongst our records in the Tower. At Calais,
I have often fancied the grave and sturdy Keur-
mannen and Scheppenen, processioning into the
Hotel de Ville, when hearing the strike-up of
the tinkling carillon of Maud's merry chiming
Beffroy-bells. To the south-west of Calais, the
sandy coast is now desolate and inhospitable ; but,

in the tenth century, and indeed, till a much later

/

era, it offered to the mariner, about nine miles
South- West from Calais, a noble harbour, open-
ing into the wide sea, a peculiarly safe and easy
place of landing, and, therefore, even at com-
paratively recent times, much favoured as a point
of embarkation between France and England.

An antient encampment, known in the middle witsand or
ao*es as the Castellum Ccesaris, crowning an adjoin- the antient

Portus

ing mount, commemorated, nay, now commemo- icaus

changes of

rates, the occupation of the locality by the Romans. the coast -
The most critical amongst French topographers
identifies this Harbour with the renowned Portus
Iccius. In addition to other arguments in sup-



200 LOUIS D'OUTREMER, GUILLAUME LONGUE-EPEE,

936942 port of his opinion, he appeals to Caesar's Castle.

'. ^ ^ The name imposed or adopted by the conquerors
of the Gauls was, however, disused by the inha-
bitants ; and the Haven acquired in the verna-
cular dialect, the very intelligible denomination
of Wit-sant, suggested by the blanched aspect of
the shores. But, since the fifteenth century, the
white sands have choked up the sheltering bay,
and rendered its pristine existence merely an
historical tradition. Caesar's camp, however, still
exists, and the hamlet of Wissan, which indi-
cates the position of the obliterated sea-port,
stands idly inland, at the distance of about four
miles from the salt water.

piiesto a Very earnest was Arnoul to strengthen this posi-

strengthen tion, so inviting to the access of any adventurous

thefortifi- J

cations of enemy ; and he invoked the talent of the young

Witsand. J

Louis to direct the erection of further fortifica-
tions, which consisted most probably of stock-
ades or other similar additions to the Roman
lines. Louis began the works, but he was speedily
called off for the relief of Archbishop Artaldus.
The Archbishop had just completed a Castle upon
the Marne. Herbert, expert in the arts of cor-
ruption, obtained possession thereof: and, there
entrenched, disturbed the Rhemish territory.

Louis determined, at once, to humble the Count.
He must, if possible, relieve himself from that



O *

cap? ur



thorn in his side, Count Herbert's Castle on the
slope of the rock of Laon. The fortress was



AND RICHARD SANS PEUR. 201

fully manned, and very massy. Louis invested 936942
the Tower. The attack was commenced by artil- ^ZIXII^
lery ; bows and arrows made no impression : Louis
thereupon adopted another and more scientific
mode of attack. He constructed a large testudo,
strongly compacted of timber. From the minute
description given of this machine, we may collect
that such contrivances were objects of curiosity,
new and strange in France. Propelled close up
against the Castle, the well-framed roof resisted
the stones cast down by the besieged. The walls
were undermined and fell. The garrison sur-
rendered at discretion, an exploit whereby Louis
gained much renown. These operations, together
with various skirmishes and military movements,
so comminuted that it is difficult to take note
of them, occupied more than a year. The utmost
extent of territory traversed by the belligerent
parties may have been some fifty leagues : yet,
it is in appearance only, that these transactions
can be denominated petty or inconsiderable, for,
in them, the whole continuity of French history
Kingdom, Republic, or Empire is involved.
It is the magnitude of the ultimate stake which
we have to consider, not the breadth of the board
upon which the game is played.



8. French historians do not afford any direct 938

. PI i Affairs of

explanation of the motives inducing Arnoul to Flanders.
labour so earnestly for the protection of Witsant.
But the fortifications erected to guard that conve-



202 LOUIS D'OUTREMER, GUILLAUME LONGUE-EPEE,

936-942 nient Northern harbour, imply the dread of some

\_" I maritime invader. The territory which included

937938 witsant, belonged nominally to the Abbey of

Saint Bertin: but whilst the Monks performed the

religious services in consideration whereof the

grant had originally been made, the land itself

was impropriated by Count Arnoul. The lay

Abbot, however, did not enjoy his benefice quietly,

being much disturbed in his possession by the

Northmen.

Siegfrid, the brother of some Danish king, had



the first 6 * overspread the country : the great conflagration
of Danish warfare had been renewed in England :
and Siegfrid may have been, so to speak, a brand
darted from the British Islands. The monks of
Saint Bertin cared not to bear record of Siegfrid's
achievements, and the negligence of the cotem-
porary Clergy in this respect, was lamented and
censured by their successors, who, three centuries
afterwards, sought to recover the scattered remi-
niscences of local history.

The Guisnes annals commence with ugly inci-
dents. Siegfrid, it is said, having abused Elstruda,
a Princess of Flanders, hanged himself to escape
her kinsmen's vengeance. A Danish warrior, a
Viking, or a Berserker, when insurmountable
danger drove him to despair, would surely have
fallen on his own sword, rather than condemn
himself to a death so disreputable. But the main
facts relating to Siegfrid are well attested. He



AND RICHARD SANS PEUR. 203

became the first Count of Guisnes : his son Ardolf 936942
inherited the small, but distinguished domain, ^~T~^
renowned for minstrelsy and chivalry. Ardres
was included in the County of Guisnes : and the
Champ du Drap (TOr continued in Siegfrid's
lineage till the thirteenth century, when the
"Grand Fief' 1 was transferred, by a series of
transactions, austere, if not unjust, to the illus-
trious house of Brienne.

It is possible that, during the conflicts which
preceded, or were occasioned by the establishment
of this dominion, Arnoul may have fringed the
coast with his forces, seeking to prevent any
further immicrations of Danes. The Count of Resi i lts P f

the Danish



Flanders, who held the ample Principality granted g^^f f
to his renowned grandfather Baudouin Bras-de-
fer, upon the express condition of protecting the
Carlovingian Empire against the Pirates, was
bound to employ this vigilance. The conquest
effected by Siegfrid must have been grievous to
Arnoul, equally a detriment and a disgrace.
Friendship, may at one period, have subsisted
between Arnoul and Siegfrid ; but political amity
is in no wise inconsistent with much antece-
dent as well as subsequent hostility. It is, how-
ever, equally probable, and the general bearing
of events rather corroborates this hypothesis,
that the fortifications were intended for the
defence of the country against Guillaume Longue-
epe'e. The husbands of the two Vermandois sis-
ters were becoming bitter enemies.



204 LOUIS D'OUTREMER, GUILLAUME LONGUE-EPEE,

936942 9. Riulph was slain, but after the discom-
r ^ [ fiture of the Norman insurgents in the Pre de la
Bataille, Arnoul had patronized his cause, not
only by harbouring Balzo the Rebel's kinsman,
but by advancing him to station and honour.
Had the Count of Flanders laboured to excite
the apprehensions and insult the feelings of his
brother-in-law, he could not have devised a more
stinging provocation. This was probably the
originating cause of the quarrel, and Guillaume
Longue-e'pee commenced hostilities against Flan-
ders with the aid of Hugh-le-Grand, the latter
having been angered by Count Arnoul's adhe-
sion to the king.
Guiiiaume Guillaume Longue-epeVs first attempts were

.Longue-
e'pee at war di rec ted to the sea-bord; and it is this circum-

witn Count

stance which suggests the supposition that the for-
tifications, projected at Witsand, were intended to
prevent the landing of Rouen forces from Eu on
the Brele, or from Fe'camp river. The Norman
ravaged all around Boulogne, Terouenne, and
Sithieu, or St. Omer's. Had Guillaume Longue-
epee still been a Pagan Dane, he could not have
punished the country with greater severity. Her-
bert, on his part, continued the turmoil, more par-
ticularly for the purpose of annoying the King,
devastating the territory of Rheims. Count Her-
bert was anathematized by the Bishops. Guillaume
Longue-e'pee was involved in the same censures ;
but, whether because he had committed his
outrages during some solemn season, so as to



AND RICHARD SANS PEUR. 205

occasion peculiar scandal, or whether, like his 930912
father-in-law, he had plundered some ecclesias- ~T~""^
tical possessions, does not appear. Anyhow, the
offenders took no heed of the excommunications,
deriding bell, book, and candle.

Louis, hitherto supported only by Arnoul,
had now acquired the aid of Hugh-le-Noir, the
coparcener Duke of Burgundy, whom he had
ejected from Langres in favour of IIugh-le-Grand.
The son of King Robert was their common enemy,
and the peculiar despite entertained by Hugh-le-
Noir against Hugh-le- Grand, rendered him the
more active in co-operating with Louis. Conjoining
their forces, they marched against IIugh-le-Grand
and Guillaume Longue-dpe'e, and the attacks made
upon Arnoul were checked. The Count of Flan-
ders did not immediately retaliate upon the Duke
of Normandy; but he adopted a course by which,
whether designedly or not, the brothers-in-law
were speedily brought into desperate collision.

Helgaud, the Count of Ponthieu, he who had
been slain by the Danes, when they broke out of
the wood and stormed the camp of King Raoul,
was now succeeded by his son Count Herlouin,
under whose government Montreuil became very
prosperous. The convenience of the sea-port ffai f! of
attracted a considerable trade ; and the duties or Herlouin

son or

tolls, levied upon the vessels which entered the Count
haven and the goods landed there, produced to
Herlouin a considerable revenue. Herlouin comes



206 LOUIS D'OUTREMER, GUILLAUME LONGUE-EPEE,

936942 into notice many ways. He had a wife whom
^d^ he loved very dearly ; but there was some irre-
gularity, some impropriety, connected with their
union. Possibly when Herlouin espoused this
Lady, who is to be noticed in our history, he already
had another consort, undivorced, and still living.
Whatever may have been the reason, he was
brought to open shame on account of this mar-
riage, and condemned to do penance before the
Synod of Trosley.
Ambiguous Herlouin's political position was dubious.

political

P on thi eu > in some respects, appears as an appen-



Baudouin Bras-de-fer's Marquisate but
Herlouin had commended himself to Hugh-le-
Grand, thereby annexing the Honour to the Duchy
of France. The Northmen, at an earlier period,
and the Normans in later times, had much con-
nexion with Ponthieu : the territory, interposed
between Normandy and Flanders, might be ren-
dered advantageous or troublesome to either
Sovereign.

Moreover, the profits arising from the fre-
quent resort of traders and merchant-vessels
were attractive to Arnoul, who, in his own proper
dominions, was beginning to appreciate the ad-
vantages of commercial prosperity. The sharp
ascent of the hill, the strength of the Castle, the
precipitous fosses, the thick-set stockades, ren-
dered Montreuil very defensible, and Arnoul
found it more expedient to attempt a capture



AND RICHARD SANS PEUR. 207

by intrigue, than by force of arms. Over and 930942
above the real advantages of avoiding a doubtful , * ,
and perilous conflict, the fraudulence was tempt-
ing. The excitement of overreaching an enemy
always rendered such attempts a species of game.
One of Herlouin's most trusted Captains was
threatened or bribed into compliance. As the Arnoui

takes

story goes, a secret Messenger, dispatched by Montreal
Arnoui, made the overture symbolically. The
emissary displayed two rings a golden ring and
an iron ring- -inviting the Castle- Warden to
choose. The torch, held high over the battle-
ments by the Confederate, announced the un-
guarded hour. The gate had been opened. Ar-
noul's troops rushed in, and Montreuil was gained :
Herlouin escaped ; but his Wife and family fell
into the power of the enemy. Arnoui sent them
across the water to England ; and Athelstane,
pursuant to his request, detained the lady and
the children in captivity. Strange, that our mag-
nanimous Basileus should consent to perform
the office of Count Arnold's jailor ! Yet, such
was his compliance ; and Herlouin mourned for
the prisoners as those whom he should never
see again.

Herlouin repeatedy craved assistance from his
Seigneur, the Duke of France. But he obtained
neither help, nor promise of help. Hugh-le-Grand
declined an interference, which might have em-
barrassed him in his further enterprizes: thus



208 LOUIS D'OUTKEMER, GUILLAUME LONGUE-EPEE,

936-942 rejected by his Liege-lord, Herlouin turned to the
^ZI^IZ^ Norman Patrician, earnestly praying his succour.
937938 Guillaume Longue-epee, to whom few gra-

Guillaume .

Longue- tincations could be more welcome, than any

epee re-
captures opportunity of plaguing his brother-in-law, was

as anxious to engage in the enterprize as
Hugh-le-Grand had been to avoid it. He ac-
cepted the championship of the despoiled Count.
Alain Barbe-torte sent his contingent ; the com-
bined forces of Normandy and Britanny invested
the town ; the Cotentin men began the assault,
boldly plucking up the palisades. Guillaume
Longue-epee was foremost in the storm ing-party.
Count Arnoul's garrison was overpowered ; and
the prisoners, thus taken, were so numerous
as to enable Guillaume to negotiate, by their
exchange, the restoration of the beloved ones
whom Herlouin had lost. Arnoul, however,
though deprived of Montreuil, invaded the Pon-
thieu country, which he ravaged. But Herlouin
defeated him. To Arnoul, the loss of Mon-
treuil, mainly occasioned by Guillaume Longue-
epee's interference, was an extreme mortification.
If the small, but repeated, causes of vexation,
for which proximity affords so much opportunity
amongst relations, act so mischievously by accu-
mulation, how much more do serious injuries?
Arnoul's hatred became inveterate ; and, though
occasionally concealed, the bitterness continued
encreasing till the very last.



AND RICHARD SANS PEUR. 209

10. About one month after the inaugura- 036912
tion of Louis at Laon, Otho, whom history honours , - ,
by the epithet of "the Great/' received, pursuant
to his father's appointment, the German Crown.

Of the four sons left by Henry the Fowler, Death of



three, namely, Thankmar, Otho, and Henry, were F

his three

competitors for the German Realm. The natural eider sons,

Thankmar,

privilege of primogeniture designated the bold and
energetic Thankmar as Henry's successor, nor
would he have discredited the royal dignity : but
the heartless pretences which had enabled the de-
parted Monarch, availing himself of his own wrong,
to cast off the tender and confiding Hathburga,
also deprived Thankmar of his position in Chris-
tian society. Born under the full sanction of
holy matrimony, their Child was adjudged ille-
gitimate. The retrospective operation assigned Henry the
to the sentence which dissolved the marriage gemtus.
between Thankmar's Mother and her fickle Hus-
band, under any aspect a rigid construction of
the law, was wrested into positive injustice. Not
merely had Thankmar lost his Father's Kingdom,
but, a large private inheritance, which unques-
tionably ought to have devolved upon him through
his maternal ancestry, was withheld.

Henry, the third son, asserted a right para-
mount to the claims preferred by either of his
senior brethren. Bold Thankmar, as Henry
argued, was absolutely out of court he could
not be heard a bastard, declared to be spurious

VOL. II. P



210 LOUIS D'OUTREMER, GUILLAUME LONGUE-EPEE,

936942 by the solemn decree of a competent tribunal.
, * Otho was fully admitted by Henry to be the eldest
936-938 gon O fjf enr ^ j) uke of Saxony, let Otho there-
fore have his due, the Dukedom of Saxony be-
longed to him ; but it was equally undeniable
that he, the younger Henry, was the eldest son
of Henri/, King of Germany. Henry, the Porphy-
rogenitus, though a younger son relatively to
Otho, was the eldest son of royal blood, first
born after the accession of Duke Henry to the
Throne of Charlemagne, the first-born of Henry
King of Germany; and consequently, to him, the
first-born son of a crowned King and a crowned
Queen, did the royalty appertain.
Thankmar Matilda, the Queen Dowager, affectionately

claims by i -\ i

primogeni- supported the young Henry in his demands;

ture.

parental fondness strengthening her sincere im-
pression of their abstract justice. The doctrine
of Porphyrogenitism, congenial to popular senti-
ment, and not without some foundation in prin-
ciple, prevailed influent ially and widely in many
countries and through many ages : yet, the theory
has rarely been consistently acknowledged, so as
to impart a definite and constitutional right. In
some few instances, and, amongst them, may we
not include the Empire of the Czars? it has been
practically recognized; but, more generally, the
pretension has merely tended to excite unnatural
contests between brethren. In England, this opi-
nion stimulated Henry Beauclerc to a constant



AND RICHARD SANS PEUR. 211

antagonism against Rufus ; and fomented in Ger- 930-943
many the example now before us a virulent XZXH^
civil war. 936-wo

Otho, however, commenced his reign without sth AU-.

. 936

encountering any immediate opposition or ob-
jection. Aix-la-Chapclle witnessed the inaugu- solemn in.



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