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exhibited himself as a delinquent. Moreover,
the private claims of the competitors involved
matters which concerned all the Churches of
Germany and the Gauls.

Five successive Councils were therefore held, Councils
for the purpose of ventilating this great ecclesi- tiie P ur-


942954 astical cause. Inasmuch as the Church was,
/ , under some aspects, the State, and the State the


poseofdis- Church, it is not always practicable to distin-

cMms? e guish between a Synod and a Secular Assembly.

Yet, there is one test, never did any truly

ecclesiastical Synod or Council allow the Laity

to discuss faith or doctrine. On the present

Aug. 947 occasion a mixed convention of Prelates and


piaci- r Cobles, for such unquestionably is the import
n u eaithe eld of the term " Placitum," was held in the Royal

T~ 1

encampment hard by the river Cher.

The two Kings presided ; they treated each
other as equals. Yet Otho always preceded
Louis when they entered the place of meeting,
whilst Louis did not always sit by Otho's side.
Hugh-le-Grand was summoned; he approached
the vicinity, but he did not come close, and
jealously watched the result. He declined ap-
pearing before the Convention in person. Being,
however, desirous at this juncture to avoid any
semblance of contumacy, he despatched, as his
Proctor, a household Chaplain or Clerk, sly Sigi-
baldus. But the main object which Sigibaldus
sought to effect, was not so much the exonera-
tion of Hugh-le-Grand, as the protection of the
Parvulus ; and with this intent he tendered an
instrument purporting to be signed by Artaldus
himself, whereby he resigned all his pretensions
to the See, which said instrument Sigibaldus
alleged he had brought from Rome. The rnern-


bers of the <c Parliament," for thus the meeting 942054
is incidentally denominated, were strangely per- , * ,

J i - 948-949

plexed by such an unexpected plea in bar.
There was the document, but they could not
believe in it, and, evading the difficulty, they
adopted the prudent resolution that the matter
should be referred to a purely ecclesiastical
Synod, appointed to be held at Verdun.

Fully and solemnly was this Synod attended, i|tii

assembled in the Cathedral of Notre Dame. Ru- odof Ver -

dun re-

precht or Robert, Archbishop of Treves, presided,
and the Primate of Germany thus assumed the J
right of sitting in judgment upon the primacy of
the Gauls, a token, slight, yet indisputable, denot-
ing the encreasing ascendancy which " Eastern
France' was gaining, or striving to gain, over
the other members of the Carlovingian empire.
Amongst those who assisted, Israel Scotigena
from Ireland, the representative of the Celtic
Church, the greatest Greek scholar of his age,
he who had educated Bruno, King Otho's
youngest brother, might attract the public
curiosity : and here also was Bruno himself,
the future Archbishop of " Kcelln am Rhein,"
already distinguished by his talent and energy.
Hugo Parvulus was also cited, due respect being
rendered to the rank he claimed, although that
rank might be contested, inasmuch as Adalbero


and Goceline, the Prelates of Metz and Tulle,
were despatched to accompany and conduct him,



912954, But the stout Parvulus would not come : there-
. > fore in his absence, an interlocutory decree was

948949 e J

Jan. 94s passed, empowering Art aid us to take possession
of the See, and the Synod adjourned to Mouzon.
65. When the time arrived, the Parvulus
made a feint of appearing; he entered Saint
Peter's portal, the Church where the Synod was
sitting; but when he had proceeded thus far, he
stopped, turned round, and marched back again ;
and Sigibaldus, now acting; as his Proctor, pre-


afor-ed sented another writing a most suspicious bull,

Bull on be-

i ssue d in the name of good Pope Agapet, pur-
porting to enjoin the restoration of Hugh as
Archbishop. Forgery flourished during the me-
diaeval period. The fabrication of papal bulls
was an established manufacture. When our
venerable old London Bridge was demolished, a

O "

pair of forceps, of the same fashion as those
which are used abroad to " plomber' your
baggage, was found in the bed of the river,
being the machine by which some ingenious
artist in the old time had been accustomed to
supply dispensations or pardons. Possibly some
clever apparitor who may have lodged in one of
the houses projecting from the bridge had ac-
cidentally dropped his tool out of the window.
Antient manuscripts contain rules for detect-
ing the cheat, such as counting the dots which
compose the borders of the reverse and obverse
impressed upon the leaden seal ; but in most


cases the document is so clumsily penned, that
the falsity is self-detected ; and such was the case r A >
\vith the instrument propounded by Sigibaldus.
Had this alleged bull been genuine, it was so
informal that it would have been destitute of
legal validity, therefore the Prothonotary turned
down the face of the parchment when he
laid it on the table. And the Fathers of the
Synod having consulted the famous canons of
the Council of Carthage, they decreed that Ar-
taldus should retain possession of the See, whilst
Hugh, comporting himself as Archbishop, having
been contumacious, had incurred the penalties of
excommunication, and so should continue excom-
municate, unless he cleared himself of the
default in a general Council of the Gauls, to be
held at Engleheim on the Rhine.

66. So deliberate and consistent was the Moral
system which Hugh-le-Grand, aided by the Nor- l
mans, was pursuing against Louis, so dogged
the enmity of the King's opponents, that he had
no reason to expect they would ever cease from
concerting his destruction. But this prospect of
perils only excited him the more to exert his in-
ventive activity. Louis confided in the sanctity
of the royal character. Well did Louis know,
and thoroughly did he appreciate, the venera-
tion commanded by the crowned and anointed
Sovereign. He cheered himself by the dawn s ort
of the support which he expected to obtain from

Q Q 2


942954 the Aquitanian Princes. If their loyalty was
, , tepid, the hatred they entertained towards Huo;h-

948949 J .

pected le-Grand was intense. The Abbot of Saint Martin
ous French was threatening the southern banks of the Loire.
ami Nobles. Other proud and prosperous rulers bordering on
the Midi were expected by Louis to be amicable.
Much he relied upon the friendship of the Count
of Macon, Letholdus. But, most of all, were the
hopes of Louis grounded upon the confidence he
placed, and justly, in Otho. All jealousies be-
tween him and his brother-in-law had vanished.
Whatever vast designs the German King was
forming, they were perfectly consistent with the
prosperity and stability of the French monarchy
tinder his protectorate. Never did a Sovereign
reign in whom prudence, courage, and ambition,
wisdom and moderation, were more efficiently
conjoined, than in him who was destined to
terminate the abeyance of the Imperial authority.
67. But Louis would not trust solely to
the sword. The moral existence of the State
could be sought only in the Church, and the
Clergy \vere the only functionaries competent to
guide the popular opinion, or by whom any sen-
timents of good order could be diffused. It was,
therefore, through the medium which the organ-
ization which Latin Christendom afforded, that
Louis determined to invoke the sympathy and
rouse the conscience of his subjects.

In this distressing era of papal history, we


are relieved by the happy obscurity which 042951
attends the pontificate of the second Agapet, , ,

! T ,, . 0489-19

concerning whom scarcely anything is known 948 _ 7th
except his piety and his charity. At the solici- coundTof
tation of Otho and Louis, the Pontiff despatched
his Legate Marinus to the Gauls, for the pur-

pose of presiding over the Council convened Legate.
in Charlemagne's antient palace of Engleheim.
None of the Prelates under Hugh -le- Grand's
influence attended ; and the great majority
came from Lorraine and Otho's dominion.
Nevertheless it was accepted as representing the
Churches of Germany and the Gauls. Strictly
speaking, this Council was anomalous, neither
national nor provincial ; but all irregularities
were ignored, and the Synod, without compro-
mising its ecclesiastical functions, also partially
assumed the character of an Imperial Diet, otto and
When Otho and Louis were introduced, they introduced

" into the

took their rooms next the Legate. The busi- Council,
ness was opened by the Archbishop of Treves,
who briefly stated the objects for which the
Fathers were called together, the restoration
of lawful authority, and the tranquillization of
the Commonwealth, in the first place: and, in
the next, the settlement of the claims between
the rival Archbishops, by which the State had
been so perniciously distracted.

Marinus replied on the part of the Holy
See. The re-establishment of the royal authority


912 95.4 was a necessary preliminary to the settlement of
/ , the affairs of the Church ; and therefore, would it


please the Council to hear and determine, in the
first instance, the cause of the most serene Kino; ?

7 O

Louis nar- Let him be heard." was the acclaim. Louis

ratvs the

prepared to rise, but the Prelates requested him
to continue seated, and he began his address,
a piteously impassioned summary of the misfor-
tunes he had sustained since his birth, - even
such as in this our history we have told them.-
How Hugh's father had usurped the royal au-
thority : how his own infant life had been
saved by Ogiva's device, when she concealed
him in the bundle of hay: how Ogiva was
compelled to seek refuge for him, far away in
the dark north : how Raoul, after King Robert's
death, had continued the usurpation: how
Louis had been recalled to the royal authority,
though his possessions had been withheld : - all
the frauds and violences perpetrated by Hugh,
of which he had been the victim : the shameful
treason which Hugh had concerted with the
Norman Pirates : lastly, the most painful ex-
tortion to which he submitted as the only means
of escaping a miserable death, the cession
of the rock of Laon. Could Hugh deny the
challenges deeds ? And as for himself, had he misgoverned ?

his ac-
cusers. Had he abused his royal authority ? Could any

living creature prefer any just cause of complaint
against him? If so, let the accusers come for-


ward. Let Hugh take up the challenge, and 942954
Louis would submit to the judgment of the Holy , ,

J 948949

Synod and King Otho, or clear himself by the
battle trial.

Archbishop Artaldus then recited, with much impeach-
detail, the acts of violence committed by Duke fen-ed


Hugh, and the vexation and persecution he had Hu s h >

does not

suffered from that arch-tyrant. The impeach- appear.
ment preferred against Duke Hugh, for to such
the proceedings virtually amounted, therefore
contained two Articles, distinct, yet closely con-
nected with each other Hugh's offences against
the Crown, and his violation of the rights of
the Church treason and sacrilege. Hugh-le-
Grand acted as though he were entirely indifferent
to the result. No one answered for him; no
reply was made on his behalf. His Proctor sigibaid

1 ' presents

Sigibaldus, however, whether employed by th
Duke or employing himself, came forward, as-
serting the rights of the Parvulus, and boldly lus '
reproduced the rejected instrument. This im-
pudent act excited the greatest indignation
amongst the Gallican Prelates. Archbishop and
Bishops rose up against him, crying out against
the shameful imposition. The Proctor, there-
fore, now found himself placed at the bar in the
character of a culprit : sentence of degradation
was passed against him, and he was banished
the country.

On the following day, business was resumed,


942954 the text-books were opened, and the various

, * v chapters of the canon law bearing upon the

various charges made against the Duke were
read. And, pursuant to the canons, and par-
ticularly the seventy-fifth canon of the fourth
Council of Toledo, and the opinions and decrees
of the Holy Fathers, Pope Sixtus, Pope Alex-
ander, Pope Innocent, Pope Zosimus, Pope
Boniface, Pope Celestine, Pope Leo, Pope Sym-
machus, and all the other Doctors and Fathers
of Holy Church who had spoken and written in
Hugh-ie- that behalf, he, Duke Hugh, the usurper of the
suredand royal rights, the persecutor of the See of Rheims,


to obey the was warned that he would incur excommumca-

decree of

the Synod, tioii unless he should repent and make amends
for his misdeeds. Thirty days of grace were
allowed to him for the purpose of declaring his
submission to the decree ; and the Synod was
adjourned to another session, to be held, at the
end of the said respite, in the Basilica of Saint
Vincent the Martyr, at Laon.

$ 68. The session was accordingly held, but

Session of J ' J

the Council no Hugh presented himself; he had derided all

at Laon

* ndat the ClergVs threats and monitions: he took no

Ireves. ^^

heed of the proceedings. Yet one further attempt
was made to enforce, perhaps we should rather
say persuade, this haughty delinquent to render a
decent obedience to the ecclesiastical authority ;
and, after a further adjournment, the Synod re-
assembled at Treves. The session was short.


Hugh-le-Grand continued contumacious. On the 942954
third day, he had failed to appear either in person , * v
or by any one in his behalf. Marinus proceeded Hu*h-ie-

i i f TT J.T j.* fiT-' Grand con-

in due canonical form. Upon the motion ot King tinning
Otho's Procurator, Liudolph, the sentence of ex- dous, he'is
communication was fulminated against Hugh; ally excom-
but still only provisionally, and until he should
appear before the Legate and offer competent
satisfaction. If he still neglected to do so in due
time, then the power of absolution was reserved
to the Holy See, he must repair to the Pope
at Rome.

But Hucfh was not to be won over by the nmrh de-

3 J ties tiH-

tenclerness with which he had been handled. autiu>vit\

of the

He would not bend before Bishop, Legate, or Cuumil -
Pope ; and, if we may be permitted to construe
his actions into words, we might have heard him
exclaim with a sneer, that he cared no more for
the whole succession, living or departed, who
had been evoked against him, Pope Sixtus,
Pope Innocent, Pope Alexander, Pope Zosimus,
Pope Boniface, Pope Celestine, Pope Leo,
Pope Symmachus, or any other Pontiffs, Doc-
tors, or Fathers of Holy Church than he
did for their mosaic portraits, exhibited in gaunt
procession, on the walls of the Basilica. To
him their opinions or warnings were as chaff
and straw when they stood in his way. He was
the man who would defend his rights and his
wrongs, without apprehension of bell, book, or


942951 candle. Consistently, therefore, with these views,
> ^ Hugh-le-Grand had never desisted from present-

948949 . r

ing a hostile front, and he prosecuted the war
vigorously, whilst Synods and Councils w r ere de-
bating. What they were doing was naught to
him. He renewed active operations ; brought
together kith and kin, and vassal and retainer,
and more than all, his allies; and ravages and
outrages were renewed in the same manner as

69. We possess very ample details con-
cerning these transactions, secular, ecclesiastical,
and military. Artaldus himself, in the first in-
stance, renders us the good service of amply and
accurately reporting alt the Synodical proceed-

Ampie ino's. Next, Frodoardus, the Archbishop's Chap-

sources of

informa- lain much and often in the camp, yet as often

tion for >

accom P an y m g his Principal, furnishes a consecu-
^ ve narra tive. Lastly, Louis numbered amongst
his suite an individual, who, though not a writer
himself, has nevertheless transmitted to us most
valuable information, which otherwise would
have been lost. This was Raoul, an officer of
noble birth, much in the King's confidence, from
whose recollections we derive a large proportion
of the materials which enable us to pursue the
Carlovingian history until its close.
, the Raoul was the father of Richerius the Monk,

father of s~n T r i i i

a Chronicler, lor our purposes, invaluable, in-


chronicler. asinuch as his work, embodying the paternal


traditions, enables the enquirer to bridge over 942954

the hitherto hopeless chasm concerning- the ,- * ,

events which established the Capetian dynasty.
A sturdy man-at-arms was the clever and astute
Raoul, who shared in many of the enterprises
related by his son, and a contemporary of the
circumstances to which he bears record. His
details may ofttimes be reckoned trifling, yet let
it be always kept in mind that even these minims
constitute integral portions of European history.
Each skirmish, each foray, each device, each
success, each mischance, each retreat, was a trial
of strength between the rising and the expiring

70. It might have been supposed, that The aia-

. cvityof

after his appearance before the Council of Engle- Louis en -


helm, Louis would almost have been prepared to y; 1 " 1 * 1 ,

Hugo s

resign. He had narrated, and truly, the succes- ^^^ s
sion of misfortunes he had sustained. To con-
fess before the world that you are unlucky, is
nearly equivalent to a proclamation that you are
ruined. But he presented himself as a man
renovated in body and in spirit, casting off
his griefs, and resuming his operations with
innate alacrity. On the other hand, Hugh's
influence was somewhat diminished. Though


he defied the ban of the Church, his ad-
herents were not so sceptical. Many of his
knights and soldiers, dreading the excommuni-
cation, had deserted his cause, particularly the


94-2 954 knights \\-ho held military benefices in the patri-
, monv of Saint Remv. Thev were serving in

ij^s 949 *

Hugh's ranks on behalf of Hugh the Parvulus,
but Artaldus had possession of their lands, and
the expectation that by submission to the canoni-
cal Prelate they would be reinstated in their


possessions, may have aided the conscientious

scruples they were said to have entertained.

importance The importance of Normandy also becomes

port given signally appreciable. So nearly were the parties

mandyto now matched, that, had not Hugh-Ie-Grand been

Hugk-le- .

Grand. supported by Richard's troops, he would hardly
have been able to make head against the Kino-.

o o

But the red shields were foremost in his ranks,
and the keen Norman arbalisters always ready

/ /

to garrison his towers. Guido, the Bishop of
Soissons, had returned to his allegiance and his
duty. Hugh, supported by the Normans, at-
tacked the antient and much venerated Mero-
vingian capital. By his missiles, he fired the
Episcopal buildings and a large portion of the
City, and then, spreading his troops widely over
the Rhemois, committed terrible ravages.
Champagne wine must have become scarce
during these wars.
Successes 71. In the meanwhile, Duke Conrad had

of Louis .. 1 .. T1 .. f , 1 T7 - .

Mouzon been raising levies in Lotharmgia for the King s
service, " three Cohorts," as they are termed.
The Parvulus, now deprived of Hugh-le-Grand's
support, had taken refuge in Mouzon, on the


Lotharingian border of Saint Remy's patrimony. 942954
A great moral effect would be produced in f ,
favour of Louis, could the pertinacious ecclesias-
tical offender be caught. French and Lotharin-
gians joined and attacked the place. The scanty
garrison surrendered, the pseudo-Archbishop es-
caped, but his soldiers were taken prisoners, and
triumphantly conducted before the King.

Louis went on cheerily. Next to Hugh-le-
Grand, Thibaut-le-Tricheur had been the King's
greatest tormentor. Louis, determining to pun-
ish the Count's insolence, stormed Thibaut's
castle of Montaigue. Encouraged by this suc-
cess, Louis bethought himself whether it might
not be possible to recover the last lost jewel of
his crown. Accordingly, he forthwith marched Montaigne

. taken by

to Laon. He reconnoitred the fortress, and com- Louis he


menced a partial investment or irregular siege ; La0u -
his forces not being adequate for more decided
operations. Frequent skirmishes were fought be-
tween the assailants and the garrison, the latter
making manifold sallies. They fought on the
slope of the rock and below the rock, and in the
plains far and near. Nine close conflicts, hand
to hand, are commemorated as having occurred ;
but this display of valour proved unprofitable ;
the royal troops were unprovided with artillery,
winter was drawing on, and Louis, by the advice He returns
of Raoul, returned to his lowly but comfortable tcrquuvtcv*
quarters at Rheims, where King and Confidant A


942954 discussed the operations of the future campaign.
, , During; this season of quiet retirement, however,


an event occurred, not a novelty, yet always
gratifying Gerberga was happily brought to
bed ag;ain. presenting; her husband with another

A child b

bom to male child, who replaced the lost Carloman.


Archbishop Artaldus was the sponsor, the baby
being named Louis, after the father. Great joy
must this accession to the family have occasioned,
for notwithstanding the numerous children which
Gerberga's fertility had produced, none but
Lothaire was now surviving, their spans of life
probably shortened by some congenital infir-
April 949 72. Spring; was advancing;, the flower

Gerberga . . .

visits buds bursting, all parties in movement, Gerberga
the busiest, and inasmuch as Louis could not quit
the scene of military action, the nobly indefati-
gable matron repaired to her Royal brother at
Aix-la-Chapelle, for the purpose of hastening his
promised aid. Otho had delayed in rendering
assistance, being employed in the Sclavonian
marches. The Germans continued their bitter
persecutions of this race, whom they crushed
with inexorable barbarity, overwhelming them
with contempt, and by that contempt justifying
their tyranny.

949 "^ Splendidly characteristic of the present and
future was the Paschal feast which Otho cele-

o 4- ATY..ICI

chapeiie. brated in Charlemagne's Eagle-crowned Pfaltz,


where Gerberga received an affectionate greeting 942954

from her Royal brother. He appeared invested

i 11 i ,. f i ci i 949950

with all the dignity or autient clays, fetately
was the presence, the nobles of the Belgic Gauls,
as well as their Tudesque compeers, here reve-
rently encircling the antient Imperial throne.
Here also were the Representatives of the Na-
tions and Powers seeking Otho's friendship or

Edred, ruling the four-fold empire of Britain, otho's
testified his respect for Editha's widowed bus- tended by


band, cultivating the connexion as an additional i orsfrom


honour decking glorious Athelstane's family, p^ 81 " 1

J the Eastern

Lothaire of Provence, the husband of the Em P he -
lovely Adelaide, and Berenger, Marquis of Friuli
and of Ivrea, were now the rival kings of dis-
tracted Lombardy, and yet conjointly reigning.
They despatched their Legates they might need
Otho's assistance against the bloody Magyars,
who were tormenting Italy from the valley of
the Arno to the very heel of the peninsula, or
possibly they sought to collect some information
concerning his plans and designs. Otho cour-
teously cultivated his social and political rela-
tions with the Greek Empire, not as a rival of
the Eastern Caesars, but as though he were their
equal. Perhaps, even now, Otho in his heart
acknowledged none but an Emperor as being
his compeer. Constantine Porphyrogenitus re-
ciprocated in these courtesies, Rich were the


012954 gifts proffered by Constantino's splendid Ambas-
, .'^ sadors, their chief the beardless Protovestiarius,
Count Solomon, whose aspect, declaring him

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