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required any security, it would be given by the


pledge and oath of Bernard. Such was the 912927
import of the communication ; Bernard de Senlis, ZHId^
the unconscious instrument of fraud, executed .

Herbert of

his commission successfully. Charles assented ; J^
he had none to counsel with ; yet there was no Sighing
palpable imprudence, certainly no folly.

517. Had Herbert of Vermandois been an Charles

gives trust

honest man, and the counter-revolution accom- to the pro-


plished through his intervention, Charles, instead b y Herbert.
of being sneered at for his weakness or stupidity,
would have been praised for his bold and gene-
rous confidence. Those who blame a drowning
man for catching at a straw, have never them-
selves been in danger of drowning. Charles acted
upon reasonable grounds. His very conviction
of Herbert's ambition and unworthiness would
make him give credence the more readilv. That

O v

a Prankish noble should desert his own party,
and pass over to the other side, was entirely con-
sistent with the moral standard of the times the
seeking of profit by political treachery, equally
so ; and that Herbert would demand, as the re-
quital for his good services, some tempting en-
clavure, marring the integrity of the Vermandois
territory, would be possibly anticipated by the
King. But Charles did not fathom the depth
of Herbert's cunning, nor was the treachery
a sudden thought prompted by opportunity. Ere
the battle of Soissons had been waged, before
Robert had fallen, the Capet, confident in success,


912927 had demanded from Herbert that Charles should

* " sustain perpetual captivity.

Herbert however really required no incite-
ment. The plot was deliberately matured, and
the artifice which Herbert meditated, might be
extenuated to his conscience, by the recollection
of the fraud practised upon his progenitor the
murdered Bernard. Twelve were the confede-
rates, Herbert the chiefest, who had pledged
themselves to accomplish the King's destruction.

Charles im- Herbert was merely seeking to get him into his

prisoned by ,

Herbert, grip for the purpose of playing him off against
King Raoul. Oaths were given, and oaths were
taken. Charles advanced to Saint-Quentin on
the Somme : he was there respectfully received
by the Count, and carefully and hospitably enter-
tained ; but the honourable arrest soon assumed
the aspect of irretrievable captivity. The royal
prisoner was removed to Chateau-Thierry, and
then transferred to Perronne, which ultimately
became his dungeon and place of sepulture. And
now for the first time Ogiva appears before us
with her child, the little Louis, despairing of her
Husband's rescue, fearing even for the life of the
boy. How she escaped is not exactly known ;
yet certainly she did not accomplish her evasion
otherwise than with great difficulty. Louis him-

ogivaand se lf relates the homely device adopted for his
s- safety, he was concealed in a truss of forage.

England. She reached the coast, and fled to England : the


glorious Athelstan received his luckless sister 912927
kindly and royally; Ogiva and Louis are 'outre- X^

mer, J rescued from the enemv, far bevond the sea.


$ 18. During the period intervening between
the pacification of Clair-sur-Epte and the fatal
crisis when Charles-le-Simple's calamities became
so urgent, whoever resorted to the Norman Court In temai


found old Rollo growing older and older : mostly JPJ^
employing himself rightly and wisely in works of
peace. Norman traditions affectionately exhibit
the antient warrior administering the law, im-

O '

proving his Capital, draining and embanking,
encouraging the building of churches, and sur-
veying the rising walls of palace and castle : or
disporting himself in the chase, whether in the
game-abounding "Foresta dc Leonibus" that
favourite and remarkable hunting ground, or in

o O

the woods surrounding the fabled Roumare, or
in the forest-park of Quevilly, between the Rou-
mare and Rouen.

Tall in stature, gentle in manner, Guillaume,
Rollo's only son, was encreasing in general favour.
Amongst the mournful hope-disappointing pro-
mises of youth, the blossoms blooming only for
the blight, Guillaume displayed much early piety,
and a childish inclination towards retirement
and solitude ; but the advantages of birth and sta-
tion tempted him to indulgence, and designated
him for power. Rollo w r as about fourscore;
and there were many amongst the chieftains



912927 who began to deliberate whether it would not be
^HXH^ expedient that the Octogenarian should retire
from the functions of government, and resign the
authority to his son; but Hollo had no such
mind. The deposition of his father-in-law, King
Charles, disturbed his tranquillity, and excited the
very natural desire of profiting by the convulsions
which France sustained : he would fain enlarge
his dominions before he should die, and render
Normandy tight and round.
Hollo's su. j^ i s a moo t point among topographical ar-


in t Armo! d chseologists, whether Hollo had or had not yet
gained the Lieuvin or Lisieux territory. The
young Alain, Matheudoi's son, having returned
to Armorica, was accepted as Count of Vannes,
whilst Juhel-Berenger, the son of Judicail, appears
enjoying the County of Hennes. These Chief-
tains, though attached to the French, a people
more congenial to them than the rougher North-
men, fully acknowledged Hollo's supremacy, re-
cognizing Hollo as their common sovereign ; and,
by such submission, the two great Breton Counties
were in a manner united to Normandy. Never-
theless the authority of Hollo was fluctuating;
and though many districts yielded obedience, his
pretensions and possessions were uncertain be-
yond the Dive.
923 The Danish war now burst out afresh with

the Danish all the pristine Vikingar fury. From Loire to


Seine, all France was in confusion : Hegnald



came up, and Hollo's Rouen troops combined 912927
with him : the banks of the Oise were no longer ^ZT^ '
defended, the Danes occupied the Vermandois, 922 ~ 923
which they plagued as in days of old. Obstinate
conflicts ensued, fought point to point, blade to
blade. Count Hubert beat the invaders, and
released a thousand prisoners. The Amiennois e* l of
was in fire and flame. Aldelelm Count of Arras l h ! Danish
gave the Danes battle and defeated them, and
they immediately started up in more strength
than before. The Beauvoisin was burning, further
help was needed : King Raoul himself advanced
in all haste from Burgundy, and affairs assumed
a new aspect. The Franks now determined to
act upon the offensive. Whatever treaties might
have been concluded with the Danes, the national
conscience of the French ignored these solemn
compacts : the Danish occupation was not legi-
timated by opinion or sentiment.- -Baptism did
not entitle a Dane to be dealt with as a fellow-
Christian. Settled in the land, the Danes were
still abominated as the outlawed freebooters. The
political cordiality originally grounded upon the
personal friendship between Charles and Gisella's
consort was dissolved, and the Franks determined
to resume the territories, which, when under the
terror of Rollo, the " Dux Piratarum," they had
urged their sovereign to cede.

King Raoul, and Duke Hugh, and Count
Herbert, with Archbishop Seulph, summoned and

E 2


912927 united all their forces. Normandy, well governed,

^^^^"v ^-^ '

, - , tranquil, and flourishing, was as tempting to the
Christian Franks as France had been to the


cross the Pagan Danes. Much therefore was to be gained

Epte and

Raoul and the Prankish chieftains crossed the

Epte, and overspread the " Terra jSFormannorum,"
which they wasted with fire and sword.

But they won no profit by waging this war-
fare against the irrepressible Northmen. The
conjoined armies of Rollo and fierce Regnald,
the latter long since set in movement at the
bidding of Charles, crossed the Oise, ranging and
foraging. Raoul prepared for the coronation of
bold Queen Emma ; but when the inauguration
was celebrated at Rheims, the Prankish squad-
rons were stationed all around the confines, lest
these most unwelcome visitors should disturb
923 the solemn ceremony. The French earnestly so-
sue for licited peace, and Rollo consented upon the usual


basis, the Frank to pay and the Dane to receive.

demands -^^ demanded land and money, a large addi-
ti na l expansion of the " Terra Normannorum"
b e y 0nc [ the Seine, and a copious Danegelt. The
first proposition was reserved for future discus-
sion, the second immediately conceded : hostages
were required to secure a due performance of
the conditions. None but individuals of the
highest rank would be accepted by the Danes-.
Eudes, afterwards Count of Amiens, son of
Herbert of Vermandois, being therefore delivered


to Hollo, was held in pledge by the Northmen 912927
during five years and more. ,_^__ N

Some pacification, some breathing-time, was R 9 (
indeed earnestly needed for France : the Franks Bur s und y-
were in a great strait ; the Mogors again doing
exceeding mischief in the Alpine passes and in
Italy, swarming also into the Gauls. The North-
men had become ravenous, Regnald in particular.
He had plundered and ravaged sufficiently in
France, but he had not obtained his heart's de-
sire; he had not gained any compensation for
his abandonment of his Northumbrian kingdom.
Regnald and his Danes had not acquired any
landed settlement ; and he was preparing to
create a "Terra Normannorum" in Burgundy,
often touched and often wounded, but never per-
manently held by the enemy.

King Raoul was unwillingly compelled to march
from "France" towards his own country. Hugh-
le-Grand, Count Herbert, and Archbishop Seulph,
remained in the Vermandois as his Lieutenants.
The Danegelt was collected throughout France, 924

. The Bessin

and the Regents agreed with Rollo for a con- and Maine

A ceded to

siderable encrease of territory, the whole Pagus the North-
Baiocacensis, as it should seem : probably also
various portions of the Armorican marches, and
the noble County, or rather Commonwealth, of
Maine. This obscure transaction indicates impor-
tant political doctrines. The great respect still com-
manded by the Carlovingian Crown is evidenced



912-927 thereby. Otherwise than through the assent of the
. A > King of France no constitutional title was im-
parted by mere possession or conquest. All these
territories had been more than once occupied by
the Northmen. Maine also was locally included
in Hugh's " Duchy of France," yet the Csenomanni
enjoyed great independence, and recalcitrated
vigorously against the supremacy claimed by the
race of Hollo. Nevertheless, Hollo's anxiety to
obtain a formal or diplomatic cession, and the
tardiness displayed by the Franks in giving their
assent, must be considered as testifying that the
veteran had made a very important acquisition for
his descendants. These surrenders, so extorted
from the French, added more than a third to the
" Terra Normannorum."

925 19. Regnald continued ravaging Burgundy.

BattfJof A fierce battle took place at Mont-Chalus, in the
hi s nt "rocky Avallon range, about four leagues from
Vezelay. Ansegisus, Bishop of Troyes, was
wounded, Warner, Count of Sens, killed; but
large numbers of the Northmen were slaughtered.
King Raoul marched up with another unhappy
fighting bishop, Abbo, Bishop of Soissons. Raoul
was the Northman's active opponent. Regnald
retired from Burgundy, but the war spread to
Paris; and the Danes, after entrenching them-
selves on the borders of the Seine, returned to
the Loire. The campaign against them was neg-
ligently pursued. The narratives transmitted by


the French writers concerning Regnald's devas- 912-927
tating career appear to have been embellished . * .

, -, ! 925926

by vague reports and exaggerated rumours.
Regnald was a dreadful tormentor to the monks
of Fleury, and their terror did not spare his
memory. An ugly face, grinning in stone, and
inserted in the Abbey-wall, was long afterwards
pointed out as a memorial of Regnald's wretched
death. Unquestionably this mask was merely
one of the usual Romanesque freaks of the
chisel ; but there is an innate propensity in us,
which renders us dissatisfied with the mean-
ingless, therefore the erudite and the ignorant
are equally prone to bestow significations upon
things which have none "/ do not /own:" is an
answer which is not to be given without some
exertion of moral courage. We do not like to
confess we are beaten, even by an amphigouri
nonsense verse.

$ 20. Rollo suddenly proclaimed that the 925920
truce between the Patrician of Rouen and the men re-en


Frankish rulers was at an end. Though the Dane-
gelt had been rigidly levied, yet the money-bags
halted on their way, the instalments were unpaid.
Rollo ordered his Northmen to march beyond
their border. Too feeble to lead, the withered
warrior animated them by his spirit. The Beau-
voisin, the Amiennois, the Artois, suffered dread-
fully, Amiens and Arras partly burned, the
suburbs of Noyon burned, and all the sea-bord
countries harassed and wasted.


9i2-92r In their hostility against France, the Danes
included Flanders unsparingly. Arnoul, the son
of Baudouin-le-Chauve, and grandson of Baudouin
Bras-de-fer and Madame Judith, now at the com-

mencement of his lengthened reign, and who
dreaded and hated the Danes, was organizing re-
sistance and revenge. Arnoul was well-supported
by Helgaud the Second, under whose government
the antient country of the Maritime Franks,
whilome held by his ancestors the famous Lay-
abbots of Centulla, and now formed into a
distinct dominion, entirely separated from the

The Lay- Since the reign of Charlemagne, the employ-
centuiia nient of that great Foundation had furnished

or Saint

. an exquisite example of irregularity. Charle-
magne began by bestowing the Abbey as the
dowry of his daughter Bertha, upon Angelbert,
Count Nithard's father, who married her. But
when she died, Angelbert entered the cloister as
a shaven monk, and the establishment became a
most distinguished school of learning and piety.
Count Helgaud's grandfather, dynastically reck-
oned "Helgaud the First," who is supposed to
have been Count Nithard's son, erected the abba-
tial territory, afterwards Ponthieu, into an here-
ditary temporal sovereignty, acting much in the
manner of the Teutonic Grand Masters at the era
of the Reformation.- -Without justifying the abuse
in any instance, it must be confessed that except


for the scandal, less practical harm ensued from 91292:
these Centulla transactions than niiirht have been ^IZXZI^


anticipated; the Lay-abbots appointed Priors,
under whom the house was excellently well ma-


naged, pre-eminent in discipline. The fact is, that
Ci'iitulla was rich enough for two, or more; and
the proportion remaining to the Church was vastly
more liberal than would be allowed in analogous


cases amongst us by a Lay- rector, a Lay-abbot's
cater-cousin, at the present day.

( 'entulla of the hundred towers had been,
according to antiont traditions, one of the chief
cities of Belgic Gaul; but the hundred towers
were decaying and falling:, Centulla was reduced

i O

to comparative insignificance, and the Counts of
Ponthieu created a new capital. At the mouth of
the river Conches, a small and antient monastery,
dedicated to Saint Sever, standing upon a steep
and rugged hill, whose base adjoined the sea-
coast, had become the nucleus of a hamlet. Here,
equally for the purposes of government as for
defence against the Danes, Ilelgaud built a
palatial castle, around whose protecting battle-
ments a town arose. The spreading tidal estuary
of the stream constituted an excellent haven ;
and the port, after the decline of Quantovick,
became a considerable emporium. Such was the
origin of " Monasteriolum ad mare" Montreuil-
sur-Mer, now separated from the sea by six
leagues breadth of alluvial soil, in which the

its origin.


912927 mingled bones of extinct and existing animals
* > perplex even the accommodating chronology of



Much jealousy existed between Ponthieu and
Normandy ; and Arnoul's alliance with this new
principality was a great check upon the Danes.
?on?d a i> ri ~ Decrepit Rollo, though his subjects compas-
noiio. sionated him as more than half imbecile, retained
his clear-sighted acuteness and vigilance. Eu on
the Bresle, the river dividing Normandy from
Ponthieu, was the key of the country on that side.
Here Rollo placed a numerous garrison, a thou-
sand valiant Kempers, men of the right sort from
Rouen. Besides the fortifications of Eu, an island
opposite to the town, now obliterated, offered an
additional point of defence. The Franks, on their
part, were provoked into unusual vigour: the
people of the Beauvoisin rose against the Nor-
mans. Hugh-le-Grand collected forces from Paris,
they took the offensive, crossed the Epte, invaded
the Rouennois, and rejoiced, as Northmen ra-
vaging France would have done, in the abundant
booty. Helgaud and the Ponthieu men herried
the fertile Norman borders. King Raoul, now in
Burgundy, returned hastily to France, summoned
the arriere-ban, and strenuously recommenced
the war.

925926 21. Eu must be considered as the barrier-
fortress of Normandy on the North : could Eu
be taken, Normandy would be at the mercy of


France and Flanders. Arnoul and Herbert of 912-927
Vermandois, the Knights of the Archbishoprick * >
of Rheims obeying Herbert's orders, joined the
French and Burgundians. Eu was stubbornly
defended, and valiantly stormed. Infuriated by
resistance and enmity, the victors inflicted an in-
discriminate slaughter. No quarter was given or
asked on either side Hollo's Northmen fought
in the fosses, fought on the ramparts, fought
in the streets. A remnant of the garrison escaped
to the island, not seeking safety, but courting the
opportunity of self-sacrifice. The desperate com-
bat on the holm lasted longer than the conflict in
the town. The primeval spirit of the Bersekers
flamed out again death and Walhalla. When
resistance became utterly unavailing, the last
surviving Danes slew themselves with their own

The French army and their Flemish confe-war re-

derates were permitted by their commanders to throughout

the Artois,

disperse after the siege, but they reassembled &c -
in the course of the following year. King Raoul
opened the campaign : though he had triumphed
at Eu, the victory gained against the Normans
counted for nought in the reckoning, and they in-
fested the Artois and beyond, fierce as ever. Raoul
chased a large detachment of Normans, and pent
them up in a wood. Evening drew on, and the
French forces, thus far successful, became a corps
of observation, encamping round the fugitives.


912927 But the Normans watched, while those who ought
- - , to have watched were sleeping : they sallied forth
during the night, wounded King Raoul, and killed
Count Helgaud. It is possible that the young
Guillaume may have here first fleshed his maiden
sword. According to the French accounts, the
Danes sustained considerable loss, eleven hundred
and upwards ; but the advantage, if it were one,
could not be improved. The Mogors had crossed
the Rhine ; and, when merely the distant roar of
the monsters' approach was faintly heard at
Rheims/ such terror was excited, that shrines
and relics were hurried away. The Northmen
were urgent and threatening. Rollo obtained
an instalment of his subsidy, the Danegelt was
levied in France and Burgundy ; and the peace
between the Northmen and the Franks was rati-
fied and celebrated, as a joyful event, throughout
the kingdom.

22. Rollo's incapacity for the labours and



signs in

Gumaume ^^ s ^ government became painfully obvious to
every one except himself: he was now past four-
score, broken by age and infirmity, but he still
held on, he would not be brought to acknow-
ledge that his time for giving up his work had
arrived. His mind began to fail, and he was there-
fore but the more obstinate. The honour, respect
and affection which he had inspired, far from dimi-
nishing, had encreased among his people : his fear
was still upon them ; they could not cast it off.


Raised to the supreme authority by the consent 912927
of his chieftains, any one amongst them might , - ,


have been tempted to seek the same power, but
none thought of striving for the sovereignty.
Loyalty prevailed : the sovereignty belonged to
Rollo and to Hollo's progeny. The majority also
amongst the influential classes sought to include
the Terra Xormannorum permanently within the
sphere of Romane civilization; so that Normandy
should continue a member of the French monarchy,
whereby they would be placed on a level with the

other states. As Northmen they might be con-


temned ; but no sovereign was more calculated to
maintain their national dignity than Guillaume
qualified by education, language and parentage
a kinsman of Vermandois, imperial Charlemagne's

The Counts and Chieftains, Northmen and
Bretons, having therefore finally determined, pre-
sented themselves to the old man, humbly and
gently urging him to appoint a successor. Let
Rollo select a fitting Duke and Patrician for the


government of Normandy, and they would yield
faithful obedience. There could be no doubt
whom Rollo would nominate, but they made
the proposition delicately, avoiding to present
the son as the rival of his father : it was pru-
dent not to excite the old man's morbid irri-
tability. Though Rollo was still reluctant, yet
he could not resist any longer, and he presented


912-927 to the assembly his son Guillaume as their future


, * , sovereign, and besought them to accept that son

as their Patrician and Count, Duke and Defender;

"Yet he is more inclined," said his father, "for

Guiiiaume a life of contemplation and seclusion." But the

as Duke chieftains would not allow their prospect to be

and Patri- . . L

dan of clouded: they rejoiced in accepting the domi-


tons Bre " nat i n f the finely proportioned, robust, bright-
haired, winning youth. Northmen and Bretons,
Juhel-Berenger and Alain, Count Botho and Count
Bernard, all took the oath of fealty; and placing
their hands in Guillaume's hands, became his
men, they his vassals, he their hereditary Duke
and Patrician.

This submission was in a manner dictated at
Clair-sur-Epte, a corollary to the treaty, for in
that compact there was no one point so expli-
citly and plainly expressed, or so solemnly con-
firmed, as that Rollo should hold the land, to
him and his descendants from heir to heir for

931932 ever. Henceforward Rollo disappears from his-
tory. The exact time of his decease is uncertain :

Hollo's Till 1 1

death and probably he survived his resignation about five

interment. .

years. When at the point of death, the awful
rendering up of life's recollections became mani-
fest in him, the shadows of terrene existence
rising and passing by in dim succession, prepara-
tory to the soul's departure. In his case the remi-
niscences of the wandering mind were horrible
he beheld an hundred human victims slaughtered


to appease the anger of Thor and Odin. But he 012-927
recovered from his waking trance, bestowed addi- , * (
tional donations upon Church and Poor, and his
body was deposited in the Metropolitan Basilica,
Notre Dame of Rouen.

Hollo's grave was dug in the Sacristy, but when
Archbishop Mauritius reconstructed the dilapi-
dated Cathedral, the remains were translated
by him to the Chapel of Saint Romanus, on the
northern or right-hand side of the Nave as you go

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