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REF 944.2

PALGRAVFt FRANCIS,

THE HISTORY OF NORMANDY

AND OF ENGLAND

VOL. &

NNBR 941319483 L/flV/l






1)1.1 t I



^,



The New\brk
PubBc Library

Astor. Lenox and Tilden Foundations



NY PUBLIC LIBRARY THE BRANCH LIBRARIES



3 3333 09228 8543















THE

HISTORY OF NORMANDY



AND OF



ENGLAND,



BY



SIR FRANCIS PALGRAVE, K.H.

THE DEPUTY KEEPER OP HER MAJESTY'S
PUBLIC RECORDS.



VOLUME III.

RICHARD SANS-PEUR RICHARD LE-BON RICHARD III.
ROBERT LE-DIABLE WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.



Narratione autem historica fait Aupustinus) cum prapterita etiam hominum
instituta narrantur, non intfT Lumana instituta ipsa historia numeranda
est; quia jam quae transierunt, ncc inf'rcta fieri possunt, in ordine tem-
porum habenda sunt, quorum est conditor et administrator Deus.



. . .> *
- >

'



-LONIXON:
MfLLA'N & So.,

16, BEDFORD STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

M.DCCC.LXIV.

[The right of Translation and Reproduction is reserved.}



LONDON :
FEINTED BY GEOEGE PHIPPS, 13&14, TOTHILL STREET, WESTMINSTER.



2. P

u 3



TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE



SIR JOHN ROMILLY,



MASTER OF THE ROLLS



MY DEAR SIR,

You have honoured me with your kind per-
mission that I should explain, in a few words addressed
to yourself, the circumstances in which the Third and
Fourth Volumes of this History are now published.

The Fourth Volume was printed throughout (with
exception of the " Summary") several years since. Some
corrections in it were afterwards planned by my father ;
but it represents, on the whole, his maturest judgment
on the events narrated.

The completion of the Third Volume (postponed for
personal reasons to the composition of the Fourth),
had formed the author's occupation during the leisure
hours of. the last four years of his life. Great part had
been written previously ; and it. was his wJsa. f.o revise
the whole, incorporating in it tbe fruits of additional
study and of visits to the scenes cf' the principal events
described. Death, however, Y-i July ISc-i, stayed his
hand when this revision had foen completed only to the
end of Chapter III.

From this point onwards (Chapters IV to XV), the
book has been edited by me. From a task for which I
did not feel myself qualified, I should have shrunk, had
it not been for the advice which you kindly gave me, to

CL

<76 Flrlii AVfi., i



IV

print the remaining manuscripts with the least possible
amount of addition, and for the encouragement which
you held out, that the work, if so performed, would be
better done by a son than by any abler or more accom-
plished man, not connected so closely with the author.
I trust that this explanation may procure pardon for the
want of complete finish in some passages, and for the
errors which my best care has been probably unable to
avoid, t However imperfectly I may have practised it,
one who, more than most sons, had the privilege, during
many years, of living with his father as his most intimate
and dearest friend, could hardly fail to learn the lesson,
how History should be written.

For those who may wish to know the exact amount
of the Editor's responsibility, the following details in
regard to the Third Volume are added.

Chapters I to III were completed by the author.

IV was printed, but not finally arranged, by July 1861.

V (as stated on p. 271), has been put together, partly
from fragments in type and in manuscript, partly by a
reprint from the author's small Anglo-Saxon History.

VI continues these extracts. It had been doubtful to
my father (I may add) whether to adopt this plan him-
self, or to omit from this book what he had described
before, or to rewrite the narrative. But it was his in-
tention to make use, for the next portion of the history,
of an article published in the Quarterly Revieiv, of Oc-
tober 1844 (No. 148). Chapter VII has been, there-
fore, composed partly fiwu tjiis article, in part from
manuscript soarcec.

The whole reign of che Conqueror in England, Chap-
ters VIII , to", ;X"J. V, has boon printed from the almost
perfect manuscript prepared originally for publication,
but destined, as noticed before, for a revision which was
never to be accomplished. Chapter XV is a selection



from the materials which the author had hoped to work
up into a more complete and continuous survey.

The Appendix has heen reproduced from a privately
printed, but not finally corrected, pamphlet, in the for-
mation of which my father was, I believe, much assisted
by the lists drawn up by M. de Gerville. I have added
this, in hope that it may, in some degree, serve to replace
the authentic catalogue (so far as such could be com-
piled), of the Conqueror's companions, which it was the
author's wish to give.

For almost all the dates, for the division into para-
graphs, for the marginal notes and headings, from Chap-
ter Y to XV, Books Second and Third, with the " Sum-
mary " from Chapter IY to the end of the Fourth
Book, I am responsible. A very few additional words
and corrections have been inserted, and are distinguished
by enclosure within angular brackets.

These indications will, I hope, make it clear that the
volumes now published have not suffered much by the
author's death. Except in one chapter, the work was,
by that time, substantially completed. What has been
lost lies principally in the additions which would have
been made on the effects of the Conquest, and in the
Notes, which were, I believe, to have given references
to the authorities employed.

A few words of more personal nature may, I trust,
be permitted me in conclusion. It was my father's hope
that he might live to make the book of which these
volumes form the most important portion, his best con-
tribution to the history of England. He therefore dedi-
cated it to the Friend who (in his judgment) had beyond
all others advanced our knowledge of that history, and
whose high and noble nature he had proved in an almost
life-long friendship. They have been both called to rest
from the labours which only advanced age, in Mr. Hal-

b



VI

lam's case, and death, in my dear father's, could sus-
pend. I may now, therefore, be allowed to connect these
volumes with your name, as one of the friends to whom,
during his latter years, my Father was indebted for con-
stant kindness, at once in private life, and in regard to
the official duty which he performed under your Keeper-
ship.

His saltern accumulem donis, et fungar inani

Munere.

I remain

yours with much respect

FRANCIS TURNER PALGRAVE

5, York Gate, London :
9 May, 1864



CONTENTS.
BOOK II.

OAPETIAN NORMANDY.



CHAPTER I.

ROBERT, KING OF FRANCE LAST TEARS OF RICHARD SANS-PEUR

ACCESSION OF RICHARD LE-BON OPENING OF HIS REIGN RE-
VOLT OF THE PEASANTRY.

987996.

A.D. PAGK

987 Richard Sans-peur, his family and connexions during

the concluding period of his reign ... 1

Ivo de Belesme, and his son William .... 1

Espriota, her marriage with Sperling the Miller, their

son Raoul, his famous battle with the bear . . 2

Duke Richard, Raoul's half-brother, grants to him the

County of Ivri 4

Illegitimacy perplexities connected with the question 6

Tudor and Braganza ....... 6

Marriage antiently a bargain and sale ... 7

Missions and civilization 8

The Rechabites 9

Anglo-Saxon form of wedding 10

Richard Sans-peur and Guenora 11

Legitimation of their marriage ..... 13

Richard Sans-peur's children 14

Marriages of his daughters ...... 14

Prospect of family troubles 15

Apprehension of Richard Sans-peur as to the suc-

cession 15

Disorders of the Norman Church .... 16
943 994 Hugh, Archbishop of Rouen his scandalous

conduct ......... 16

994 Richard appoints his son to the Archbishopric . . 17

Robert ineligible by reason of his bastardy ... 17



vm CONTENTS.

A.D. PAGE

994 Bastards legitimated by the subsequent marriage of

the parents 18

(1235 Parliament of Merton Prelates and Barons of Eng-
land refuse to adopt the civil law) ... 18

Marriage of Eichard and Guenora 18

Archbishop Eobert marries and becomes Count of

Evreux ......... 19

Eichard Sans-peur's natural gifts 19

French or Eomance language cultivated in Normandy 20
Coin struck by Eichard Sans-peur .... 21

Fecamp built by him -21

Gothic architecture ....... 22

The stone chest across the pathway .... 23
996 Eichard's sickness and death 24

Appointment by Eichard of his son Eichard (le-Bon)

to be his successor -.25

Intermural interment, not practised in the early ages

of the Church 26

Directions given by Richard for his burial without

the walls of Fdcamp Abbey 26

Kichard le-Bon performs homage by parage to the

King of France 27

Eise of the Norman nobility 28

Apanages of Eichard Sans-peur's children ... 28

Geoffrey Count of Eu, and Seigneur of Brionne . . 28

Mauger Count of Mortagne : he obtains Corbeil by

marriage 28

William in the first instance Count of Hiesmes, sub-

sequently receives another endowment ... 28

Eobert the married Archbishop of Eouen, and Count

of Evreux 29

Archbishop Eobert's sons 29

Eichard the Archbishop's eldest son, Count of Evreux 29

Ealph Wace, or Gace, the Archbishop's second son,

Tete-d'etoupe, or Tete-d'ane 29

Guillaume, the Archbishop's third son, the companion

of Robert Guiscard ....... 29

Herfastus, Eichard's uncle, and Guenora's brother,

ancestor of the FitzOsborne family .... SO

Adelina, one of Eichard le-Bon's maternal aunts,

marries Osmond de Balbec 30

Gueva, another aunt, marries Therrold the son of Terf,

Baron of Pont-au-de-Mer ...... 30

Norman nobility originating or arising in the reign of

Eichard le-Bon . .31



CONTENTS. IX

A.D. PAGE

990 No information concerning the antient jurisprudence

of Normandy 32

None known anterior to the reign of Philippe Auguste 33

Theory of Howard, that the Norman costumes were

borrowed from England 33

Bourgeoisie of Normandy her commercial prosperity 34

Norman peasantry 36

Hereditary aristocracy, not necessarily exclusive . . 37
Heraldic gentility favoured by Richard le-Bon . . 38
Oppressions of the peasantry, in consequence of

encreased notions about gentility .... 39

The Norman forests game laws .... 40
990 1000 Confederation of the peasanty suppressed, and

with great cruelty, by Raoul Count of Ivri . . 43

Ultimate result, not unfavourable to the villainage . 44

Servitude obsolete, at an early period .... 44

Position of Richard's brothers and nephews . . 45

Geoffrey Count of Eu and Brionne 45

Gilbert son of Geoffrey 45

He quarrelled with his cousin Tete-d'ane or Wace . . 45

William, an illegitimate son of Richard Sans-peur . 45

Hiesmois or Exmes granted to him 46

Falaise, its commercial opulence 46

Fair of Guibray 47

1002 Count William refuses to render his services : he is

taken prisoner by Raoul Count of Ivri ... 48

Kept in captivity in the Tower of Rouen, whence he

escapes 48

Pardoned by his brother Richard, who grants him the

County of Eu 49

His descendants their high position in Anglo-Norman

history 50

CHAPTER II.

EGBERT, KING OF FRANCE, AND RICHARD LE-BON.

9961024.

CLOSE ALLIANCE BETWEEN NORMANDY AND FRANCE ROYAL AND

DUCAL MARRIAGES WARS AGAINST FLANDERS, BLOIS, CHARTRES,
CHAMPAGNE, AND BURGUNDY.

1002 Entente cordiale, between King Robert and Duke

Richard . 51



X CONTENTS.

A.D. PAGE

] 002 Hugh Capet's anxiety to associate his son Kobert with

him in the royal dignity 51

Kobert's education 52

Conjoined with his father in the royal authority . . 52

Endurance of the male progeny in the Capetian line . 52

Hugh le-Grand's policy grounded upon feudality . 53

Tranquillity of the realm under the first Capet . . 53
Fortifications raised by him throughout the realm . 54

Eight of advowson 54

Cast of French historical characters . . . . 55

Hugh Capet's dealings as patron .... 56
~ Foundation of Abbeville 56

Tranquil accession of Robert 57

His character as a poet 57

Robert's humouristic simplicity 57

He quizzes the pope (Bishop of Rome) .... 58

Robert's trust in Normandy 58

Uncertainty of the extent of the obligations resulting

from the Carlovingian homages .... 59

Norman Dukes hold en parage 59

Feudal obligations incurred by Normandy to Hugh le-

Grand 61

Richard of Normandy a Capetian Peer ... 61
978 (?) Death of Thibaut le-Tricheur 63

He is succeeded by Eudes or Odo .... 64

Extent of Eude's possessions 64

He assumes the name of Comes Ditissimus ... 64

995 Death of Eudes 64

996 Marriage between King Robert and Bertha, Eudes'

widow i 65

Contrary to the canons of the Church .... 65

Gregory V., first Transalpine Pope .... 66
998 Council at Rome Robert and Bertha commanded to

separate 67

Gerbert exercises his influence against Bertha . . 67

Inconsistency of public opinions in these matters . . 68

Robert repudiates Bertha and marries Constance . 69

Robert's patience and humour .' . . . 70

Eutrapelia 71

New School of Chroniclers 72

Richness of the Norman Chroniclers . . . ' . 72
999 1000 Eudes le-Champenois threatens France . . 73

Melun 73

Burchard of Anjou 74

Burchard marries Count Aymon's widow ... 75



CONTENTS. XI

A.D. PAGE

1000 Melun and Corbeille, granted to Burchard ... 76

1002 1003 Burchard obtains Melun by treachery . . 76

Duke Richard assists the King in recovering Melun . 77

Lyderic the forester, first Count of Flanders . . 78
1006 Baudouin la-belle-barbe, or Bushey -beard, Count of

Flanders 79

Geoffrey of Rennes, first Duke of Brittany . . 80

The Norman damsels 80

Alliances of Richard Sans-peur's daughters . . 81

Godfrey of Brittany marries Hawisa .... 82
996 Richard le-Bon marries Judith or Ivetta, Godfrey's

sister 83

Sons of the marriage 83

Daughters of Richard le-Bon 84

Richard le-Bon's second marriage to Estritha, the

daughter of Canute she is divorced by Richard,

and marries Jarl Ulph the Anglo-Dane ... 84

Richard le-Bon's third marriage to Papia ... 84
William, Count of Arques, and Mauger, Archbishop of

Rouen 84

Complication of Norman History its fourfold tangle 85
Marriage between Ethelred and Emma ... 86

936 986 Partial conversion of the Danes .... 86

936 Expulsion of Harold Blaatand 87

966973 Otho the Great, the Ottensund .... 87

972 Swein's baptism 87

9361014 Blaatand and Swein, their success in the British

Islands 88

Christianity and civilization 89

Heekee the Maori 90

Richard Sans-peur, scorned as the Dux Piratarum . 91

Harold Blaatand in the Cotentin .... 92

Objectivity and subjectivity 92

Commercial character of the Normans ... 93
Richard le-Bon's dubious neutrality .... 94

Departmental division of France .... 95
Department of La Manche, equivalent to the antient

Avranchin and Cotentin 96

The Cotentin, its natural strength .... 97

Parts of the Cotentin Barfleur 98

Cherbourg 99

Bravery of the inhabitants of the Cotentin . . . 100

Oslac, settled in the Cotentin by Rollo . 100

Barony of Saint Sauveur created by Rollo . 101

Nigil, Count thereof .... . 102



Xll CONTENTS.

A.D. PAGE

Castles of the Cotentin 102

The Cotentin, the nursery of the Conquerors of

Apulia and England 102

Ethelred declares war against Duke Kichard . . 103

Landing of the English in the Cotentin . . . 104

Their defeat by the inhabitants 104

Peace said to have been concluded by the interven-
tion of Pope John (XV.) 105

Ethelred's family 107

His courtship of Emma, and marriage . . . 109
1001 Emma returns to Normandy Ill

Burgundy 112

9651002 Henri le-Grand, first Capetian Duke . . . 114

Otho Guillaume 114

1003 King Robert his invasion of Burgundy . . . 115

Aid given by Normandy 115

Siege of Auxerre 116

Siege of Avalon 117

1015 1032 Henry, first Capetian Duke of Burgundy . . 118
1027 Renaud, Duke of Burgundy, the trouble his descend-
ants gave to the Conqueror 119



CHAPTER III.

RICHARD LE-BON AND HIS SUCCESSORS, RICHARD THE THIRD AND
ROBERT LE-DIABLE. EARLY INFANCY OF WILLIAM THE BASTARD.

10241035.

Hostilities between Richard and Eudes le- Champenois,

by reason of the County Dreux . . . . 120

1007 Tilliers importance of the place, source of the

dispute between Normandy and France . 121

Marriage between Eudes le- Champenois and Matilda

of Normandy 122

1015 Refusal of Eudes to surrender Tilliers according to

agreement, Maude having died without issue . 122

Niel de Saint Sauveur, Ralph the Toeny chief

amongst the Norman Baronage . . . . 123

Tilliers, attacked by the Norman forces ... 123

Defeat of Eudes he flies 125

Narrow escape of Hugh, Count of Maine ... 125

Richard invites Olave, King of Norway . . . 126

Tooley Street 126



CONTENTS.

A.D. PAGE

Northmen land in Brittany, probably sailing from

England 126

Defeat of the Bretons at D61 126

The pit-falls 127

Danes sail up the Seine, great alarm created . 128

1020 Treaty of Coudres 128

The Champs d' Argent 129

Dreux, Castle and Chapel 129

Stephen of Blois 129

His marriage with a Norman Princess . . . . 129
Bui-gundy Eenaud, son of Otho William, marries a

Norman Adeliza 130

Hugh, Bishop of Auxerre, and Count of Chalons . 130

Renaud captured by him 131

Eichard, the son of Richard le-Bon, his good qualities 131

Invasion of Bui-gundy by the Norman and French

forces .... ... 131

La Mirmande 132

Count Bishop of Chalons, bridled and saddled . . 133

1026 Eichard le-Bon appoints his son, Eichard the Third,

as his successor ; and dies 133

His interment at Fecamp 134

Sources of early Norman history ... 134

Prose authorities 134

The Trouveurs 134

Traditional history 135

Eichard and Eobert, no information concerning them,

till the Burgundian campaign . . . . 136

Their quarrels 136

Eichard HI. performs homage to King Eobert . . 137

Espouses the daughter of France 137

Settlement made upon the intended marriage . . 137

Ermenoldus the Breton 1 38

Encrease of population amongst the descendants of

the Scandinavian races 139

Havelock 139

Norman population encreasing beyond the means of

subsistence 140

Eobert rebels against his brother 140

Richard besieges Falaise 140

Pacification between the brothers 141

1027 Sudden death of Eichard attributed to poison . . 141

Accession of Eobert 141

Illegitimate children of Eichard HI. . 141
9881036 Baudouin a-la-belle-barbe . . 142

c



XIV CONTENTS.

A.D. PAGE

Robert's soubriquets . . . . . ... 142

His liberality 143

Falaise and its tanneries 144

Robert or Fulbert, the tanner and brewer . . . 144

His daughter Arietta 145

Skinners, a degraded caste 145

Union of trades, of Tanner and Brewer, prohibited . 146

Duke Robert keeps company with Arietta . . . 146

One child, William, acknowledged as his offspring . 147

Public offence given by Robert's connection . . . 147

Premier families of Normandy 148

Guillaume de Belesme or Talvas 148

He curses the baby 149

The dislike against the child continues unabated . . 150

The Conqueror's bastardy never condoned, because he

was the Tanner's grandson 151

William always a bastard 152

Great offence given to all members of the ducal

family 153

Robert, Archbishop of Rouen, breaks out first he

flies the country 153

Hugh, Bishop of Bayeux, follows the example of the

Archbishop of Rouen 154

Robert attacks Talvas, who is beat, and compelled to

bear the saddle 155

Political importance of Duke Robert .... 155

Baudouin a-la-belle-barbe takes refuge in Normandy 156

Revolt of the Flemings 156

Robert mediates between the Norman and the Flemish

Dukes 156

1031 Death of King Robert 157

. Contested succession of King Henry .... 158

Henry expelled by his vixen mother . . . . 159

Treason what constitutes treason . . . . 161

Wallace 161

. Duke Robert continues his exertions on behalf of

Henry 162

The Vexin Drogo, Count thereof 163

Drogo's marriage with Ethelred's daughter . . 164

Brittany its importance in Norman History . . . 165

Political and feudal relations between Brittany and

the crown of France 166

Geographical extent of Brittany 167

Duke Geoffrey and his achievements .... 167
1008 Geoffrey killed by an old woman 168



CONTENTS. XV

A.D. PAGE

1008 Alain, his son, succeeds 168

1010 Revolt of the Armorican peasantry . . . . 168

Dissensions between Count Alain, and Alain Caignard,

Count of Eennes 169

Alain's courtship of Eucles le-Champenois' daughter . 169

The Armoricans despised by the Frankish race . . 170

Peace between the two Alains 171

Alain Caignard carries off the lady, presents her

to Duke Alain, who marries her . . . . 171

Duke Alain restores Belle Isle to Alain Caignard . . 171

Pomp and pride of Duke Alain 172

Alain repudiates the homage due to Normandy . . 173

The Normans of the Cotentin invade Brittany . 173

Niel do Saint Sauveur, and Alfred the Giant ; their

exploits 174

The English Athelings, Edward and Alfred, placed

under Duke Robert's protection ... 175

Canute and Emma 176

Duke Robert prepares for the invasion of England

frustrated by a storm 176

Archbishop of Rouen mediates between Robert and

Alain . 178

Antipathy entertained against the child William . 178

Duke Robert, le-Magnifique, suddenly determines to

go as a pilgrim to the Holy Land . . . . 179

Solemn confirmation of the Bastard's right . . 181

The Barons perform homage and fealty to the Bastard 181

King Henry accepts William as his liegeman . 181

Regency appointed by Duke Robert . , . 182

Robert commences his pilgrimage .... 183

Drogo, Count of the Vexin, accompanies him . . 184

Robert's mode of travelling , 184

Robert at Rome .... ... 185

Robert at Constantinople .... 186

Robert's health fails ....... 188

Contest of liberality between the Emir of Jerusalem

and Robert 189

1035 Robert dies poisoned 190



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER IY.



WILLIAM THE BASTAED, FEOM HIS ACCESSION TO THE
BATTLE OF MOETEMEE.



10351054.



A.D. PAGE

1035 William's reign divided into three acts . . . 101

Alain of Brittany appointed guardian by Kobert . . 192

Anarchy on news of Robert's death . . . . 193

Partly caused by the legal interregnum . . . 193-194

Partly by the lax rule of Robert . . 195

Indelible stain of bastardy on William . . . . 195

Claims of Guido, Count of Burgundy, to the duchy . 196

Regency during William's minority . . . . 197

He is placed in Vaudreuil 198

1036 Attempt against him by Montgomery . . . . 199

Presaged the troubles of his life .... 200

Miserable state of Normandy 200

(1042) Truce of God instituted 201

William's enemies : Mauger ; Ferrers . . . . 202

Roger de Toeni 203

William's character 204

Chronological perplexities of the period , . . 205

1037 (?) Baronial conspiracy 206

Henry's feeling towards William .... 207

Development of William's destiny : several years of

comparative peace 208

Henry attacks William 209

Takes Tilliers 210

Guido of Burgundy asserts his claim , . . 210
1047 Rebellious spirit of the Barons : Niel de St. Sauveur 211

They attempt to seize William in Valognes . . . 212

He escapes to Falaise ; then to Henry . . . 214

The barons seize Normandy 214

Henry supports William, who summons his supporters 214

William and the rebels meet at Val des Dunes . . 215

Battle of Val des Dunes conduct of Tesson . . 215

William completely victorious 217



CONTENTS. XV11

A.D. PAGE

Fate of Griruwald and Guido 218

Anjou : governed by Geoffrey Martel . . . 218
1048 He takes Alenyon, and threatens Normandy . . 219

William's siege of Alen<;on 221

His success : makes an alliance with the Emperor . 222

Yet the stain of his birth indelible . . . . 223
1050 Plot of William the Warling 224

William takes Mortaigne 224

Importance of Ponthieu : Saint Riquier . . . 225

Abbeville : the Vimeux 226

Rebellion of Counts of Arques and Ponthieu . . 227

William blockades Arques 228

Brittany : minority of Conan under his uncle Eudes 229
1040 1047 Conan recognized in Brittany .... 229

Intrigues of William in Brittany 230

And of barons against William 231

1054 Henry supports them : invades Normandy . . . 231

Plan of the campaign 232-233

William's caution 235

Battle of Mortemer 236

Defeat of Henry 237

1054 Troubles begin from Anjou 238

Importance of Maine : its early history . . . 239

Herbert Wake-the-dog ....... 241

His successors 242

Geoffrey Martel in possession of Maine . . . 242

William occupies Maine 243

Hostility of French to Normans .... 244

Normandy again invaded 245

1058 William defeats Henry and the French at the Cue"

Berenger 245

Henry makes peace 245

1059 His marriage : crowns his son Philip . . . 24ft



CHAPTER V.

PKEPAEATIONS FOB THE CONQUEST.



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