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never did Louis -Qnatorze distinguish himself
from his predecessors or successors by the num-
ber which has become the symbol of his glories.
France knew not the usage until Napoleon
proclaimed himself le premier, with the anxious
intent of securing the omen that there should be
a continuance of the D} r nasty.

But whilst we reject the Convention in the
shape now presented, we accept its import. The
quarrel and the reconciliation are unquestionable
verities. Ethelred, surrounded by a cloud of ene-
mies, sought to expand the Norman neutrality into
a close alliance. At this period Ethelred was the ? th ? 1 1 d '

family by the

father of ten children : six sons, the eldest the H-rSiS.
heroic Ironside, who, had his exertions been per-
mitted to prosper, would have averted the ruin of
the falling kingdom : also, four daughters. Yet obscurity of

this era in

so fragmentary and failing are the sources o
information relating to these troublous times, that
our classical Historian, the member of an antient
Community whose archives were peculiarly rich
he himself distinguished by acumen, knowledge
and industry informs us, that he knew nothing
concerning the mother of this numerous family.
The name of Ethelred' s Queen, says William of
Malmesbury, is lost in the shades of antiquity.

But a Chronicler in the distant North, Ailred
of Rivaulx, affords us the information concealed
from, his brother in South Britain ; for he testifies

108 EMMA.

999-1024 that Ethelred's first Consort was a noble lady ?
daughter of the Ealdor-man Thored. Therefore,
all the doubts which have been surdly raised
concerning Ironside's legitimacy are dispelled.

33. None of the Norman marriages contri-
buted so potentially to the prosperity of Rollo's
race as the matrimonial alliance contracted with
the Ruler, who, in the midst of all his disas-
ters, continued to style himself, " Ethelred, by
the grace of God Basileus of Albion, King
and Monarch of all the British nations; of
the Orkneys and the surrounding Islands."
Deficiency of National antipathy, deficiency or loss of


information, and worse than deficiency, perver-
sion of information, have all conjoined to involve
in great obscurity the history of the transac-
tions relating to Emma. We have seen how
the antient Historians themselves confess their
ignorance. The disturbed chronology of the
events betrays the confusion of the times ; and
we pick up our facts like counters cast upon the
ground. But more generally the dates are wholly
omitted. In the six books of the history which
we owe to Guillaunie de Jumieges, constituting
the main basis of our narrative after Dudo's de-
mise, only three quotations of the current year
can be found to give us anchorage.

The order of narration which I have adopted
throughout the whole length and breadth of these
perplexing chapters is such as appears to me to
afford the most plausible mode of presenting

EMMA. 109

causes and consequences. Let the arrangement be 999-1024
accepted with allowance for its difficulties, as the
best chronological hypothesis which I can form.

The peace concluded, Ethelred sought to
unite himself with Normandy by a closer
bond. Could he become Richard's brother-in-
law, could he engraft the branch of Cerdic upon
the stem of Rollo, would not England obtain a
far greater power amongst the nations ? And,
over and above the political advantages promised
by such a marriage, the personal attractions of
the Adeliza Emma may have had some weight in
this politic scheme.

Ethelred shewed himself in earnest. The
English Monarch passed over into Normandy ; II
urged his suit in person; and wooed successfully. p erson
The Lady's natural guardian assented ; and, the
preliminaries being settled, Ethelred, having
quitted Rouen, was succeeded by the appearance
of a noble cortege despatched from the English
court, who returned to England with Emma as
his affianced Bride.

Such was Ethelred's impatience, that the
espousals took place, contrary to the ordinances
of the Church, during the Lenten season. Ethel-
red bid high for Richard's sister. Very ample
was the dowry the Lady of Normandy re-,w e
ceived ; but testifying rather to the bridegroom's upon Emma

J by Ethelred.

liberality than his judgment. The Atheliza re-
ceived extensive domains in the maritime coun-
ties of Devon and Hants. The whole circuit of

suit in


999-1024 the "Rote-land" or "Redland," a bailiwick not
yet brought into Shire-land for the forest of
Luffield then covered the whole, Winchester,
the capital of the Anglo-Saxon Empire, and
Exeter, the pride and fortress of South Britain.
Placed in actual possession of these domains ;
Emma was gratified with the power of appointing
her own officers ; and she exercised authority by
granting the command of the la-st-mentioned City,
where the Cornubian Britons had lingered till the
reign of Athelstane, Ethelred's grandsire, to her
Chamberlain and Confidant, the Norman Hugh.
No fear of the Natives now. They had been "ex-
terminated," that is to say, they had been cleared
out : whether up to the -Exe, or up to the Tamar,
the effect was the same. " Ex-termino" How
singularly do we trace the logical sequence
disclosed by etymology. Hunt and herry the
weaker races out of their houses and homes, and
they dwindle away.

he English Emma was welcomed by her new subjects as
the " Gem of Normandy." They could not gainsay

her beauty, but her foreign manners told against
her. Her " uncouth," or unknown appellation
in particular, sounded unpleasantly upon the
English ear. Like the Russians, the English
sought that their Sovereign's strange spouse
should be at least apparently nationalized ; and
they bestowed upon her the name or epithet
of Elfgiva, honoured or dishonoured by the
widow of Charles le-Sirnple, and the mother of


Louis d'Outremer ; that wife so true, that 999-1021
mother so bold and tender, but of whom we have
long since taken our leave, as the doating grey-
haired widow running away with a big boy.

The heavy misfortunes sustained by the ^""f
English had impressed them with the feeling r(
that their sins would bring on their punishment,
and that they would be brought to confusion.
Rowena's cup was a poisoned cup. The Anglo-
Saxon domination was founded upon fraud and
violence. Retribution was impending ; and
many of the faithful raised up for the warning
of their fellow countrymen survived to witness
the chastisement, which their profound belief in
the eternal justice of the Living God visiting
the sins of the fathers upon the children, had
enabled them to foretell.

34. The union, commenced with simulated

g and triumph, was speedily interrupted she returns to
by calamity. Emma returned to her native home.
More than one reason is assigned for this ill-
omened flight of the Bride. According to some
authorities, Ethelred disgusted her by his profli-
gacy, incontinence, wine-bibbing, and gluttony.
Other causes may be conjectured. The churl
Hugh was accused of having betrayed his trust
to the Danes, and Emma may have been suspected
of conniving at her Chamberlain's treachery. In
that same year also, or within the year, Ethelred
perpetrated the Blood-bath or Massacre of Saint
Brice, his day ; and Elfgiva Emma took refuge


999-1024 in her native land from the horror and confusion.
But, whether guilty or innocent, the result was
the same. The heart of Emma clung more and
more to her native land. Her feelings were in-
herited by the children who were afterwards born
to her they imbibed them at their mother's
breast. Their hearts were thoroughly alienated
from England, and the Normans and Normandy
became as their kindred and their home.

35. We must now view Richard as the ally
of France. Most memorably was young Nor-
mandy's encreasing strength manifested during
the obstinate warfare waged by King Robert
Burgundy- against Burgundy, constituting, equally in its
th! n Royti immediate results, and remote consequences, the
most memorable passage of his reign. The
Low Countries, Spain, Portugal, Italy, all came
within the wide sphere of Burgundian influence,
and the death of Philip le-Hardi upon the field
of Granson, was the event, which, by liberating
the Eidgenossen from his fear, decided the fate
of the Empire.

Dignified by the reminiscences of antient
Barbarian royalty, Burgundy had been retained
as the peculiar apanage of Robert le-Fort's
descendants, their firmest stronghold, supporting
them during the contests with the Carlovingian
dynasty : and, when Hugh le-Grand was preparing
the way for his son's accession to the throne,
the Style assumed by the wise politician marked
the importance he attached to the coustitu-


tional distinction between the two Dominations, 999-1024
avoiding any confusion between the rights of the
Duke of Burgundy and the rights of the Duke of
France the throne he sought, and the posses-
sions which enabled his son to win the sceptre.
Since Charles le-Chauve's reign, Burgundy gj'j

had been divided into the "Duchy of Burgundy" SffSSSf

jurano, into

and the "County of Burgundy," afterwards ernpha-
tically denominated the " Franche Compte," such c
appellation testifying that the fief was not held
of the Counts of Burgundy, but of the Sovereign.

This interesting country, so picturesquely
covered by the roots of the Jura, and including
various territories wrested from the Duke in
later times by the formidable and fraudulent
Switzers, was dependant upon the Crown of
France. But the political relations subsisting
between the Dukes or Counts of Burgundy and
the Fleur de lis, rank amongst the vexed ques-
tions of French constitutional history.

Burgundy was distinguished by the sanctity,

the opulence, and the numbers of her religious and


institutions. Her ecclesiastical annals are there-
fore sufficiently ample; but no Historian of
any note was nurtured in the Abbeys, con-
sequently, her secular annals are defective and
imperfect, and the wide discrepancies between
the authorities, concerning the dates of events,
when they ought to run parallel with the occur-
rences in France and Normandy, frequently per-
plex the narrative.



999-1024 At the period when Hugh Capet acquired
965-ioo2 ^ ne throne, the Duchy was held by Henry, his

brother, distinguished in history as Henri le-

Duke of

fhT^caSian Grand, though, according to the ordinary sense
in which this much abused and often mischievous
epithet is employed, we cannot discover any
appropriateness in the application thereof to
him. Henry was really a good man, a quiet
man ; never did he give the slightest disturbance
to his neighbours, never did he perform a war-
like deed, never did he engage in any intrigues
political or amatory, his time and mind being
completely engrossed by higher objects. A Char-
ter, however, can be quoted in which Hugh Capet
bestows upon his brother the title of "Grand
Duke," but the original is not extant. Possibly,
the expression intended to bestow upon Henry
a superior constitutional dignity, became collo-
quially attached to his name.
r ^J a strange concurrence of circumstances,
the legitimate representative of the Lombard
Kmg s of Italy had settled in Burgundy. The

cha g ions f - romantic adventures of the Prince and Pirate,

Otho Guil-

their Adalbert, or Albert, the son of King Berenger
and bold Guilla, have been elsewhere told. Stren-
uous and astute, Adalbert sobered as he grew
older, and, wandering beyond the Alps, he es-
poused Gerberga, daughter of the much honoured
Lambert, Count of Chalons, by whom he had one
child, Otho Guillauine.

Adalbert gathered to his fathers, Gerberga

Vol. II.,


effected the conquest of worthy old Duke Henry. 005-1021
May we not suppose that she possessed her Gcrberga
namesake's energetic qualities : at all events her ffidSti,

i i T ni;nTies

son was distinguished by valour and talent : 1)ukeHenr y.

' who adopts

and, such was the influence which they both
gained over the venerable Duke, that he adopted
the youth, declaring him his successor and heir.
Duke Henry did not possess any legal power
to make such a grant ; and, upon his demise, the
Duchy reverted to the Crown. But Otho Guil-
laume fully deserved the authority, and, one indi-
vidual alone foreprized, he obtained the general
support of the Burgundian Clergy and Nobility.
King Bobert, albeit entranced by his poetry,
diligent in works of charity and piety, and per-
plexed and plagued by his cross-grained Beauty,

had fully prepared for the contingency of his dear ^ c n bardle -
Uncle's death, and forthwith applied to Eichard
of Normandy for aid. Equally on the alert was
the Duke ; and a large army, amounting or mag-
nified to the number of thirty thousand men, mus-
tered under the Norman standard, which was
borne aloft by Eoger de Toesny. Very powerful
did the united families of Toesny and Conches
become in England, and the Standard bearer's
grandson married the Adeliza Judith, the widow
of the unfortunate Waltheoff, Earl of Huntingdon.
Bound numbers are necessarily incorrect :
making, however, in this case, the fullest allow-
ance for any exaggeration, far did the force
brought up by Bichard exceed any contingent

i 2


999-1024 which King Eobert could claim as a right from
the Duke of Normandy, Rollo's heir. Bichard,
in fact, acted in the character of an ally rather
than as a feudatory. Nor can we doubt but
that a large portion of his troops were mer-
cenaries serving for their solde or pay ; and
they cared not against whom they drew the
sword. Normandy was overflowing with a mili-
tary population, anxious for employment, and for
plunder. It was the universal feeling that the
land was not wide enough for them.

Rapid was the march of the combined armies.
Duke Henrv had scarcely been gathered to his


Normans, fathers, when the assailants presented themselves
before Auxerre, the frontier City between Cham-
pagne and Burgundy. Secured against an enemy
by the broad Saone and the encircling walls
and towers, popular belief imparted a greater
power of defence to "Autissiodurum" than could
be bestowed merely by lime and stone. The
inhabitants were persuaded that the protection
given by Saint Germain to the locality where
his corpse was deposited, rendered the Place

Landric, Count of Nevers, commanded the
city. The Abbey had been fortified. Abbot
Adalric interceded on behalf of the citizens,
but fruitlessly ; and Richard and his Normans
commenced the blockade.

This was a season of remarkable atmospheric
and cosmical phenomena. A fiery dragon shot


quivering across the heavens, rising in the north 999-1024
and setting in the south. A portentous mist then ,


came on, shrouding earth and sky. Auxerre

o t/

. extraordi-

was involved in darkness. The Arbahsters nar y. ? me " s

raising of

could not aim their bolts, those weapons so thci
destructive when sighted by the Norman eye
and supported by the Norman arm, whilst all
the missiles told upon the besiegers. King
Robert, however, contending against every diffi-
culty, continued his operations steadily ; and the
charters dated from his Camp, pending the siege,
exemplified the vigour of his royal authority
at the very time he was most stoutly opposed :
but the perseverance of the Auxerrois was re-
warded ; the invading forces, abandoning the
Leaguer, struck their tents and moved on.

An obstinate warfare ensued. Otho Guillaume, J u v ^ y the
able and active, had won the people's hearts, and t B u tm>o dia


the Burgundians availed themselves of the natural
defences afforded by their mountainous regions.
Only one single Noble adhered to King Robert,
Hugh, Bishop of Auxerre as well as Count of
Chalons, who will ultimately appear in a lu-
dicrous as well as humiliating position. What
think ye of a Count-Bishop, literally saddled
and figuratively bridled ?

Normans and French advanced up the coun-
try. Avalon, whose Celtic name strangely in-
terests us by the recollections which the sound
suggests of the mythic Arthur's sepulture, Ava-
lon, dreary Avalon was invested by the enemy,


994-1024 but in vain; for the bleak and rocky hills of
that remarkable region, where every stone ex-
hibits the mysterious seals testifying the evolu-
tion of life, and the infliction of death, in time, but
before time, at the Almighty's behest, constituted
a series of natural fortifications which greatly
impeded the besiegers ; the inhabitants however,
not having been enabled to provision their town,
they were starved out, and surrendered.

The country was ravaged, but the talent of
the Lombard Statesman and Warrior had won
the hearts of the Clergy and Nobility. Otho
Guillaume commanded the suffrages of all ranks.
King Eobert had not gained an adherent, save
and except that one Count-Bishop, he of Auxerre
and Chalons. During nearly twelve years the
war continued obstinately, until, at length, a
compromise was effected. Henry, second Duke

Robert, ^st of the name, King Robert's eldest son, was

Duke of

of u the n Ro'yai appointed Duke of this much contested land.

France. But the government was nevertheless carried
on by King Robert, until his son, King Henry,
ascended the throne, when he bestowed the
Duchy upon his father's homonym, Robert the
younger, though denominated Robert le-Vieux,
and he must be accepted as the founder of the
Capetian line of Dukes, so active, so influential,
so splendid, but so troublesome to the dynasty
from which they sprung.

As to Otho Guillaume, he was ultimately
compensated by receiving the Franche Cornpte.


His son Renault! succeeded to his authority ; 994-1024
his marriage with Alice, otherwise Judith, the 995


daughter of our Duke Richard, connected him i


with Normandy. In the next generation we
shall find his descendants asserting a claim to
Normandy, and giving trouble to the Conqueror ;
and from Otho Guillaume was the royal house
of Portugal also descended.






1. RICHARD, called again to Burgundy, had
enjoyed sufficient opportunity for keeping his
eager Normans in training; and, towards the
conclusion of his reign, he was again roused by
Eudes le-Ohampenois .
county of Between the Pays Chartrain and Normandy


there was a debatable land, a territory originally
included, as the old historiographers maintain, in

train and

occupied by

Richard the cession made to Hollo ; but lost and won.

oa.H3-pcur. /

"We are speaking of Dreux, the County of Dreux,
which County in subsequent times became a
splendid illustration of our baronial history, when
Pierre de Dreux, Count of Brittany, acquired
the noble Honour of Richmond. You may see
his bearings in the Chancel window there ;
" chequey, or, and azure, a Canton of Brittany,"
but you may search in vain for any such heraldic
memorial of him in his own land. Originally
the Pagus Drocensium constituted a portion
of Hollo's dominions, but at a subsequent era
more clearly within our ken, Dreux had been
held by a line of Counts whose last represen-


tative disappears in Richard Sans-pcur's reign. 1024-1035
Richard seems to have treated the County as
a Fief which had devolved upon him by es-
cheat, inasmuch as we find the great Seigneurie
in his possession without any war, at least no
war is noticed, and he annexed the same to his

The territory is bounded towards the north Tiiuwcl-


by the streamlet Aure, which falls into the e , rectc ?

> there by

Eure. The acquisition was important. The ilon'ii 6 "

rvi -i Roman

country was open to inimical Chartres : and a foundations.
Roman road connecting Dreux and Chartres,
extensive remains of which may yet be dis-
covered, must have been at least as passable in
the eleventh century as our Watling Street in
old Norman times. But if the Romans multi-
plied communications between the various parts
of their dominions, they were equally careful to
provide the means of defence ; and a station, the
Castrum Tegulense, was raised, adjoining the
banks of the river a memorial of their vigilant
strategy ; just as Alder shot affords a living tes-
timony, so to speak, of their acuteness and
military judgment. Subsequently a town was
erected there, which obtained the name of Til-
lieres. The original name of the station, the Tile-
Kiln^ bespeaks the nature of the soil ; Tillieres
is in fact the original Thuilleries, and, building
materials beins^ close at hand, Richard le-Bon

* > j

had very considerately founded a castle upon
the Roman site. It is always more than an even


1024-1035 chance that the mediaeval engineers selected for
their fortresses the positions where the Caesars
had been before them.

Eudes le-Champenois had been thoroughly

baffled by Richard at Melun, but a pacific feeling

arose, or, at all events, both parties concurred

tetweef in desiring peace ; Eudes sued for, and obtained

champers the hand of Maude or Matilda, a daughter of

and Matilda

-Sffi Richard Sans-peur. Her brother Richard le-
Sa* 3 ^ on testified his approbation by granting to her
crew after a very handsome dowry, inasmuch as he settled


all differences by guerdoning the bride with
one moiety of the County of Dreux. Whether
this was an actual partition by metes and
bounds, or whether made by ceding particular
and specific towns, seigneuries, or domains,
cannot be ascertained ; and it was a reasonable
condition imposed by Richard le-Bon, that, in
the event of Maude's death without issue, the
gift should revert to the Donor.

2. All promised fair, but to Maude was de-
nied the usual fertility of Normandy's daughters.
Year after year ran round ; no jolly cheerful
messenger appeared at Rouen respectfully sum-
moning Richard to stand godfather to any
children of hers ; no little nephews or nieces
presented to him ; no babe to rejoice the heart of
the father she died childless. And now Eudes
acted in conformity to the spirit of his lineage.
The Pays de Dreux constituted a very im-
portant border-land. In possession, Eudes de-


Eudes refuses


termined to keep possession, and refused to 1024-1033
surrender the dowry lands. Tillieres was in
a good state of defence. Very probably the
anticipation of such a demur had previously sug-
gested to Richard the expediency of encreasiug
the fortifications ; anyhow, he profited by these
precautions, and the war began.

3. Harrying the Chartrain territory,

Richard le-

Richard victualled the Castle at the expense of
the plundered enemy, and he forthwith summoned
his baronage. Distinguished among them was
Neel de Saint Sauveur, commanding the Cotentin

their head

warriors, fretting within their narrow boundaries, |
the men of Northern descent, amongst whom

lion assem-
bles his

Roger his

the Danske dialect was worn out, but who never- son -
theless were fully animated with the Danish spirit.
With him, Ralph de Toesny, and Roger, yclept
the Spaniard, Ralph's bold son. Roger appears
as Standard-bearer of Normandy, equalling
that father in valour, and rivalling him in

Richard commenced operations by insulting m " n 1 e e s s to etor "
Dreux. Eudes held hard and fast : and, con- TuS-

Walerau of

fident in his strength, he resolved to retain his H 1 ^ 1 " count

. ... -, .-, -IT . of Maine join

acquisitions, and secure them, by destroying
the wasp's nest at Tillieres. Large forces had
been levied or obtained from his own subjects,
as well as from his allies. In particular, he
was powerfully supported by Waleran de Mel-
lent and Hugh Count of Maine, the district which
became often so troublesome to the Normans,


1024-1035 until the Conqueror annexed that antient domi-
nation to his territories.

A forced march during the night brought
the Lords of Mellent and Maine before the
walls of Tillieres. Kichard was ready, and forth
he sallied. Three were the Champions appointed
Constables of the Host, Neel de Saint Sauveur,
and Ralph and Roger de Toesny, the formida-
ble sire and son. Ample reinforcements also ;

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