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ffijje Cambridge

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This volume contains Boadicea, by DR. WHEWELL; Two
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Australasia and Athens, by SIR BULWER LYTTON ; Timbuctoo,
by ALFRED TENIHPSON, Poet Laureate; and others by DR. C.
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AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS.



THE NEW



CAMBRIDGE GUIDE,



OB



HAND-BOOK FOR VISITORS,



ILLUSTRATED

WITH 3 STEEL ENGRAVINGS, 97 WOODCUTS,
AND A MAP.



PRINTED BY WILLIAM METCALFE,

AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS.
1863.



ADVERTISEMENT.

This New Edition of the " Cambridge Guide," or " Hand-
Book for Visitors," at a low price, contains nearly the same
information as the best and larger Edition, published at five
shillings. The principal difference being the omission of the
eight steel engravings by Le Keux.

A coloured lithographic Plan is added, which will enable
the Visitor without difficulty to find his way, after leaving
the Station, through all the Colleges and principal Buildings ;
and the whole being arranged in one continuous walk, he
will, by following the order here suggested, best economise
his time.

CAMBRIDGE,
July, 1863.






llustrate.



[The objects most worthy of attention are distinguished by 8^1



Map of Cambridge to face page 1.

Page

ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF THE UNIVERSITY . . 1

PRESENT CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY
COSTUME OF THE UNIVERSITY

{?= THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM

Front view .....

{?=> S- PETER'S COLLEGE

East end of Chapel . . . <

Second Court ,

CHURCH OF S. MARY THE LESS . . .37

The East end .... ib.

PEMBROKE COLLEGE . . . .38

Front view . . . .39

Part of first Court . . . .40

Part of second Court . . .41

THE PITT PRESS . . . .45

Front view .... ib.

S. BOTOLPH'S CHURCH . . .47

(C? QUEENS' COLLEGE . . . . ib.

View from the King's Mill . . .48

Entrance gateway . . .49

Erasmus's Tower . . .50

Part of Cloister Court . 51



IV CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page

S. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE . . . .55

Front view .... ib.

Entrance gateway . . . .56

Interior of Chapel . . .57

CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE . . .59

Front view .... ib.

Entrance gateway . . . .61

The New Court .... 65

Part of Old Court . . . .66

S. BENEDICT'S CHURCH . .67

General view . . . .68

K|? KING'S COLLEGE . . . . 69

Front view . . . .70

The old gateway . . .71

The Hall . . .,-' . . 73

The Provost's Lodge . 76

Exterior of Chapel . . . .77

Interior " ... 79

Pendant keystone . . . .80

Stone panelling . . .81

The Bridge . .' . . .95

S. EDWARD'S CHURCH . .96

General view . . . . ib.

CHURCH OF S. MARY THE GREAT . . 97

Exterior view . . . .98

y> SENATE-HOUSE . . . .100

Front view .... 101

Kf* UNIVERSITY LIBRARY . . .104

South front of Senate-House, &c. . . 105

THE SCHOOLS . . 112



CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. V

Page

TRINITY HALL . . . . .113

The old front . . . .114

The new front . . . .115

GEOLOGICAL MUSEUM . . . 118

MlNERALOGICAL MUSEUM . . .119

K$> CLARE COLLEGE . . ,120
The south front .... ib.

The Eiver front . . . .122

The River front and Bridge . . .123

View from Clare Hall piece . . 1 25

GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE . . .126

Gate of Humility. . . . ib.

Doorway of Gate of Virtue . . .128

Gate of Virtue . . . .129

Gate of Honour , . . . .130

S. MICHAEL'S CHURCH . . .133

{f> TRINITY COLLEGE . . . .134

Entrance gateway . . .135

Statue of Henry VIII. . . .137

Plan of College . . . .138

Statue of Edward III. . . .139

The great Court . . . .140

Old Combination-room and Hall . . 146

Cloisters under Library . . .149

The new Court . . . .154

Bishop's Hostel . . . .155

Western gateway . ib.

The Avenue . . . .156
Iron Gateway .... ib.

The Bridge . . . .157

The Master's Court . .160



VI CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page

ALL SAINTS' CHURCH . . .161
PHILOSOPHICAL ROOMS .... 163

{Kf=> S. JOHN'S COLLEGE . . . 164

Entrance gateway . . . . ib.

Ashton monument . . .167

Second Court . . . .169

Arcade in third Court . . .170

Interior of new Bridge . . . 171

Gateway, new Court . . .172

Exterior of new Bridge . . .173

Old Bridge . . . .177

Kf* CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE . . 179

Exterior view . . . ib.

View before restoration . . . 180

Interior view . . . 181

S. CLEMENT'S CHURCH . . . .183

8^> MAGDALENE COLLEGE . . . .184

The first Court . . . . .185

The Hall . . .187

Pepysian building . . . .189

S. GILES'S CHURCH . . .191

General view . . . .192

S. PETER'S CHURCH . . . .193

THE COUNTY COURTS . . . .194

General view .... ib.

CASTLE HILL . . . . .195

Castle gateway tower . . . ib.

SCHOOL OF PYTHAGORAS . . . .196

General view . . . ib.



ooisTEirrs AND ILLUSTRATIONS, vii

Page

THE OBSERVATORY . . . .197

General view . . . .198

MADINGLEY HALL .... 199
Old gateway . . . . .200

{tf* JESUS COLLEGE . . . .201

View from the meadows . . . ib.

Entrance gateway .... 203
Gateway to second Court . . . 204

Arcade in Tower .... 205
Piscina and Sedilia .... 207

CHRIST CHURCH . . . .210

General view . . . .211

CHURCH OF S. ANDREW THE LESS . . 212

Remains of Priory . . . . ib.

STOURBRIDGE CHAPEL . . . 214

SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE .... ib.
The north Court . . . .216

View from garden . . . .218

TRINITY CHURCH . . . .219

The Pulpit . . . . .220

CHURCH OF S. ANDREW THE GREAT . . 222

{^> CHRIST'S COLLEGE .... ib.
Entrance gateway . . . ib.

Bath in the garden . . . .226

Milton's mulberry-tree . . . 227

EMMANUEL COLLEGE .... 228
The street front . . . .229

Eastern arcade .... 230

THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUM . . . 234

General view . . . . ib.



viii CONTENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

Pa-e

DOWNING COLLEGE .
The Master's Lodge .

ADDENBROOKE'S HOSPITAL
General view

HOBSON'S CONDUIT
General view

BOTANIC GARDEN

PARKER'S PIECE .

The Town Gaol .

S. PAUL'S CHURCH
TOWN or CAMBRIDGE .



PLAN

OF

CAMBRIDGE.



Cltrnent m^

0r jespli J

v " COLt Hj j

*f.S9M*r. FT

f \\xC^&r-J:




W if l&ilfo, I-itfu



HAND-BOOK
FOE VISITOES TO CAMBRIDGE.



0f

BEFORE the Visitor proceeds to view the various build-
ings and objects of interest awaiting him in Cambridge,
he will naturally wish to hear something of the history
of our celebrated University how it came to be what
it is, of the directing agencies by which it is governed,
and of the various positions, ranks, and duties of its
members who make up the harmonious whole ; our
Hand-book therefore appropriately commences with a,
brief sketch of the general origin and present consti-
tution of this venerable seat of learning.

Much ingenuity has been displayed in various con-
troversies relative to the antiquity of Cambridge as a
University; like all other celebrated places it has its
legendary or pre-historic annals, according to which
its name and foundation are derived from a fugitive
Spanish prince named Cantaber, who founded a " city
of Scholars" here some centuries before the Christian
era, in which the Greek philosophers Anaxagoras and
Anaxamander are said to have taught; then we have
(of course) connected with its later fabulous history,



2 HAND-BOOK FOR VISITORS TO CAMBRIDGE.

the renowned names of King Lucius, Uterpendragon,
and King Arthur, until we come to the middle of the
7th century, when the honour of its foundation, or as
some contend its re-foundation, is given to Sigebert,
King of East Anglia, who is still commemorated by
the University, upon rather vague evidence, as its
founder; and it is said again to have been re-founded
early in the 10th century, by King Edward the Elder,
after the burning of Cambridge by the Danes ; without
however attempting to decide upon the claims of our
University to an origin thus remote, (and most myths
have some germ of truth in them,) there seems good
ground for believing that early in the 12th century,
during the reign of Henry Beauclerc, Cambridge became
a place of resort for both Teachers and Students, and
from this period may be dated the earliest dawn, faint
and glimmering though it be, of the authentic history
of the learned body afterwards incorporated by the
style of the " Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the
University of Cambridge."

At this early period there was nothing at all corres-
ponding to the present Colleges for the Students, who
originally lodged in the houses of the townspeople, but
the extortionate charges to which they were subjected
caused the erection of hostels, with which the University
system may be said to have commenced, for the Students
lived together in these buildings under the superin-
tendence of University officers, and paid for their own
maintenance ; these hostels continued in existence several
centuries, and were at one time very numerous; they
were gradually absorbed into the Collegiate system, and
all traces of them as medieval foundations have long since
disappeared. It was not till towards the close of the



ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 3

13th century, A.D. 1284, that we meet with the first
institution at all answering to our present Collegiate
foundations; in that year Hugh de Balsham, Bishop
of Ely, who had purchased two hostels in Trumpington
Street near S. Peter's Church, placed Scholars in
them whom he endowed with certain possessions, thus
originating what is now known as Peter House or S.
Peter's College ; this plan seems to have been adopted
in subsequent foundations, a hostel or tenement was
first purchased, and the other buildings subsequently
added to form a quadrangle; these earlier institutions
were called Houses or Halls, the community of scholars,
&c. inhabiting them being styled the Collegium ; thus
we have Peter House as above ; Michael House after-
wards absorbed into Trinity College; God's House
subsequently Christ's College; Clare Hall; Gonville
Hall; King's Hall, &c. These were still far from being
the complete and noble foundations which now exist in
the Colleges of Oxford and Cambridge; their original
and uniform type seems to have consisted merely of a
plain quadrangle, with two storeys of chambers on
three of the sides for the Fellows and Students, the
fourth side being occupied by the " Hall range," con-
taining the refectory or dining-hall, screened off by a
passage from the kitchen and buttery, near which was
generally the principal chamber or common room, and
above this the Master's single apartment; no grand
suites of rooms were then necessary, as the Master was
of course unmarried; the few MSS. or books which
they were fortunate enough to possess could be kept
in chests, so no library was needed ; and as the religious
exercises of the students were performed in the parish
Church, the advowson of which was always a portion

B2



4 HAND-BOOK FOR VISITORS TO CAMBRIDGE.

of these earlier institutions, no Chapel was required.
But as time wore on, and new Colleges were established,
the plan of these original foundations was much en-
larged, the increase of Students demanded independent
College Chapels, the multiplication of books required
Libraries, and at length when the laws relative to
celibacy seemed likely to be relaxed, and the exercise
of munificent hospitality became almost a part of the
Collegiate system, the residences or lodges of the
Masters soon increased to their present palatial dignity,
and even the smallest foundation was deemed incomplete
unless it had, in addition to rooms for Students, its
Chapel, Hall, Library, Master's Lodge, Combination
Room, Kitchen, Buttery, &c.

We need scarcely say that during all this time our
University went on increasing in wealth and magnifi-
cence; royal visits were frequently paid to it; Kings
became its nursing fathers and Queens its nursing
mothers; special charters were bestowed upon it, the
earliest in existence dating from the reign of Henry
IH., and many important privileges were conceded to
it by succeeding monarchs, especially by Edward ILL ;
subsequently to this many statutes were framed relating
to the government and studies of the place, but no
regular code of them was consolidated before the time
of Henry VIII., when it was effected under the direction
of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, then Chancellor
of the University, and these were revised with many
additions in the succeeding reign; Queen Mary set
aside this new code and substituted other ordinances
under the direction of Cardinal Pole as the Pope's
Legate ; these were in turn displaced by Queen Eliza-
beth, by whom, chiefly with the aid of Lord Burleigh,



ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 5

these important statutes were finally settled, after two
revisions, in the thirteenth year of her reign, A.D. 1570 ;
and by these the University continued to be governed
up to the last few years. In 1614 James I. conferred
upon it the privilege of sending two members to Parlia-
ment, the right of election being vested in the Members
of the Senate.

In the contest between Charles I. and his Parliament
the University suffered severely, having early declared
in the King's favour ; the Colbges aided him by con-
tributing nearly all their plate to his cause; and the
members who refused to subscribe the Solemn League
and Covenant were deprived, and otherwise harshly
treated; but the Hanoverian succession was regarded
much more favourably here than at the sister University.
It is needless to follow in detail the comparatively un-
eventful history of the last hundred and fifty years
until we come to 1858, when, as is well known, an im-
portant Act of Parliament was passed entirely changing
the constitution of the University and abolishing the
old statutes of the several Colleges; and while we
write, a new code is being issued to each of these,
more adapted to the advanced requirements and de-
mands of the present age, so that we are now in a
transitional state. Of the success of these changes the
present generation will hardly be able to judge, but
we are sure our Visitor will join with us in the fervent
prayer that within the walls of our venerable Alma
Mater, "true religion and useful learning may for ever
flourish and abound."



6 HASD-BOOK FOR VISITORS TO CAMBRIDGE.

Jjmwrt Mt mh tmtMm 0f % Irataiig.

OUR University is a society of Students incorporated
in the thirteenth year of Queen Elizabeth, by the style
and title of The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the
University of Cambridge; it embraces in its palpable
form seventeen Colleges or societies devoted to the study
of every thing pertaining to a liberal education, and to
the training up of a supply of men duly qualified for
the service of God in Church and State ; the Colleges
are all independent corporate bodies, maintained by the
endowments of their several founders and benefactors,
and governed by their own officers and statutes, but
at the same time subject to the paramount laws of the
University; they each contribute, according to their
size, a certain number of members for the executive
and legislative duties of this literary commonwealth,
whose place of meeting is called the Senate-House,
and all persons who are Doctors in either of the three
faculties of Divinity, Law, and Physic; Bachelors of
Divinity, Masters of Arts, or Law, having their names
upon the University register, have votes in this assembly.
The great governing body of the University is called
the Council of the Senate ; this was established by the
Act 19 and 20 Victoria, cap. 88, and all the laws, graces
as they are termed in University language, must emanate
from this Council before they can be offered for the
approval or rejection of the Senate. It consists of the
Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, four heads of Colleges,
four of the University Professors, and eight other
members of the Senate; these are chosen from the
electoral roll published annually by the Vice-Chancellor



PRESENT CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY. 7

shortly after the commencement of the October term.
They all hold office for four years, one half (who are
eligible for re-election) retiring by rotation every other
year ; the election takes place on the 7th of November,
and is vested in those members of the University whose
names are on the electoral roll.

The following are the authorities to whom the
executive power of the University is committed:

The CHANCELLOR, who is the head of the whole
University, and presides over all cases relating to that
body, is elected by the Members of the Senate. For
many years past this office has been filled by nobles
of exalted rank and honourable name, and is now
held by His Eo3 r al Highness the Prince Consort : it is
only on rare occasions of extraordinary interest that the
Chancellor is present in the University; provision is
made for the performance of his duties, in his absence,
by the appointment of

A VICE-CHANCELLOR, who is annually elected on the
4th of November, by the Senate. His office, in the
absence of the Chancellor, embraces the execution of
the Chancellor's powers, and the government of the
University according to its statutes. He must be the
Head of some College, and during his continuance in
office he acts as a Magistrate for the University, County,
and Town.

A HIGH STEWARD, who has special power to take
the trial of scholars impeached of felony within the
limits* of the University, and to hold and keep a Court-
leet. He appoints a Deputy by Letters Patent.



* The jurisdiction of the University extends a mile every way round,
reckoning from any part of the extremities of the town.



8 HAND-BOOK FOR VISITORS TO CAMBRIDGE.

A COMMISSARY, who is an officer under the Chancellor.
He holds a court of record for all privileged persons and
scholars under the degree of M. A.

A PUBLIC ORATOR, who is the voice of the Senate
upon all public occasions ; writes, reads, and records
the letters to and from the body of the Senate, and
presents to all honorary degrees with an appropriate
speech.

The ASSESSOR is an officer specially appointed by a
Grace of the Senate, to assist the Vice-Chancellor in
his court.

Two PROCTORS, who must be Masters of Arts or Law
of three years' standing, and are elected annually on
the 1st of October. They attend to the discipline and
behaviour of all students under the degree of Master
of Arts ; are present at all congregations of the Senate
to read the Graces, take the votes upon them and
pronounce the result. They are assisted by

Two PRO-PROCTORS in that part of their duty which
relates to the discipline and behaviour of the Students,
and the preservation of public morals.

A LIBRARIAN, to whom the management of the Uni-
versity Library is confided.

A REGISTRAR, who is obliged either by himself or
deputy to attend all congregations, and to register their
proceedings in the University records; he also has
charge of all the University muniments.

Two MODERATORS, nominated by the Colleges which
present the Proctors, and appointed by Graces of the
Senate. They superintend the examinations of the
candidates for honours in the Mathematical Tripos or
Class list.

Three ESQUIRE BEDELLS, whose office is to attend the



PRESENT CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY. 9

Vice-Chancellor, whom they precede with their silver
maces upon all public occasions.

The Two MEMBERS whom the University sends to
Parliament, are chosen by the collective body of the
Senate.

The UNIVERSITY COUNSEL are appointed by a Grace
of the Senate, and are consulted upon all important
legal matters.

The SOLICITOR is appointed by the Vice-Chancellor.

The SYNDICS are members of special committees of the
Senate, chosen to transact all special affairs relating to
the University, such as the framing of laws, regulating
fees, inspecting the library, buildings, printing, &c.

The PROFESSORS have stipends allowed from various
sources ; some from the University chest, others from
Government, or from estates left for that purpose.

Besides these there are the UNIVERSITY PRINTER, the
ORGANIST, several LIBRARY ASSISTANTS, the SCHOOL
KEEPER, the UNIVERSITY MARSHAL, &c.

The several orders in the respective Colleges, are
as follows:

GEADUATES, being,

1. A MASTER, or HEAD, who is generally a Doctor
in Divinity; excepting in Trinity Hall, Caius College,
and Downing College, where they may be Doctors in
Law or Physic. The Head of King's is styled PROVOST ;
of Queens', PRESIDENT ; and of all the rest, MASTERS.

2. FELLOWS, who generally are Doctors in Divinity,
Law, or Physic; Bachelors in Divinity; Masters or
Bachelors of Arts: and some few Bachelors in Law
or Physic. The Fellows are chosen by the Masters
and Seniors of the several Colleges from amongst those
Scholars who have distinguished themselves in Mathe-



10 HAND-BOOK FOR VISITORS TO CAMBRIDGE.

matical science and Classical learning. They have
rooms and commons free of expense, and receive
annual dividends of money, according to the several
foundations on which they are placed, and varying with
the rent of the College estates. The fellowships are,
in most instances, tenable for life upon condition, in
many of the Colleges, of their possessors entering into
Holy Orders, after a few years; but become void by
succession to a College Living, or to preferment, or
property beyond a certain value. Previous to the re-
cent University act fellowships were also vacated by
marriage, but that act allows this law to be relaxed in
any College, provided two-thirds of the Fellows agree
thereto. The number of fellowships in the University
is four hundred and thirty.

3. NOBLEMEN GRADUATES, DOCTORS in the several
faculties, BACHELORS IN DIVINITY (who have been
Masters of Arts), MASTERS or ARTS, and MASTERS OF
LAW, who are not on the foundation, but who retain
their names on the boards for the purpose of being
Members of the Senate.

4. BACHELORS in LAW and in PHYSIC, who sometimes
keep their names upon the boards till they become
Doctors.

5. BACHELORS OF ARTS, who are in statu pupillari and
pay for tuition whether resident or not, and generally
keep their names on the boards, either as Scholars,
with an intention of offering themselves as candidates
for fellowships, or of becoming Members of the Senate.

UNDEEGEADUATES, or STUDENTS, being,
1. FELLOW-COMMONERS, who are frequently the
younger sons of the nobility, or young men of fortune,



PRESENT CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSITY. 11

and have tho privilege of dining at the Fellows' table,
whence the appellation originated.

2. PENSIONERS, who form the great body of the
Students, and pay for their commons, rooms, &c., and
enjoy no pecuniary advantages from the College.

3. SCHOIARS, who are elected on the foundation chiefly
by direct examination from the most promising and
distinguished of the Students, and generally enjoy rooms
rent-free, commons, and pecuniary dividends. The
number of scholarships and exhibitions in the Uni-
versity is upwards of seven hundred.

4. SIZARS are generally Students of more limited
means than the preceding. Those on the foundation
usually have their commons free, and receive various
emoluments.

The government of each College is vested in the
Master and Senior Fellows, who appoint several officers
from amongst the Fellows, for the education of the
Students, and the due administration of all matters be-
longing to the well-being of the respective foundations.
The TUTORS undertake the direction of the Classical,


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Online LibraryFrancis William NewmanThe new Cambridge guide, or, Hand-book for visitors → online text (page 1 of 15)