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MUNICIPAL HOME .RULE



BY THE SAME AUTHOR



COMPARATIVE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

AN. ANALYSIS OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM, NATIONAL AND

LOCA-L, OF THE UNITED STATES, ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND

GERMANY.



"An important contribution to Comparative Jurispru-
dence. " London Times.

" We regard these two volumes as the most important
contribution to Apolitical science . . . which has been
published in this country, we will not undertake to say
for how long." The Independent.

" A work of great learning and profound research . . .
remarkable alike for analytical power and lucidity of
method. . . unique and of permanent excellence."
New York Tribune.

" His style is as luminous as that of Sir Henry Maine,
and his general literary method not unlike that great
author's and there can be no higher praise in its
orderliness of arrangement, precision of statement, and
true scientific spirit." Chicago Herald.

" Every chapter ... is an important addition to the
scientific treatment of administration." The Outlook.

" One of the most serious attempts to systematize the
study of the subjects treated . . . with which we have
met." London Athenaum.



MUNICIPAL HOME RULE,



A Study in Administration



BY



FRANK J. GOODNOW/A.M., LL.B.

PROFESSOR OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW IN COLUMBIA COLLEGE
AUTHOR OF " COMPARATIVE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW "






MACMILLAN AND CO.

AND LONDON

1895
All rights reserved



COPYRIGHT, 1895,
BY MACMILLAN AND CO.



Nortoooft

J. S. Cushing & Co. - Berwick & Smith.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.



PREFACE



THE unsatisfactory character of American mu-
nicipal government has, within the past few years,
drawn unusual attention to the problems which
it presents, and which, on account of the recent
extraordinary development of municipal life, are
becoming at the same time more numerous and
more important. But as a result of the intimate
connection of municipal with general government,
all concrete attempts at municipal reform must of
necessity depend upon an accurate delimitation of
the sphere of action, which can, with due regard to
the interests of the state as a whole, be assigned
to our municipal organizations. The attempt to
delimit such a sphere of action is the purpose of
this little work. The science of municipal gov-
ernment in this country is, however, in such an
early stage of development, and as a result, the
theories with regard to municipal reform are so
various, and indeed, so conflicting, that it has
been thought wise to leave the realm of theories,
based on a priori reasoning, and to endeavour in
the delimitation of the sphere of municipal home
rule, which it has been attempted to make, to find
out exactly what is, by the present American law,



VI PREFACE

the sphere of action of municipal corporations,
which is recognized as local and quasi private, and
in which, therefore, these bodies should move
largely uncontrolled. The hope is entertained
that this essay may be useful from both the
legal and political points of view : from the legal
point of view, because nowhere before has the
attempt been made to collect and review either
the cases decided by the courts relative to this
matter, or the various constitutional provisions
assuring to municipalities the right to manage
their own affairs ; from the political point of view,
because any theory which the courts may have
formulated upon the subject has presumptions in
its 'favour resulting from the fact that their con-
clusions have been reached through the following
of inductive rather than deductive methods.

Acknowledgement is due to Professor John R.
Cummons of the Indiana University for calling the
author's attention to the recent development in the
United States of a state supervision over the ac-
counts of local corporations ; to Mr. Osgood Smith
of the New York Bar for his assistance in going
over the statutes bearing upon this point ; and to
Mr. C. W. Tooke, Fellow in Columbia College, for
the index and for several valuable suggestions.

FRANK J. GOODNOW.

COLUMBIA COLLEGE

IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK

April, 1895.



TABLE OF CASES CITED



PAGE



Abercrombie v. Ely, 60 Mo. 23 215

Ah You, Ex parte, 82 Cal. 339 85

Alves' Executors v. Henderson, 16 B. Monroe, Ky. 131 211

Ashley v. The City of Port Huron, 35 Mich. 296 . . 131

Astor V. The Mayor, 66 N. Y. 567 89

Atchison v. Bartholow, 4 Kans. 124 86

Augusta v. Perkins, 3 B. Monroe, Ky. 437 . . . . 210

Bailey v. New York, 3 Hill, N. Y. 531 153

Barbier -z/. Connolly, 113 U. S. 27 38

Barnes v. District of Columbia, 91 U. S. 540 . 144

Barron v. Detroit, 94 Mich. 60 1 153

Beach v. Haynes, 12 Vt. 15 212

Beach v. Leahy, 11 Kans. 25 58

Beer Co. v. Massachusetts, 97 U. S. 659 38

Benson v. Mayor, 10 Barbour, N. Y. 223 200

Benton v. The Trustees of the Boston City Hospital,

140 Mass. 113 1 66

Bigelow v. Randolph, 15 Gray, 541 155,160

Birmingham v. Rumsey, 63 Ala. 352 217

Bloomfield v. Charter Oak Bank, 121 U. S. 129 . . . 109

Bloomfield etc. Co. v. Calkins, 62 N. Y. 386 . . . . 147

Board v. Reynolds, 44 Ind. 509 213

Board of Chosen Freeholders v. Buck, 51 N. J. Law,

155 79

Booth v. Woodbury, 32 Conn. 118 105

Borough of Dunniore's Appeal, 52 Pa. St. 374 ... 28
Brenham, City of, v. German American Bank, 144 U. S.

173 5 1



Vlll TABLE OF CASES CITED

PAGE

Brewster v. Syracuse, 19 N. Y. 1 16 . 87

Briegel v. The City of Philadelphia, 135 Pa. St. 451 . 168

Britton v. Streber, 62 Mo. 370 87

Bronson v. Oberlin, 41 Ohio St. 476 67

Brooklyn Park Commissioners v, Armstrong, 45 N. Y.

234 212

Brown v. Atlanta, 66 Ga. 7 1 153

Brown v. Gates, 16 W. Va. 131 214

Bryant v. St. Paul, 33 Minn. 289 137

Burford v. Grand Rapids, 53 Mich. 98 126

Burrell v, Tacoma, 8 Wash. 156 199

Butler v. Pennsylvania, 10 How. U. S. 402 43

Buttrick v. The City of Lowell, i Allen, Mass. 172 . . 134

Carr v. Northern Liberties, 35 Pa. St. 324 128

Carrington v. The City of St. Louis, 89 Mo. 208 . . . 172
Clark v. Cape May, 14 Atlantic Reporter, 581 . . . 77, 79

Clark et al. v. San Francisco, 134 U. S. 639 . . . . 211

Clegg v. Richardson County, 8 Neb. 178 58

Clinton v. Cedar Rapids Railroad Co., 24 Iowa, 455 . 207

Clodfelter v. State, 86 N. C. 5 1 . 107

Cohen v. New York, 113 N. Y. 532 123

Commonwealth v. Patton, 88 Pa. St. 258 . . . . 75, 79

Commonwealth v. Pittsburgh, 34 Pa. St. 496 .... 28
Commonwealth v. Plaisted, 148 Mass. 375 . . . . 85, 88

Commonwealth v. Tenny, 21 Ohio St. 499 .... 147

Concord v. Robinson, 120 U. S. 165 104

Conrad v. Rogers, 70 Wis. 492 212

Council Grove, City of, 20 Kans. 619 74

Cowley v. Sunderland, 6 H. & N; 565 153

Coyle v. Mclntire, 7 Houston, Del. 44 204

Crawfordsville, City of, v. Braden, 130 Ind. 149 ... 47

Cullen, In the Matter of, 53 Hun, 534 27

Culvers. Streator, 130 111. 238 135

Curran v. Boston, 151 Mass. 505 139

Curtis v. Whipple. 24 Wis. 350 . . . . . . . . 104



TABLE OF CASES CITED IX



Darlington v. Mayor, 31 N. Y. 164 .... 136, 185, 208

Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 4 Wheaton, 518 31,40, 187

Davenport v. Peoria Ins. Co., 17 Iowa, 276 .... 217

David v. Portland Water Corns., 14 Oregon, 98 . . . 199

Davies v. Los Angeles, 86 Cal. 37 85

Delahey v. Illinois, 2 Hill, N. Y. 162 180

Denton v. Jackson, 2 Johnson's Ch. 320 101

Denver i>. Catelli, 4 Col. 25 131

Detroit v. Beckman, 34 Mich. 125 130

Devine v. Cook County, 84 111. 590 64, 86

Donovan v. The Board of Education, 85 N. Y. 1 17 . . 165

Duanesburgh v. Jenkins, 57 N.Y. 177 52

Duke v. Rome, 20 Ga. 609 136

Dundy v. Richardson County, 8 Neb. 508 58

East Hartford v. Hartford Bridge Co., 10 How. 511 . 202

Eastman v. Meredith, 36 N. H. 296 151, 154

Edgerton v. The Third Municipality of New Orleans,

i La. Ann. 435 . 214

Edwards v. The Town of Pocahontas, 47 Fed. Rep. 269 140

Eels v. Telephone Co., 143 N. Y. 133 147

Ellerman v. McMains, 30 La. Ann. 190 200

Essex Public Road Board v. Skinkle, 140 U.S. 304 . 208

Evansville v. State, 118 Ind. 426 88

Ex parte. See name of case.

Fair v. Philadelphia, 88 Pa. St. 309 131

Fleishel v. Hightower, 62 Ga. 324 216

Ford V. Kendall School District, 121 Pa. St. 543 . . 109

Forsyth v. Atlanta, 45 Ga. 152 123

Foster v. Fowler, 60 Pa. St. 27 216

Fowler v. Alexandria, 3 Peters, 398 136

Gage v. Graham, 57 111. 144 28

Gal vin v. New York, 112 N. Y. 223 167

Garrard Co. Ct. v. Navigation Co., 10 Am. Law Reg. 151 104

Gibbons v. United States, 8 Wall. 269 107

Gilmore v. Norton, 10 Kans. 491 86



TABLE OF CASES CITED



Girard v. Philadelphia, 7 Wall, i 193

Gordon v. Comes, 47 N. Y. 608 . 103

Gould v. The City of Topeka, 32 Kans. 485 .... 132

Greencastle v. Martin, 74 Ind. 449 173

Grogan v. San Francisco, 18 Cal. 590 195

Guest v. Merion Water Co., 142 Pa. St. 610 . . . . 21.6

Guilford v. Supervisors, 13 N. Y. 143 87

Haag-z/. Vanderburgh Co., 16 Ind. 511 155

Ham v. The Mayor, 70 N. Y. 459 165

Hand v. Brookline, 126 Mass. 324 158

Hannon v. St. Louis Co., 62 Mo. 313 161

Hart v. New Orleans, 12 Fed. Rep. 292 218

Harvvard v. St. Clair and Monroe Levee and Drainage

Co., 51 111. 130 . . . . ' 83

Hill v. Boston, 122 Mass. 344 109, 144, 151

Hill v. Charlotte, 72 N. C. 55 121

Hitchins v. Frostburg, 68 Md. 100 133

Holladay v. Frisbie, 15 Cal. 630 219

Hornbeck v. Westbrook, 9 Johnson, 73 101

Horton v. Mobile School Commissioners, 43 Alabama,

598 78

Howard v, Worcester, 153 Mass. 426 164

Indiana v. Worann, 6 Hill, N. Y. 33 180

/;/ re. See name of case.

Ireland v. Free Borough, 12 Coke, 120 243

Jackson v. Cory, 8 Johnson, 385 101

Jackson v. Hartwell, 8 Johnson, 422 101

Jackson v. Schoonmaker, 2 Johnson, 230 101

Johnston v. District of Columbia, 1 18 U. S. 19 . . . 129

Keble -v. Philadelphia, 31 Pa. St. 41 153

- Kelly v. Milwaukee, 127 U. S. 139 104

Kennedy v. New York, 73 N. Y. 365 152

Ketchum v. Buffalo, 14 N. Y. 356 50

-\-Kiley v. City of Kansas, 87 Mo. 103 119

-Kincaid v. Hardin, 53 Iowa, 430 . 154



TABLE OF CASES CITED xi



Kings County Insurance Company -z/. Stevens, 101 N. Y.
411 .................

- Kinkle v. Franklin, 13 Minn. 127 ........ 105

Kline v. The Parish of Ascension, 33 La. Ann. 562 . . 215

.La Clef v. The City of Concordia, 41 Kans. 333- ifc 5"T 140
I^fayette v. Alick, 81 Ind. 166 ...... 175, 177

Langford v. United States, 101 U.S. 341 . . . 106, 112

Lansing v, Toolan, 37 Mich. 152 ........ 130

Laramie County v. Albany County, 92 U. S. 307 . . . 194
Layton v. New Orleans, 12 La. Ann. 515 . . . . 28, 31

Lewis v. State, 96 N. Y. 71 .......... 107

Lloyd v. The Mayor, etc., of New York, 5 N. Y. 347 . 1 1 1

Loan Association v. Topeka, 20 Wallace, 655 . . . . 102

Lord T/. Oconto, 47 Wis. 386 ......... 212

Louisville v. Com., i Duval, Ky. 295 ...... 217

Lowe v. Board, 94 Ind. 553 ......... 216

Marks ?/. Pardue, 37 Ind. 155 ........ . 103

~" Matter of, In the. See name of case.

Matthews v. City of Alexandria, 68 Mo. 1 1 5 . . . . 212

Mayor of Baltimore v. State, 15 Md. 576 ..... 208

Mayor, etc., of New York v. Tenth National Bank, 1 1 1

N.Y.446 .............. 87

Maximilian -z/. The Mayor, etc., of New York, 62 N. Y.

160 ................. 139

McCarthy v. Commonwealth, no Pa. St. 243 . . . 72, 82

McCaughey v. Tritt, 12 R.I. 449 ........ 171

McCoull v. The City of Manchester, 85 Va. 579 . . . 126

McDade v. Chester City, 117 Pa. St. 414 ..... 119

McDonough's Executors v. Murdock, 15 How. U. S.

363 ................ 5

Mead v. New Haven, 40 Conn. 42 ....... 136

Mercer v. Pittsburgh Railroad Company, 36 Pa. St. 99 . 207
Meriwether v. Garrett, 102 U. S. 472 ..... 31,214

Merrick v. Amherst, 12 Allen, Mass. 500 ..... 103

^^ - Metropolitan Board of Excise v. Barrie, 34 N. Y. 657 . 43



Xli TABLE OF CASES CITED

PAGE

Metropolitan Board of Health v. Heister, 37 N. Y.

661 , 80, 89

Milam Co. v. Bateman, 54 Tex. 153 206

Milhau v. Sharp, 15 Barbour, N. Y. 193 147

Milwaukee, Town of, v. City of Milwaukee, 12 Wis. 93, 194
Moffitt v. The City of Asheville, 103 N. C. 237 ... 140
Montpelier v. East Montpelier, 29 Vt. 12 . . . 1 88, 193

Morgan -v. Beloit, 7 Wall. 613 194

Portland v. Christian, 52 N. J. Law, 521 81

Moulton v. Scarborough, 71 Me. 267 158

Mount Hope Cemetery Co. -v. Boston, 158 Mass. 509 . 197
Mulcairns v. The City of Janesville, 29 N. W. Rep. 565 . 174
Municipality No. 3 v. Hart, 6 La. Ann. 570 . . 214, 218

Munn v. Illinois, 94 U. S. 113 38

Murphy-^. Lowell, 124 Mass. 564 153

Nashville v. Ray, 19 Wallace, 468 51

Neuert v. The City of Boston, 120 Mass. 339 . . . . 171
New Jersey v. Wilson, 7 Cranch, 164 ...... 40

/New Orleans v. Clarke, 95 U. S. 644 31

New Orleans v. Morris, 105 U. S. 600 216

New Orleans v. Morris, 3 Woods, C. C. 103 . . . . 220
New Orleans v. Home Mutual Ins. Co., 23 La. Ann. 61, 218
N. O. M. & T. R. R. Co. v. Ellerman, 105 U. S. 166 . 200
N. O. & C. R. R. Co. v. Municipality No. i, 7 La. Ann.

148 215

North Hempstead v. Hempstead, 2 Wendell, N. Y. 109. 101

Olcott v. Supervisors, 1 6 Wall. 678 105

Oliver v. Worcester, 102 Mass. 489 151

Ould v. Richmond, 23 Grattan, 464 17

Pawlet, Town of, v. Clark, 9 Cranch, 292 ... 186, 188

Pennsylvania Hall, In re, 5 Pa. St. 204 28

People v. Albertson, 55 N. Y. 50 88

People v. Batchellor, 53 N. Y. 128 52, 104

People?/ Chicago, 51 111. 17 . . 84, 129

People v. Detroit, 28 Mich. 228 . . . . . . .84,199



TABLE OF CASES CITED xiii



People v. Draper, 15 N. Y. 532 21, 80 89, 208

People v. Fields, 58 N. Y. 491 192

People v. Henshaw, 76 Cal. 436 . 85

People v. Hows, 37 Barb. 440 28

People -z/. Hurlbut, 24 Mich. 44 84

People v. Ingersoll, 58 N. Y. i 191

People v. Kerr, 27 N.Y. 188 142,207

People v. Lynch, 51 Cal. 15 86-

People v. Mahaney, 13 Mich. 481 88 -

People v. Mayor, 15 Md. 376 . 88

People v. Pinckney, 32 N. Y. 397 80, 89 .

Perkins v. Slack, 86 Pa. St. 283 25, 52, 87

Pfefferle v. The Commissioners, 39 Kans. 432 . . . . 140

Philadelphia v. Field, 58 Pa. St. 320 87

Philadelphia v. Fox, 64 Pa. St. 169 193

Plimpton v. Somerset, 33 Vt. 283 28

Police Jury of Plaquemines -z/. Foulhouze, 30 La. Ann. 64 215

Police Jury of West Baton Rouge v. Michel, 4 La. Ann. 84 214

Prather v. Lexington 13 B. Monroe Ky. 559 .... 135

President, etc. v. Indianapolis, 12 Ind. 620 .... 216

Pruther v. Lexington, 13 B. Monroe, 559 135

Pumphrey v. Baltimore, 47 Md. 145 87

Purdy v. The People, 4 Hill, N. Y. 384 58

Ransom v. Boal, 29 Iowa, 68 ' . . 211

Rex v. London, 8 How. St. Tr. 1039, 1340 .... 244

Rivers v. City Council of Augusta, 65 Ga. 376 . . . 120

Robinson v. The City of Evansville, 87 Ind. 334 . . . 138

Rogers v. Burlington, 3 Wallace, 654 31

Roper v. McWhorter, 77 Va. 214 203

Rowland v. Kalamazoo Co. Supts., 49 Mich. 553 . . . 159

Russell v. Men of Devon, 2 T. R. 672 100

Ryerson v. Utley, 16 Mich. 269 104

Sanborn v. Rice County, 9 Minn. 273 28

Sayre Borough v. Phillips, 148 Pa. St. 482 16

Schaffer v. Cadwallader, 36 Pa. St. 126 217



XIV TABLE OF CASES CITED



Schumacher v. Toberman, 56 Cal. 508 86

Seaman v. New York, 80 N. Y. 239 152

Seifert v. The City of Brooklyn, 101 N. Y. 136 ... 132

Semmes i>. Columbus, 19 Ga. 471 213

Shad v. Crawford, 3 Mete. Ky. 207 88

Shannon v. O'Boyle, 51 Ind. 565 213

Smith v. Barrett & Clifford, i Siderfin, 161 . . . . 210

Sparkes v. Mayor, 21 Pa. St. 147 105

Spaulding v. Andover ; 54 N. H. 38 204

Speir v. The City of Brooklyn, 139 N. Y. 6 . . . . 124

Stackhouse v. Lafayette, 26 Ind. 17 129

Stanley v. City of Davenport, 54 Iowa, 463 . . . . 125
State v. B. and O. R. R. Co., 12 Gill Johnson, Md.

399 3i

State v. B. and O. R. R. Co., 3 Howard, U. S. 534 . . 31

State v. Baughman, 39 Ohio St. 455 80

State v. Clinton, 26 La. Ann. 561 103

State v. County Court of Jackson County, 89 Mo. 237 71, 86
State v. County Court of St. Louis, 34 Mo. 546 . . . 208

State v. Covington, 29 Ohio St. 1 1 1 80, 90

State v. Denny, 1 18 Ind. 382 88

State v. Hammer, 42 N.J. Law, 485 66

State v. Haven, 22 Wis. 660 205

State 77. Herrmann, 75 Mo. 340 71

State v. Hunter, 38 Kans. 578 88

State v. Mayor, 20 Atlantic Reporter, 886 77

State v. Newark, 40 N. J. Law, 550 58

State v. Philbrick, 15 Atlantic Reporter, 579 ... . 76, 86

State v. Pugh, 43 Ohio St. 98 70, 8 1

State v. Schweickardt, 19 S. W. Rep. 47 199

State v. Seavey, 22 Neb. 474 88

State v. Simon, 22 Atlantic Reporter, 120 . . . . 74, 82

State v. Smith, 44 Ohio St. 348 85

State v. Tappan, 29 Wis. 664 28, 104

State v. Tiedman, 69 Mo. 306 215



TABLE OF CASES CITED XV



State v. Township Committee of Northampton, 14

Atlantic Reporter, 587 72, 79

State v. Warner, 4 Washington, 773 81

State v. Woodward, 23 Vt. 92 212

Stetson v. Kempton, 13 Mass. 272 104

Stewart v. The Supervisors, 83 111. 341 140

Still v. Lansingburgh, 16 Barbour, N. Y. 107 . . . . 211

Suffolk -u. Parker, 79 Va. 660 153

Supervisors of Warren Co. v. Patterson, 56 111. in . . 212

Taintor v. Worcester, 123 Mass. 311 138

Terre Haute v. Terre Haute Water Works Co., 70 Ind.

305 213

Terrett v. Taylor. 9 Cranch, 43 186

Thomas v. Leland, 24 Wendell, N. Y. 65 103

Thomson v. Ashworth, 73 Cal. 73 85

Tindley v. The City of Salem, 137 Mass. 171 . . . . 157

Toledo v. Cone, 41 Ohio St. 149 152

Topeka v. Gillette, 32 Kans. 431 72

Traphagen v. Jersey City, 29 N. J. Eq. 206 147

United States v. Baltimore and Ohio R. R. Co., 17

Wallace, 322 31

United States -v. De Groot, 5 Wall. 419 106

United States v. Eckford, 6 Wall. 434 106

United States v. McDaniel, 7 Peters, 16 106

Van Pelt v. Davenport, 42 Iowa, 208 131

Van Riper v. Parsons, 40 N. J. Law, 123 67

Vasser v. George, 47 Miss. 713 : 28

Ward v. County of Hartford, 12 Conn. 406 . . . . 100

Webb v. The Mayor of New York, 64 Howard's Pr. 10 203

West Co. of Howe v. Cleveland, 12 Ohio St. 589 . . 135

Western Savings Society v. Philadelphia, 31 Pa. St. 175 153

Westport, City of, v. Kansas City, 103 Mo. 141 ... 81

Wheeler v. Philadelphia, 77 Pa. St. 338 69, 92

White v. Yazoo City, 37 Miss. 357 136

Whiting v. Sheboygan R'y Co., 25 Wis. 167 .... 105



xvi TABLE OF CASES CITED

PAGE

Wilcox v. Chicago, 107 111. 334 114,138

Wild v. Paterson, 47 N. J. Law, 40 177

Williamsport v. Com., 84 Pa. St. 487 51

Wilson v. Board of Trustees, 27 N. E. Rep. 203 ... 80

Wixon v. Newport, 13 R. I. 454 164

Wyandotte, City of, v. Wood, 5 Kans. 603 81



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.

P. 56, Idaho (III. 19) and Kansas (XII. i) forbid special
incorporation acts.

P. 60, Colorado (X. 7), Idaho (VII. 6), Missouri (X. 10),
Montana (XII. 4), and Nebraska (IX. 6 and 7) should be
added to list of states prohibiting the imposition of taxes for
corporate purposes. Reference to Illinois constitution should
read IX. 10.

P. 61, note 3, Georgia (III. 7, p. 20) should be added to
the list.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION .



American and European municipal government ... i

Original American municipal organization 2

Disintegration of municipal council 3

Popular election of municipal officers 4

Growth of the powers of the mayor 5

European municipal organization 6

Difficulties in the way of good municipal government . 7

CHAPTER II

THE PUBLIC CHARACTER OF AMERICAN MUNICIPAL
CORPORATIONS, AND THE FAILURE OF THE LEGIS-
LATURE TO SET ASIDE A SPHERE OF MUNICIPAL

HOME RULE II

Origin of municipal corporations in England .... 12

Private character of English municipal government . . 13

Degeneration of English municipal government ... 14

Original character of American municipal government . 15

Growth of the public side of American cities .... 17

Double character of municipal corporations .... 18

Failure of legislature to recognize their private side . . 19

Relation of New York to the legislature 20

Extent of legislative regulation of municipal affairs . . 22

Philadelphia City Hall 25



XV111 TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Legislative interference often due to partisan politics . 26

Payment of claims against cities 27

Present position of cities in New York State .... 28

Legislature not subject to control of courts .... 30

CHAPTER III

THE EFFECT OF THE AMERICAN SYSTEM OF PROTECT-
ING PRIVATE RIGHTS UPON THE ATTITUDE OF THE
LEGISLATURE TOWARDS MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS . 33

Protection of private rights by the constitution as inter-
preted by the courts 34

Disadvantages of the method 36

Apt to confuse public privilege with private right . . 37
Bad effect of such confusion on the position of municipal

corporations 40

Relieves legislature of sense of responsibility .... 41

CHAPTER IV

THE EFFECTS OF THE AMERICAN LAW AS TO MUNIC-
IPAL POWERS ON THE ATTITUDE OF THE LEGISLA-
TURE TOWARDS MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS ... 45

Narrow municipal powers . ....... 46

Necessary application to legislature for power .... 4.7

Narrow financial powers 49

Constitutional limitation of borrowing powers ... 52

Encroachment of legislature natural ....... 54

CHAPTER V

THE CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS OF THE POWER OF

THE LEGISLATURE OVER MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS . . .56

General incorporation acts made obligatory .... 57
Special acts relative to certain municipal affairs for-
bidden . . : 59



TABLE OF CONTENTS xix

PAGE

Local elections provided 60

Acts general in form may be special ....'... 63

Classification of cities permitted . . . ...... 65

Class may consist of one city when made 66

Population proper basis of classification 68

Classification made for present not proper 71

Geographical classification not proper 74

" Municipal affairs " not clearly defined 78

" Municipal affairs " embrace matters of general impor-
tance 79

Boundaries and duties and salaries of officers not to be

regulated by special act 81

What are " corporate powers " . 83

Constitutional right of cities to local self-government . 84
Local assessments and taxation by special act im-
proper 86

What is a municipal officer 87

Police officers 88

Classification of cities by constitution 92

Dangers of such a method 93

Narrow meaning of " special act " 95

Prohibition of special legislation not successful ... 96

New constitution of New York 97

CHAPTER VI

THE MEANS OF DELIMITING THE SPHERE OF PRI-
VATE ACTION OF MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS IN THE

AMERICAN LAW . . 99

English idea of local self-government 99

Decentralization of the system in the United States . . 100

^Introduction of idea of local corporations 101

Constitutional protection of local corporate property . 102

Local taxation for local purposes 103

Local corporations liable on contracts 106



XX TABLE OF CONTENTS

FACE

When liable for tort 107

Private local property alienable 108

Corporate idea a continental idea 109

CHAPTER VII

WHAT ARE MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS FROM THE POINT OF
VIEW OF THE LIABILITY OF MUNICIPAL CORPORA-
TIONS FOR TORTS Ill

Double character of municipal corporations . . . . 1 1 1

Government not responsible for torts 112

Government acts as a private individual 114

When it so acts, is responsible for torts by German and

French law 116

Municipal corporations not responsible for torts when

acting as government 1 1 8

Is so acting when exercising legislative powers . . . 119

Also when exercising discretionary powers . . . . 127
Except when it adopts a manifestly defective plan for

public works 131

Acts as government when exercising police powers . . 133

Police powers used in broad sense 136

Acts as government in the care of the poor . . . . 139
Is responsible for tort in managing institutions for purely

local benefit I4 1

Municipal corporations have no property in streets, but

are liable for not maintaining them 142

Q/fasz-corporations not responsible . . . __j- H4

Reason for liability in case of streets 146

^//^/-corporations by statute liable for highways . . 148

Duty to care for property, basis for liability for tort . . 149



TABLE OF CONTENTS XXI



CHAPTER VIII

PAGE

WHAT ARE MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS FROM THE POINT OF
VIEW OF THE LIABILITY OF MUNICIPAL CORPORA-
TIONS FOR THEIR MANAGEMENT OF PROPERTY . . 150

Application of rule of liability for tort to property , . 1 50

Agreement as to liability for revenue-bearing property . 151

Conflict in the recent decisions as to public property . 153

<2//#.y/-corporations not liable for public property . . 1 54

Qualification of exemption in Bigelow ?/. Randolph . . 155

(2//#j7-corporations liable for revenue-bearing property . 157

Unwarranted extension of rule in Bigelow v. Randolph 160
Ground of exemption of ^//^/-corporations found in the

generally public character of their duties 163

Same rule applied to municipal corporations in early


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Online LibraryFrank Johnson GoodnowMunicipal home rule: a study in administration → online text (page 1 of 19)